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Investigating Biology Lab Manual,9780805371796

Investigating Biology Lab Manual

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780805371796

ISBN10:
0805371796
Format:
Spiral Bound
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $113.80

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Summary

With its distinctive investigative approach to learning, this laboratory manual encourages students to become active participants in the science of biology. While teaching basic concepts and laboratory procedures important for all biology majors to learn, the authors also invite students to pose hypotheses, make predictions, conduct open-ended experiments, collect data, and then apply the results to new problems. Laboratory exercises are divided into three categories directed investigations, thematic investigations, and open-ended investigations.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Scientific Investigation
1(32)
Laboratory Objectives
1(1)
Introduction
1(19)
Exercise 1.1 Questions and Hypotheses
2(2)
Exercise 1.2 Designing Experiments to Test Hypotheses
4(5)
Exercise 1.3 Designing an Experiment
9(5)
Exercise 1.4 Presenting and Analyzing Results
14(4)
Exercise 1.5 Interpreting and Communicating Results
18(2)
Questions for Review
20(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
22(5)
References
27(6)
Enzymes
33(26)
Laboratory Objectives
33(1)
Introduction
33(18)
Exercise 2.1 Experimental Method and the Action of Catechol Oxidase
34(3)
Exercise 2.2 Inhibiting the Action of Catechol Oxidase
37(3)
Exercise 2.3 Influence of Concentration, pH, and Temperature on the Activity of Amylase
40(11)
Questions for Review
51(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
52(2)
Investigative Extensions
54(1)
References
55(4)
Microscopes and Cells
59(24)
Laboratory Objectives
59(1)
Introduction
59(19)
Exercise 3.1 Parts of the Microscope
60(3)
Exercise 3.2 Basic Microscope Techniques
63(4)
Exercise 3.3 The Stereoscopic Microscope
67(2)
Exercise 3.4 The Electron Microscope
69(2)
Exercise 3.5 The Organization of Cells
71(7)
Questions for Review
78(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
79(1)
References
80(3)
Diffusion and Osmosis
83(28)
Laboratory Objectives
83(1)
Introduction
83(21)
Exercise 4.1 Diffusion of Molecules
85(5)
Exercise 4.2 Osmotic Activity in Cells
90(6)
Exercise 4.3 Investigating Osmolarity of Plant Cells
96(8)
Questions for Review
104(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
104(2)
References
106(5)
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
111(24)
Laboratory Objectives
111(1)
Introduction
111(18)
Exercise 5.1 Alcoholic Fermentation
114(7)
Exercise 5.2 Cellular Respiration
121(7)
Exercise 5.3 Designing and Performing Your Independent Investigation
128(1)
Questions for Review
129(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
130(1)
References
131(4)
Photosynthesis
135(22)
Laboratory Objectives
135(1)
Introduction
135(15)
Exercise 6.1 The Wavelengths of Light for Photosynthesis
136(4)
Exercise 6.2 Pigments in Photosynthesis
140(2)
Exercise 6.3 Separation and Identification of Plant Pigments by Paper Chromatography
142(3)
Exercise 6.4 Determining the Absorption Spectrum for Leaf Pigments
145(5)
Questions for Review
150(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
151(1)
Investigative Extensions
152(1)
References
152(5)
Mitosis and Meiosis
157(30)
Laboratory Objectives
157(1)
Introduction
157(22)
Exercise 7.1 Modeling the Cell Cycle and Mitosis in an Animal Cell
158(5)
Exercise 7.2 Observing Mitosis and Cytokinesis in Plant Cells
163(3)
Exercise 7.3 Observing Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis in Animal Cells
166(2)
Exercise 7.4 Modeling Meiosis
168(7)
Exercise 7.5 Meiosis in Sordaria fimicola: A Study of Crossing Over
175(4)
Questions for Review
179(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
180(2)
Investigative Extensions
182(1)
References
182(5)
Mendelian Genetics: Fast Plants
187(30)
Laboratory Objectives
187(1)
Introduction
187(5)
Overview of Exercises
192(1)
General Procedures for All Exercises
192(19)
Exercise 8.1 Inheritance of Anthocyanin Gene
196(4)
Exercise 8.2 Inheritance of Plant Color: Green, Yellow-Green, and Purple (Anthocyanin Present)
200(6)
Exercise 8.3 Inheritance of Variegated and Nonvariegated Leaf Color
206(5)
Questions for Review
211(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
212(1)
Investigative Extensions
212(1)
References
213(4)
Mendelian Genetics: Drosophila
217(26)
Laboratory Objectives
217(1)
Introduction
217(18)
Exercise 9.1 Establishing the Enzyme Reaction Controls
218(6)
Exercise 9.2 Determining the Pattern of Inheritance of the AldoxGene
224(4)
Exercise 9.3 Determining Parental Genotypes Using Evidence from Progeny
228(3)
Exercise 9.4 Mapping Genes
231(4)
Questions for Review
235(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
235(1)
Investigative Extensions
236(1)
References
236(7)
Molecular Biology
243(28)
Laboratory Objectives
243(1)
Introduction
243(22)
Exercise 10.1 Mapping DNA Using Restriction Enzymes and Electrophoresis
245(16)
Exercise 10.2 Practice Problem for Mapping DNA
261(4)
Questions for Review
265(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
265(1)
References
266(5)
Population Genetics I: The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
271(30)
Laboratory Objectives
271(1)
Introduction
271(23)
Exercise 11.1 Testing Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Using a Bead Model
274(3)
Exercise 11.2 Simulation of Evolutionary Change Using the Bead Model
277(16)
Exercise 11.3 Investigating the Evolution of Populations Using Computer Simulations
293(1)
Questions for Review
294(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
295(2)
References
297(4)
Population Genetics II: Determining Genetic Variation
301(26)
Laboratory Objectives
301(1)
Introduction
301(19)
Exercise 12.1 Interpreting Banding Patterns in a Gel
302(14)
Exercise 12.2 Interpreting Results of Gels of a Hypothetical Population
316(4)
Questions for Review
320(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
321(2)
References
323(4)
Bacteriology
327(34)
Laboratory Objectives
327(1)
Introduction
327(26)
Exercise 13.1 Investigating Characteristics of Bacteria
328(9)
Exercise 13.2 Ecological Succession of Bacteria in Milk
337(3)
Exercise 13.3 Bacteria in the Environment
340(8)
Exercise 13.4 Controlling the Growth of Bacteria
348(5)
Questions for Review
353(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
353(2)
Investigative Extensions
355(1)
References
356(5)
Protists and Fungi
361(38)
Laboratory Objectives
361(1)
Introduction
361(30)
Exercise 14.1 The Protists
363(16)
Exercise 14.2 The Kingdom Fungi
379(10)
Exercise 14.3 Designing Your Independent Investigation
389(2)
Questions for Review
391(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
393(1)
References
394(5)
Plant Diversity I: Nonvascular Plants (Bryophytes) and Seedless Vascular Plants
399(26)
Laboratory Objectives
399(1)
Introduction
399(18)
Exercise 15.1 Nonvascular Plants (Bryophytes)
403(6)
Exercise 15.2 Seedless Vascular Plants
409(8)
Questions for Review
417(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
419(2)
Investigative Extensions
421(1)
References
421(4)
Plant Diversity II: Seed Plants
425(28)
Laboratory Objectives
425(1)
Gymnosperms
425(1)
Angiosperms
426(19)
Exercise 16.1 Gymnosperms
427(6)
Exercise 16.2 Angiosperms
433(12)
Questions for Review
445(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
446(1)
Investigative Extensions
447(1)
References
448(5)
Animal Diversity I
453(22)
Laboratory Objectives
453(1)
Introduction
453(21)
Exercise 17.1 Phylum Porifera---Sponges (Scypha)
458(2)
Exercise 17.2 Phylum Cnidaria---Hydras (Hydra)
460(3)
Exercise 17.3 Phylum Platyhelminthes---Planarians (Dugesia)
463(3)
Exercise 17.4 Phylum Annelida---Clamworms (Nereis) and Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris)
466(4)
Exercise 17.5 Phylum Mollusca---Clams
470(4)
Applying Your Knowledge
474(1)
References
474(1)
Animal Diversity II
475(34)
Exercise 18.1 Phylum Nematoda---Roundworms (Ascaris)
475(4)
Exercise 18.2 Phylum Arthropoda
479(7)
Exercise 18.3 Deuterostome---Phylum Echinodermata---Sea Star (Demonstration)
486(3)
Exercise 18.4 Deuterostome---Phylum Chordata
489(7)
Results
496(1)
Results Summary
496(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
496(6)
References
502(7)
Plant Anatomy
509(34)
Laboratory Objectives
509(1)
Introduction
509(1)
Summary of Basic Plant Tissues and Cell Types
510(24)
Exercise 19.1 Plant Morphology
513(2)
Exercise 19.2 Plant Primary Growth and Development
515(1)
Exercise 19.3 Cell Structure of Primary Tissues
516(14)
Exercise 19.4 Cell Structure of Tissues Produced by Secondary Growth
530(3)
Exercise 19.5 Grocery Store Botany: Modifications of Plant Organs
533(1)
Questions for Review
534(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
536(2)
Investigative Extensions
538(1)
References
539(4)
Plant Growth
543(22)
Laboratory Objectives
543(1)
Introduction
543(1)
Germinating Seeds and Growing Plants for Independent Investigations
544(15)
Exercise 20.1 Factors Influencing Seed Germination
547(3)
Exercise 20.2 Plant Growth Regulators: Auxin
550(4)
Exercise 20.3 Plant Growth Regulators: Gibberellins
554(4)
Exercise 20.4 Designing Your Independent Investigation
558(1)
Questions for Review
559(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
560(1)
References
561(4)
Vertebrate Anatomy I: The Skin and Digestive System
565(26)
Overview of Vertebrate Anatomy Labs (Lab Topics 21, 22, and 23)
565(1)
Laboratory Objectives
566(1)
Introduction to Tissues
566(20)
Exercise 21.1 Histology of the Skin
570(3)
Exercise 21.2 Introduction to the Fetal Pig
573(4)
Exercise 21.3 The Digestive System in the Fetal Pig
577(9)
Applying Your Knowledge
586(1)
References
587(4)
Vertebrate Anatomy II: The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
591(22)
Laboratory Objectives
591(1)
Introduction
591(17)
Exercise 22.1 Glands and Respiratory Structures of the Neck and Thoracic Cavity
592(1)
Exercise 22.2 The Heart and the Pulmonary Blood Circuit
593(3)
Exercise 22.3 The Heart and the Systemic Circuit in the Thorax
596(3)
Exercise 22.4 The Systemic Circuit in the Abdominal Cavity
599(5)
Exercise 22.5 Fetal Pig Circulation
604(1)
Exercise 22.6 Details of the Respiratory System
605(3)
Applying Your Knowledge
608(2)
References
610(3)
Vertebrate Anatomy III: The Excretory, Reproductive, and Nervous Systems
613(24)
Laboratory Objectives
613(1)
Introduction
613(19)
Exercise 23.1 The Excretory System
614(3)
Exercise 23.2 The Reproductive System
617(9)
Exercise 23.3 Nervous Tissue, the Reflex Arc, and the Vertebrate Eye
626(6)
Applying Your Knowledge
632(1)
References
633(4)
Animal Development
637(32)
Laboratory Objectives
637(1)
Introduction
637(1)
Overview of Stages in Early Development
638(23)
Exercise 24.1 Development in Echinoderms: Sea Urchin and Sea Star
642(6)
Exercise 24.2 Development in an Amphibian
648(2)
Exercise 24.3 Development in the Zebra Fish
650(4)
Exercise 24.4 Development in a Bird: The Chicken
654(7)
Questions for Review
661(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
662(2)
Investigative Extensions
664(1)
References
665(4)
Ecology I: Terrestrial Ecology
669(42)
Laboratory Objectives
669(1)
Introduction
669(2)
Stating the Problem
671(28)
Exercise 25.1 Biotic Components
672(13)
Exercise 25.2 Abiotic Components
685(4)
Exercise 25.3 Data Analysis
689(10)
Questions for Review
699(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
700(2)
Optional Exercise 25.1 Biotic Components: Weedy Lots or Fields
702(1)
References
703(8)
Ecology II: Computer Simulations of a Pond Ecosystem
711(30)
Laboratory Objectives
711(1)
Introduction
711(1)
The Pond Ecosystem
712(23)
Exercise 26.1 Computer Model of the Pond Ecosystem
713(9)
Exercise 26.2 Effects of Disturbance on the Pond Ecosystem
722(13)
Questions for Review
735(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
736(1)
Investigative Extension
737(1)
References
737(4)
Animal Behavior
741(22)
Laboratory Objectives
741(1)
Introduction
741(17)
Exercise 27.1 Taxis in Brine Shrimp
743(3)
Exercise 27.2 Kinesis in Pill Bugs
746(3)
Exercise 27.3 Agonistic Display in Male Siamese Fighting Fish
749(5)
Exercise 27.4 Reproductive Behavior in Fruit Flies
754(4)
Questions for Review
758(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
758(2)
References
760(3)
Scientific Writing 763(10)
Chi-Square Test 773(4)
Terminology and Techniques for Dissection 777(10)
List of Color Plates 787(2)
Color Plates 789


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