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Investigating Difference : Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice,9780205302055
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Investigating Difference : Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205302055

ISBN10:
020530205X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/24/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $68.20
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  • Investigating Difference : Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice
    Investigating Difference : Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice




Summary

Investigating Difference is the first book to provide an overview of such a broad range of diverse groups within the criminal justice system. It encompasses the full spectrum from cultural, gender and religious diversity, to the diversity presented by individuals in disadvantaged aged categories, with physical and mental disabilities, and from immigrant backgrounds. Groups perceived as different are presented in the context of not only offenders and victims, but as service-providers. The book presents issues of difference in a balanced social and historical context. The authors represent an expansive and diverse group of leading educators, researchers, and criminal justice professionals. Together, they show readers how the power and the powerless form an essential framework for understanding the relationship between the criminal justice system and those members categorized as different. This book will help some, many for the first time, confront the consequences of difference, and the reality that someone else may have defined both the difference and the consequence. Readers will be shown how some categories carry privilege and responsibility, while other categories carry burden and/or rejection. For anyone interested in the criminal justice system with regard to diversity and multicultural issues.

Table of Contents

Foreword xvii
Acknowledgments xix
PART ONE Framing Difference 1(44)
Introduction: Investigating Difference
3(8)
Marianne O. Nielsen
Barbara Perry
This Book
7(2)
References
9(2)
Conceptualizing Difference
11(16)
Nancy A. Wonders
Difference Is Socially Constructed
11(5)
Difference Assumes a Norm or Standard that Reflects Power Relations within the Culture
16(2)
Difference Matters
18(1)
Law Plays a Critical Role in Creating and Maintaining Difference; It Can Also Be Used to Ameliorate the Negative Consequence of Difference
19(2)
Differences Overlap One Another
21(1)
Differences and Their Consequences Can Be Changed
22(2)
References
24(3)
White Male Privilege and the Construction of Crime
27(18)
Larry A. Gould
Continuum of Discrimination or Disparate Treatment
29(1)
Majority Population Defined
30(1)
White Ethnic Groups
31(1)
Visibility
32(4)
The Catholic Irish, Italians, and Jews
37
The Typical Offender, Victim, and Service Provider: Gate Keeping
36(4)
The Typical Offender?
37(1)
The Typical Victim?
38(1)
The Typical Service Provider?
39(1)
Conclusions
40(1)
References
41(4)
PART TWO Categories of Difference 45(160)
Stolen Lands, Stolen Lives: Native Ameericans and Criminal Justice
47(12)
Marianne O. Nielsen
Historical Context
48(2)
Native American Offenders
50(3)
Native American Victims of Crime
53(2)
Native American Service Providers
55(2)
References
57(2)
Exclusion, Inclusion, and Violence: Immigrants and Criminal Justice
59(12)
Barbara Perry
Immigration Patterns
60(1)
Anti-Immigrant Sentiments
61(3)
Immigrants as Offenders
64(2)
Illegal Aliens
64(1)
Criminal Aliens
64(1)
Organized Crime
65(1)
Immigrants as Victims
66(2)
Immigrants as Service Providers in the Criminal Justice System
68(1)
References
69(2)
Historical Injustices, Contemporary Inequalities: African Americans and Criminal Justice
71(14)
Brian J. Smith
Legal Historical Context
72(4)
Slavery
73(1)
Post--Civil War
73(1)
Legal Exclusions
74(1)
Discriminatory Criminal Justice System Practices
75(1)
Lynching
75(1)
Twentieth-Century Progress
76(1)
African Americans, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System
77(3)
Victimization
77(1)
Offending
78(2)
Service Providers and Support Agencies
80(1)
Policy Considerations
81(1)
References
82(3)
Unwelcome Citizens: Latinos and the Criminal Justice System
85(14)
Alexander Alvarez
History
87(3)
Perpetrators
90(3)
Victims
93(1)
Practitioners
94(1)
References
94(5)
Perpetual Outsiders: Criminal Justice and the Asian American Experience
99(12)
Barbara Perry
Imaging Asian Americans
101(1)
Institutionalized Discrimination Against Asian Americans
102(2)
Immigration and Citizenship
102(1)
Japanese Internment
103(1)
Educational Discrimination
103(1)
Economic Discrimination
103(1)
Asian Americans as Offenders
104(2)
Asian Americans as Victims of Crime
106(1)
Asian Americans as Service Providers
107(2)
References
109(2)
Class, Difference, and the Social Construction of Crime and Criminality
111(18)
Raymond J. Michalowski
What Is Social Class?
112(1)
Why Do We Have Social Classes?
113(2)
Social Class and the Definition of Crime
115(4)
Class, Criminality, and Victimization
119(5)
Conclusion: Social Class, Social Welfare, and the Future of Criminal Justice
124(2)
References
126(3)
Women and Criminal Justice: Wielding the Tool of Difference
129(18)
Karla B. Hackstaff
Women and the Criminal Justice System: A Historical Overview
130(1)
From Nonpersons to Persons in Their Own Right
130(1)
Crimes Against Women
131(3)
Constructing Criminality: The Woman as ``Criminal''
134(3)
Women Working at the Borders of Crime and Justice
137(4)
Women in Law
138(1)
Women in Policing and Corrections
139(2)
Conclusions: Women for Justice
141(2)
References
143(4)
Constructing Sexual Identities: Gay Men and Lesbians in the Criminal Justice System
147(14)
Barbara Perry
Investigating Homosexuality
147(2)
Gay Mythology
149(1)
Gay Men and Lesbians as Offenders
150(2)
Anti-Gay Victimization
152(4)
Service Provision
156(1)
References
157(4)
Old Enough to Know Better? Aging and Criminal Justice
161(10)
Carole Mandino
Who Are the Elderly?
161(1)
Crimes Committed by the Elderly
161(5)
Elder Abuse
162(3)
Other Crimes Committed Against the Elderly
165(1)
Elderly Criminals
166(2)
Elderly and DWI
167(1)
Elderly and Shoplifting
167(1)
Elderly and Homicide
167(1)
Elderly and Sex Offenses
168(1)
The Incarcerated Elderly
168(1)
References
169(2)
Dancing Apart: Youth, Criminal Justice, and Juvenile Justice
171(12)
Jeff Ferrell
Historical and Cultural Constructions of Youth and Delinquency
171(3)
Youth, Identity, and Difference
174(2)
Youth, Politics, and the Criminal Justice Policy Today
176(3)
Toward Decriminalization and Rehabilitation
179(2)
References
181(2)
The Invisible Minority: Individuals with Disability
183(8)
Cynthia Baroody Hart
Disability
183(3)
Disability and Criminal Justice
186(1)
Individuals with Disability as Victims in the Criminal Justice System
186(1)
Individuals with Disability as Offenders in the Criminal Justice System
187(2)
Individuals with Disability as Employees in the Criminal Justice System
189(1)
References
189(2)
In Whose God We Trust? Religious Difference, Persecution, and Criminal Justice
191(14)
Barbara Perry
Victims of Religious Persecution
192(4)
Native Americans
192(1)
Catholics
193(1)
Jews
194(1)
Muslims
195(1)
Offenses Motivated by Religious Belief
196(4)
Puritan Campaigns Against Sin
196(2)
Abortion Clinic Violence
198(1)
Christian Identity Churches and Rahowa
199(1)
Service Providers
200(2)
References
202(3)
PART THREE Reframing Difference 205(64)
Widening the Workforce: Diversity in Criminal Justice Employment
207(12)
Marilyn D. McShane
Government Intervention in Labor
208(3)
The Civil Rights Act and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
208(1)
Affirmative Action
209(1)
The Backlash Against Affirmative Action
210(1)
The Status of Women and Minorities in Criminal Justice
211(5)
Gender and Policing
211(1)
Gender and Corrections
212(2)
Race/Ethnicity and Policing
214(1)
Race/Ethnicity and Corrections
215(1)
Race/Ethnicity and Gender and the Courts
216(1)
Summary
216(1)
References
217(2)
Educating for Change: Cultural Awareness Training for Criminal Justice
219(16)
Larry A. Gould
Historical Context
220(3)
The Effect of Psychosocial Development on Minority Relations
223(4)
The Beginning of a Solution
227(2)
General Components of Cultural Diversity Training
229(2)
Communication/Learning Training
230(1)
Criminal Justice-Specific Training
231(2)
References
233(2)
Talking Through Our Differences: Intercultural and Interpersonal Communication
235(18)
Marianne O. Nielsen
Communication Competence in Criminal Justice
236(1)
Rewards of Competent Communication
237(1)
Critical Knowledge about Communication
237(6)
The Impact of Diversity on Communication
237(3)
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication
240(1)
Situational Context
241(2)
Critical Issues in Communication
243(3)
Stereotyping
243(1)
Ethnocentrism
243(1)
Naming
244(1)
Humor
245(1)
Translation
245(1)
Critical Skills
246(2)
Translating Communication Competence into Organizational Success
248(3)
References
251(2)
Irreconcilable Differences? Understanding the Crime Victim/Criminal Justice Worker Relationship
253(16)
Phoebe Morgan
Barbara Perry
When Relations Between Crime Victims and Criminal Justice Workers Are Intercultural
254(2)
Criminal Justice Workers' Responses to Minority Victims
255(1)
Minority Victims' Responses to Criminal Justice Workers
255(1)
Contrasting Expectations Between Crime Victims and Criminal Justice Workers
256(2)
Contrasting Definitions of Justice
257(1)
Contrasting Definitions of Service
258(1)
Differing Rights and Responsibilities
258(2)
The Victim's Prerogative
259(1)
Criminal Justice Workers' Discretion
259(1)
The Consequences of Conflict in the Crime Victim/Criminal Justice Worker Relationship
260(2)
The Price We Pay for Cynicism
261(1)
The Price We Pay for Victim Disaffection
262(1)
Reconciling Difference?
262(4)
Crime Victim Empowerment
263(1)
Criminal Justice Worker Empowerment
264(1)
Toward an Empowering Relationship Between Crime Victims and Criminal Justice Workers
265(1)
References
266(3)
PART FOUR Conclusion 269(18)
Reinvestigating Difference
271(16)
Barbara Perry
Marianne O. Nielsen
Deconstructing and Reconstructing Difference
271(1)
Law as a Mechanism of Empowerment
272(1)
Prejudice Reduction
273(2)
Criminal Justice Employment and Training
275(1)
Speaking of Difference ...
276(1)
Community Outreach
277(1)
Community Organizing
278(1)
Victim Services
279(1)
Offender Services
280(4)
Prevention and Treatment
282(1)
Equity in Criminal Justice Processing of Offenders
283(1)
Criminal Justice/Social Justice
284(1)
References
285(2)
Contributors 287(4)
Facilitators
287(1)
The Criminal Justice Collective
287(4)
Index 291


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