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Invitation to Psychology,9780131146242
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Invitation to Psychology

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131146242

ISBN10:
0131146246
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Through lively writing and stimulating examples, authors Carole Wade and Carol Tavris invite readers to actively explore the field of psychology and the fundamentals of critical and scientific thinking. Invitation to Psychologypresents the science of psychology according to six areas of the learner's experience: Your Self, Your Body, Your Mind, Your Environment, Your Mental Health and Your Life. This unique organization engages readers from the very beginning and gives them a framework for thinking about human behavior. Incorporating many active learning and critical thinking features, a balance of classic and contemporary research, and thorough integration of the psychology of women and men of all culturesreaders will learn much to take with them. For individuals seeking an introduction to psychology.

Table of Contents

To the Instructor ix
To the Student xix
About the Authors 1(2)
What Is Psychology?
3(36)
The Science of Psychology
4(5)
Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Common Sense
4(1)
The Birth of Modern Psychology
5(1)
Psychology's Present
6(3)
What Psychologists Do
9(3)
Psychological Research
9(1)
Psychological Practice
10(2)
Psychology in the Community
12(1)
Critical and Scientific Thinking in Psychology
12(5)
Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts
17(5)
Case Studies
18(1)
Observational Studies
18(1)
Tests
19(1)
Surveys
20(2)
Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships
22(2)
Measuring Correlations
22(1)
Cautions About Correlations
23(1)
The Experiment: Hunting for Causes
24(5)
Experimental Variables
24(2)
Experimental and Control Conditions
26(1)
Experimenter Effects
27(1)
Advantages and Limitations of Experiments
27(2)
Evaluating the Findings
29(4)
Why Psychologists Use Statistics
29(2)
From the Laboratory to the Real World
31(2)
What Psychology Can Do for You--and What it Can't
33(6)
PART ONE Your Self
Theories of Personality
39(32)
Psychodynamic Theories of Personality
40(7)
Freud and Psychoanalysis
41(3)
Other Psychodynamic Approaches
44(2)
Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories
46(1)
The Modern Study of Personality
47(4)
The Genetic Contribution
51(4)
Heredity and Temperament
51(1)
Heredity and Traits
52(2)
Evaluating Genetic Theories
54(1)
Environmental Influences on Personality
55(4)
Situations and Social Learning
55(1)
The Power of Parents
56(2)
The Power of Peers
58(1)
Cultural Influences on Personality
59(4)
Culture, Values, and Traits
59(3)
Evaluating Cultural Approaches
62(1)
The Inner Experience
63(3)
Humanist Approaches
63(1)
Evaluating Humanist Theories
64(2)
How to Avoid the ``Barnum Effect''
66(5)
Development Over the Life Span
71(38)
From Conception Through the First Year
72(5)
Prenatal Development
72(2)
The Infant's World
74(1)
Attachment
75(2)
Cognitive Development
77(8)
Language
77(3)
Thinking
80(5)
Moral Development
85(3)
Moral Reasoning
85(1)
Moral Behavior
86(2)
Gender Development
88(4)
Influences on Gender Development
89(2)
Gender over the Life Span
91(1)
Adolescence
92(3)
The Physiology of Adolescence
92(2)
The Psychology of Adolescence
94(1)
Adulthood
95(6)
Stages and Ages
96(1)
The Transitions of Life
97(2)
Old Age
99(2)
Are Adults Prisoners of Childhood?
101(2)
Bringing Up Baby
103(6)
PART TWO Your Body
Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain
109(34)
The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint
110(3)
The Central Nervous System
110(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
111(2)
Communication in the Nervous System
113(8)
The Structure of the Neuron
114(1)
Neurons in the News
115(1)
How Neurons Communicate
116(2)
Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System
118(3)
Mapping the Brain
121(2)
A Tour Through the Brain
123(6)
The Brain Stem
123(1)
The Cerebellum
124(1)
The Thalamus
124(1)
The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland
124(1)
The Amygdala
125(1)
The Hippocampus
125(1)
The Cerebrum
126(3)
The Two Hemispheres of the Brain
129(3)
Split Brains: A House Divided
129(2)
The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opposites?
131(1)
Two Stubborn Issues in Brain Research
132(5)
Where is the Self?
132(1)
Are There ``His'' and ``Hers'' Brains?
133(4)
Food for Thought: Diet and Neurotransmitters
137(6)
Consciousness: Body Rhythms and Mental States
143(32)
Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience
144(6)
Circadian Rhythms
144(2)
Moods and Long-term Rhythms
146(4)
The Rhythms of Sleep
150(4)
Why We Sleep
150(2)
The Realms of Sleep
152(2)
Exploring the Dream World
154(4)
Dreams as Unconscious Wishes
154(1)
Dreams as Reflections of Current Concerns
155(1)
Dreams as a By-product of Mental Housekeeping
155(1)
Dreams as Interpreted Brain Activity
156(1)
Evaluating Dream Theories
157(1)
The Riddle of Hypnosis
158(4)
The Nature of Hypnosis
159(1)
Theories of Hypnosis
160(2)
Consciousness-Altering Drugs
162(8)
Classifying Drugs
163(3)
The Physiology of Drug Effects
166(1)
The Psychology of Drug Effects
166(4)
How to Get a Good Night's Sleep
170(5)
Sensation and Perception
175(38)
Our Sensational Senses
176(5)
The Riddle of Separate Sensations
176(1)
Measuring the Senses
177(2)
Sensory Adaptation
179(1)
Sensory Overload
180(1)
Vision
181(12)
What We See
181(1)
An Eye on the World
182(2)
Why the Visual System is Not a Camera
184(2)
How We See Colors
186(1)
Constructing the Visual World
187(6)
Hearing
193(3)
What We Hear
193(1)
An Ear on the World
193(2)
Constructing the Auditory World
195(1)
Other Senses
196(3)
Taste: Savory Sensations
196(1)
Smell: The Sense of Scents
197(2)
Senses of the Skin
199(1)
The Mystery of Pain
199(2)
The Environment Within
200(1)
Perceptual Powers: Origins and Influences
201(4)
Inborn Abilities
201(1)
Critical Periods
202(1)
Psychological and Cultural Influences
203(2)
Puzzles of Perception
205(3)
Subliminal Perception
205(1)
Extrasensory Perception: Reality or Illusion?
206(2)
Living with Pain
208(5)
PART THREE Your Mind
Thinking and Intelligence
213(38)
Thought: Using What We Know
214(3)
The Elements of Cognition
214(1)
How Conscious is Thought?
215(2)
Reasoning Rationally
217(5)
Formal Reasoning: Algorithms and Logic
217(1)
Informal Reasoning: Heuristics and Dialectical Thinking
218(1)
Reflective Judgment
219(3)
Barriers to Reasoning Rationally
222(6)
Exaggerating the Improbable
222(1)
Avoiding Loss
222(1)
Biases Due to Mental Sets
223(1)
The Hindsight Bias
224(1)
The Confirmation Bias
224(1)
The Need for Cognitive Consistency
225(2)
Overcoming our Cognitive Biases
227(1)
Intelligence
228(6)
Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach
228(4)
Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach
232(2)
The Origins of Intelligence
234(5)
Genes and Intelligence
234(2)
The Environment and Intelligence
236(2)
Motivation and Intellectual Success
238(1)
Animal Minds
239(12)
Animal Intelligence
240(1)
Animals and Language
241(2)
Thinking about the Thinking of Animals
243(1)
Becoming More Creative
244(7)
Memory
251(34)
Reconstructing the Past
252(3)
The Manufacture of Memory
252(1)
The Fading Flashbulb
253(1)
The Conditions of Confabulation
254(1)
Memory and the Power of Suggestion
255(3)
The Eyewitness on Trial
255(1)
Children's Testimony
256(2)
In Pursuit of Memory
258(4)
Measuring Memory
259(1)
Models of Memory
260(2)
The Three-Box Model of Memory
262(6)
The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions
262(1)
Short-term Memory: Memory's Scratch Pad
262(2)
Long-term Memory: Final Destination
264(4)
How We Remember
268(2)
Effective Encoding
268(1)
Rehearsal
268(1)
Mnemonics
269(1)
Why We Forget
270(6)
Decay
272(1)
Replacement
272(1)
Interference
273(1)
Cue-dependent Forgetting
274(1)
The Repression Controversy
274(2)
Autobiographical Memories
276(4)
Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years
276(2)
Memory and Narrative: The Stories of Our Lives
278(2)
How to Remember What You Study
280(5)
PART FOUR Your Environment
Learning
285(32)
Classical Conditioning
286(4)
New Reflexes from Old
286(1)
Principles of Classical Conditioning
286(3)
What is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning?
289(1)
Classical Conditioning in Real Life
290(4)
Learning to Like
290(1)
Learning to Fear
291(1)
Accounting for Taste
292(1)
Reacting to Medical Treatments
292(2)
Operant Conditioning
294(7)
The Birth of Radical Behaviorism
294(1)
The Consequences of Behavior
295(2)
Principles of Operant Conditioning
297(3)
Skinner: The Man and the Myth
300(1)
Operant Conditioning in Real Life
301(6)
The Pros and Cons of Punishment
302(2)
The Problems with Reward
304(3)
Learning and the Mind
307(4)
Latent Learning
307(1)
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
308(3)
Shape Up!
311(6)
Behavior in Social and Cultural Context
317(36)
Roles and Rules
318(6)
The Obedience Study
318(3)
The Prison Study
321(1)
Why People Obey
321(3)
Social Influences on Beliefs
324(6)
Attributions
324(2)
Attitudes
326(4)
Individuals in Groups
330(5)
Conformity
330(1)
Groupthink
331(1)
The Anonymous Crowd
332(2)
Disobedience and Dissent
334(1)
Us Versus Them: Group Identity
335(4)
Ethnic Identity
336(1)
Ethnocentrism
337(1)
Stereotypes
337(2)
Group Conflict and Prejudice
339(8)
The Origins of Prejudice
339(2)
Defining and Measuring Prejudice
341(3)
Reducing Conflict and Prejudice
344(3)
Travels Across the Cultural Divide
347(6)
PART FIVE Your Mental Health
Psychological Disorders
353(36)
Defining and Diagnosing Disorder
354(6)
Dilemmas of Definition
354(1)
Dilemmas of Diagnosis
355(3)
Dilemmas of Measurement
358(2)
Anxiety Disorders
360(4)
Anxiety and Panic
360(2)
Fears and Phobias
362(1)
Obsessions and Compulsions
363(1)
Mood Disorders
364(4)
Depression
364(1)
Bipolar Disorder
365(1)
Theories of Depression
365(3)
Personality Disorders
368(3)
Problem Personalities
368(1)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
368(3)
Drug Abuse and Addiction
371(5)
Biology and Addiction
371(2)
Learning, Culture, and Addiction
373(1)
Debating the Causes of Addiction
374(2)
Dissociative Identity Disorder
376(2)
Schizophrenia
378(5)
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
378(2)
Theories of Schizophrenia
380(3)
When a Friend Is Suicidal
383(6)
Approaches to Treatment and Therapy
389(28)
Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders
390(6)
The Question of Drugs
390(4)
Direct Brain Intervention
394(2)
Kinds of Psychotherapy
396(8)
Psychodynamic Therapy
396(1)
Behavior and Cognitive Therapy
397(3)
Humanist and Existential Therapy
400(1)
Family and Couples Therapy
401(2)
Psychotherapy in Practice
403(1)
Evaluating Psychotherapy
404(7)
The Scientist-Practitioner Gap
404(1)
The Therapeutic Alliance
405(1)
When Therapy Helps
406(2)
When Therapy Harms
408(3)
How to Evaluate Self-help Groups and Books
411(6)
PART SIX Your Life
Emotion, Stress, and Health
417(34)
The Nature of Emotion
418(7)
Emotion and the Body
418(5)
Emotion and the Mind
423(2)
Emotion and Culture
425(5)
The Varieties of Emotion
426(1)
Communicating Emotions
427(1)
Gender and Emotion
428(2)
The Nature of Stress
430(6)
Stress and the Body
430(3)
Stress and the Mind
433(3)
Stress and Emotion
436(4)
Hostility and Depression
437(1)
Emotional Inhibition and Expression
438(2)
Emotions, Stress, and Health: How To Cope
440(5)
Cooling Off
441(1)
Solving the Problem
441(1)
Rethinking the Problem
442(1)
Drawing on Social Support
443(2)
The Dilemma of Anger: ``Let It Out'' or ``Bottle It Up''?
445(6)
The Major Motives of Life: Love, Sex, Food, and Work
451(33)
The Social Animal: Motives for Love
452(3)
The Psychology of Love
452(3)
The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex
455(10)
The Biology of Desire
456(4)
The Psychology of Desire
460(2)
The Culture of Desire
462(1)
Culture, Gender, and Sex
463(1)
The Riddle of Sexual Orientation
464(1)
The Hungry Animal: Motives to Eat
465(6)
The Genetics of Weight
466(1)
Culture, Psychology, and Weight
467(2)
Weight and Health: Biology Versus Culture
469(2)
The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve
471(6)
The Effects of Motivation on Work
471(3)
The Effects of Work on Motivation
474(3)
Motives, Values, and Well-Being
477(3)
Improving Your Motivation
480(4)
Appendix: Statistical Methods 484(10)
Glossary 494(10)
Bibliography 504(32)
Credits 536(3)
Name Index 539(16)
Subject Index 555


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