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Featuring a unique, consistent, and modular chapter structure--"Teachings," "Way of Life," and "History"--and numerous pedagogical features,Invitation to World Religionsinvitesstudents to explore the world's great religions with respect and a sense of wonder. It describes the essential features of each religion and shows how they have responded to basic human needs and to the cultural contexts in which they developed. The authors also encourage students to develop an appreciation of what religious beliefs and practicesactually meanto their adherents. FEATURES: A consistent, modular chapter structure--"Teachings," "Way of Life," and "History"--enables students to focus on content rather than trying to navigate each chapter anew Voices:In personal, candid interviews, a diverse array of people share the ways in which they live their faiths Visual guides:Keys to important religious symbols--in easy-to-read tables--offer quick reference and comparison points Chapter-opening mapsprovide geographical context for each religion's development Timelineshelp students trace the evolution of each religion within its larger social and political context Seeking Answerssections at the end of each chapter encourage students to constructively compare the ways in which different religions address the same essential questions For Review questionsprompt students to reexamine essential concepts For Further Reflection questionsinvite students to think critically and to engage in deeper analyses Key Termsare boldfaced at their first appearance and defined in the glossary that follows each chapter AGlossaryat the back of the book includes all of the key terms from the text Suggestions for Further Readingdirect students to some of the best and most recent print and online resources on each tradition A wealth of rich, robust, and relevant color photographs and illustrationskeep students visually engaged AnInstructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD,downloadableLearning Management System Cartridges,and aCompanion Websiteprovide additional resources
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. AN INVITATION TO THE STUDY OF WORLD RELIGIONS "Religion" and the Study of World Religions Defining "Religion" What Religions Do Religious Questions and Challenges Basic Components of Religions Teachings Ways of Life Historical Development Religions in the Modern World Modernization Urbanization Globalization Multiculturalism Religion and Science An Academic Approach to the Study of Religions Balance Empathy Comparative Approaches CHAPTER 2. INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA The Teachings of Native American Indigenous Religions Creation and Origins Life Lessons in Myths The Importance of Balance: Humanity and the Natural World Sacred Language and Sacred Time VOICES: An Interview with Lin Estes Native American Indigenous Religions as a Way of Life Healing Rites of Passage Rites of Renewal and Rites of Purification The History of Native American Indigenous Religions Conquest, Colonization, and Christianity Resistance Movements Native Religions and Non-Native Practitioners CHAPTER 3. INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS OF AFRICA The Teachings of Indigenous African Religions Myths Supernatural Beings: Gods and Spirits VOICES: Interviews with Sammy Letoole and Festus Ogunbitan Humanity and the Human Condition Indigenous African Religions as a Way of Life Communicating with the Spirit World Using Supernatural Powers Life Cycle Rituals The History of Indigenous African Religions The Spread of Islam Christianity and Colonialism Reform and Resistance African Religions in the Americas CHAPTER 4. HINDUISM The Teachings of Hinduism Hindu Beliefs About God Hindu Philosophical and Social Concepts VOICES: An Interview with Saraswati Krishnan Texts in Hinduism The Sects of Hinduism Hinduism as a Way of Life Seeing the Divine Image: Temples and Icons Forms of Worship Yoga Traditions and Asceticism Rites of Passage Pilgrimage Festivals and Holidays Performance Traditions The History of Hinduism Indus Valley Who Are the Aryans? The Vedic Period Zoroastrianism The Early Upanishads (900-600 C.E.) The Rise of Theistic Hinduism Hindu Expansion in the Age of the Guptas The Development of Bhakti Tantra Sanskritization Colonial Critique and the Hindu Reformers Gandhi, Hinduism, and Indian Nationalism Hindu Nationalism and Hindutva The Future of Hinduism CHAPTER 5. BUDDHISM The Teachings of Buddhism Meeting the Buddha The Life of the Buddha The Basics of the Buddha's Teaching Buddhist Sects and Texts VOICES: An Interview with Katherine Sei Women in Buddhism Buddhism as a Way of Life Meditation and the Cultivation of Mind Mantra, Liturgic Ritual, and Chanting Ordination and "Being a Buddhist" Sacred Places and Objects of Worship Festivals Funerary Rites The Wider Implications of Buddhist Ritual and Practice The History of Buddhism The Period of the Buddhist Councils The Period of Expansion The Development of Mahayana in Monasteries Buddhism Beyond India The Beginnings of the Western Transmission Buddhists in the World Today CHAPTER 6. JAINISM The Teachings of Jainism Mahavira, the Twenty-fourth and Last Tirthankara of this World Cycle An Eternal Succession of Tirthankaras Jainism and Hinduism Ahimsa and Asceticism: Jainism's Ideals Theory of the Universe Liberation and Salvation VOICES: An Interview With Girish Shah Jainism as a Way of Life Digambaras and Shvetambaras The Ascetic Life The Religious Life of the Jain Laity The History of Jainism The Indian Historical Context The Legacy of the Tirthankaras: Jainism through the Centuries Jainism in Today's World CHAPTER 7. SIKHISM The Teachings of Sikhism The Life of Guru Nanak Sikh Scripture On God, the Human Condition, and Spiritual Liberation Teachings of Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa VOICES: An Interview with Onkar Singh Sikhism as a Way of Life Daily Devotional Practices Sikh Worship in the Gurdwara Worship, Work, and Charity Women and Sikhism The History of Sikhism Guru Nanak's Successors Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa Sikhs and Nationalism Sikh Identity Sikhs in the Diaspora CHAPTER 8. CHINESE RELIGIONS: CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM The History of Confucianism and Daoism Ancient Chinese Religion History of Confucianism History of Daoism The Teachings of Confucianism and Daoism Ancient Chinese Religious Views The Teachings of Confucius Confucianism and Women Teachings and Beliefs of Daoism Daoism and Women Confucianism and Daoism as a Way of Life VOICES: An Interview with Jason Ch'ui-hsiao Tseng Confucian Rituals Daoist Practices CHAPTER 9. SHINTO The Teachings of Shinto The Meaning of Kami Creation Myth in the Kojiki VOICES: An Interview with Watanabe Minoru Shinto as a Way of Life Fertility Rites Women in Shinto Rites of Purification, Presentation, Petition, and Participation Religious Observances throughout the Year The History of Shinto Medieval Shinto The Modern Period Shinto in Japan Today CHAPTER 10. JUDAISM The History of Judaism Dispersion, Assimilation, and Collective Identity The Biblical Period The Second Temple Period The Formative Age The Conflict Between Judaism and Christianity The Age of Philosophy and Mysticism The Modern Era Reform Movements in Europe and in the U.S. The Shoah and the State of Israel The Future of Judaism in the Contemporary World The Teachings of Judaism God Torah Covenant and Election Israel The Messiah and the Messianic Age The Afterlife Jewish Mysticism Judaism as a Way of Life The Major Festivals VOICES: An Interview with Rabbi Brad Bloom The Minor Festivals The Sabbath Life-Cycle Events Other Sacred Practices Prayer CHAPTER 11. CHRISTIANITY The Teachings of Christianity The Life of Jesus The Teachings of Jesus Paul and the Mission to the Gentiles God, Creation, and Original Humanity God as Trinity Sin and Human Nature Grace and Salvation VOICES: An Interview with Mia Sasaki The Church Scripture Tradition "Last Things" The Afterlife Christianity and Other Religions Christianity as a Way of Life Sacraments Church Interiors: Sacred Space Prayer The Liturgical Year Veneration of Saints Social and Political Activism The History of Christianity Christianity in the Roman World The Church in the Middle Ages The Reformation Christianity in the Modern World Christianity Today and Tomorrow: Trends and Prospects CHAPTER 12. ISLAM THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM Muhammad and the Revelations The Holy Qur'an The Teachings of the Qur'an Commentary on the Qur'an The Hadith Literature VOICES: An Interview with Tunay Durmaz ISLAM AS A WAY OF LIFE The Five Pillars The Qur'an in Daily Life Jihad The Islamic Year and Holidays The Shari'ah: Islamic Law Marriage and Family Women and Islam THE HISTORY OF ISLAM The Hijra and the Growth of the Muslim Community The Crisis of Succession and the Rightly Guided Caliphs The Umayyads and the Abbasids Later Islamic Empires: The Ottomans, the Mughals, and the Safavids Islam and Nationalism Islamic Reform Movements Varieties of Islam Sufism Muslims in North America CHAPTER 13. NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS What Is "New" about New Religious Movements? Modernization, Globalization, and Secularization Theoretical Models and Social Typologies Alternative Christianities and their Offshoots The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Christian Science and New Thought Adventism Jehovah's Witnesses The Family (Children of God) The Unification Church The Rediscovery of Eastern Religious Thought ISKCON: The International Society for Krishna Consciousness The Osho Rajneesh Movement Transcendental Meditation THE REVIVAL OF ESOTERIC AND NEO-PAGAN THOUGHT Eckankar The Findhorn Foundation The Raelian Movement The Church of Scientology Wicca VOICES: An Interview with Mary Carpenter The Baha'i Faith The New Atheism