9781879442924

Islanders and Mainlanders : Prehistoric Context for the Southern California Coast and Channel Islands

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781879442924

  • ISBN10:

    1879442922

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-09-01
  • Publisher: Univ of Arizona Pr
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Summary

The southern California coast has been a favored place to live for nearly 12,000 years. Dotted with marshes, estuaries, cliffs, and open beaches, with islands and mountains lying nearby, the area is rich in resources. How humans have fit into this ecological diverse and ever-changing landscape is a constant theme in the prehistory of the region. Using comparative studies of island and coastal cultures from the Pacific, the authors show how the study of southern California's past can enlighten us about coastal adaptations worldwide. Drawing on sources from anthropology, ethnohistory, geoscience, and archaeology, their findings are presented in a readable fashion that will make Islanders and Mainlanders of interest not only to a wide range of scholars but to the general public as well. Jeffrey H. Altschulis President and Donn R. Grendais Director of the California Office of Statistical Research, Inc., a cultural resource management consulting firm. Both have been extremely active in southern California archaeology, working on sites on the mainland and the Channel Islands.

Table of Contents

Figures
xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Why Study Channel Islands? A Question of Context
1(10)
Jeffrey H. Altschul
The San Nicolas Island Prehistoric Context
5(4)
What This Context Is and Is Not
9(2)
Islanders and Mainlanders: A Critical Review of the Anthropological Literature
11(30)
Hsain Ilahiane
Jeffrey H. Altschul
Why Study Islands?
12(3)
Theoretical Frameworks of Island Studies
15(2)
Social Organization of Maritime Societies: Functional Arguments
17(17)
Pacific Island Cultures
17(4)
The North American Pacific Coast: Baja to Alaska
21(1)
The Seri
21(3)
The Chumash
24(1)
Cultures of the Pacific Northwest
25(5)
The Eskimo
30(3)
Moving beyond Functionalism
33(1)
Islanders: Island Environments and Maritime Subsistence Strategies
34(2)
Mainlanders: Mainland Coastal Environments and Maritime Subsistence Strategies
36(2)
Islanders, Mainlanders, and the Study of Maritime Adaptation
38(3)
A Tale of two Cultures: The Chumash and the Gabrielino
41(26)
William McCawley
The Nature of the Islands
42(4)
The Plank Canoe
46(1)
Politics, Intermarriage, and Trade on the Islands
47(2)
Interaction with the Chumash Mainland
49(6)
Cross-Channel Migrations and Kinship Ties
49(2)
Cross-Channel Travel and Exchange
51(4)
Interaction with the Gabrielino Mainland
55(4)
Cross-Channel Migrations
56(1)
Cross-Channel Exchange
56(3)
Cross-Channel Exchange as an Adaptive Strategy
59(2)
A Comparison of Mainland and Island Adaptations
61(3)
Subsistence Strategies
62(1)
Economic Exchange
62(1)
Ritual Patterns
63(1)
Concluding Thoughts
64(3)
Paradise or Purgatory: Environments, Past and Present
67(18)
Rene L. Vellanoweth
Donn R. Grenda
Human Adaptation and the Environments of the Bight
68(5)
Environments of the Coast
68(1)
The Northern Coast
68(1)
The Los Angeles Basin
69(2)
The Southern Coast
71(1)
The Channel Islands
72(1)
Key Environmental Characteristics of the Bight
73(2)
A Selected Review of Paleoenvironmental Studies
75(7)
Paleoceanographic Studies
75(2)
Palynology
77(2)
Dendroclimatology
79(2)
Stratigraphy
81(1)
The Use of Paleoenvironmental Interpretations in Archaeological Arguments
82(3)
Antiquarians, Culture Historians, and Scientists: The Archaeology of the Bight
85(28)
Rene L. Vellanoweth
Jeffrey H. Altschul
A Brief History of Archaeology in the Southern California Bight
86(10)
Early Investigations
86(3)
Chronology Building
89(5)
Scientific Approaches to Archaeology
94(2)
The Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene
96(4)
The Middle Holocene
100(5)
Demographic Trends
101(1)
The Shoshonean Incursion
102(3)
The Late Holocene
105(6)
Conclusion
111(2)
A Moveable Feast: Isolation and Mobility among Southern California Hunter Gatherers
113(34)
Donn R. Grenda
Jeffrey H. Altschul
Terminology
114(3)
Island Settlement
117(7)
The Early Holocene
118(1)
The Middle Holocene
119(2)
The Late Holocene
121(2)
Summary
123(1)
Coastal Settlement
124(7)
The Northern Coast
124(3)
The Los Angeles Basin
127(3)
The Southern Coast
130(1)
Desert Settlement
131(6)
The Regional Adaptive System
137(8)
The Early Adaptive System
138(3)
Regional Diversification during the Late Holocene
141(4)
Conclusions
145(2)
Complex Cultures, Complex Arguments: Sociopolitical Organization in the Bight
147(32)
Donn R. Grenda
Jeffrey H. Altschul
The Evolution of Sociopolitical Organization in the Bight
148(3)
Early Holocene Sociopolitical Organization
148(1)
Middle and Late Holocene Sociopolitical Organization
149(2)
Explaining Complexity
151(6)
The Tools of Explanation: Theoretical Constructs Used in the Study of Complexity
151(1)
Scale
152(1)
Context
153(2)
Social Theory
155(1)
Substantivism
155(1)
Formalism
156(1)
Marxist Social Theory
156(1)
Cultural Complexity
157(4)
Basic Goods
158(1)
Luxury Items
159(2)
Explaining Complexity in the Bight: Case Studies
161(7)
Modeling the Rise of Complexity in the Northern Bight
161(3)
Life on the Edge of Chaos: Social Organization in the Los Angeles Basin
164(4)
An Interpretive Framework for the Bight
168(9)
Classification of Regions
169(1)
Regional Interaction
170(2)
The Bight as a Cultural System
172(1)
Scenario 1: A North-to-South Cultural Cline
173(2)
Scenario 2: A Synergistic Path to Complexity
175(2)
Conclusion
177(2)
Scales and Axes: The Cultural Geography of Southern California
179(8)
Jeffrey H. Altschul
References Cited 187(54)
Index 241(16)
Contributors 257

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