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Janson's History of Art : The Western Tradition

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Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205685172

ISBN10:
020568517X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/3/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Customer Reviews

Awesome Book  July 13, 2011
by


The Eighth Edition of Janson's History of Art is groundbreaking. The textbook is rich in information and most up-to-date with the latest information. When Harry Abrams first published the History of Art in 1962, John F. Kennedy occupied the White House, and Andy Warhol was an emerging artist. Janson offered his readers a strong focus on Western art, an important consideration of technique and style, and a clear point of view.A very interesting textbook.






Janson's History of Art : The Western Tradition: 4 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

Summary

Rewritten and reorganized, this new edition weaves together the most recent scholarship, the most current thinking in art history, and the most innovative online supplements, including digital art library. Experience the new Janson and re-experience the history of art.

Long established as the classic and seminal introduction to art of the Western world, the Eighth Edition of Janson's History of Art is groundbreaking. When Harry Abrams first published the History of Art in 1962, John F. Kennedy occupied the White House, and Andy Warhol was an emerging artist. Janson offered his readers a strong focus on Western art, an important consideration of technique and style, and a clear point of view.

The History of Art, said Janson, was not just a stringing together of historically significant objects, but the writing of a story about their interconnections, a history of styles and of stylistic change. Jansonís text focused on the visual and technical characteristics of the objects he discussed, often in extraordinarily eloquent language. Jansonís History of Art helped to establish the canon of art history for many generations of scholars.

The new Eighth Edition, although revised to remain current with new discoveries and scholarship, continues to follow Jansonís lead in important ways: It is limited to the Western tradition, with a chapter on Islamic art and its relationship to Western art. It keeps the focus of the discussion on the object, its manufacture, and its visual character. It considers the contribution of the artist as an important part of the analysis.

This edition maintains an organization along the lines established by Janson, with separate chapters on the Northern European Renaissance, the Italian Renaissance, the High Renaissance, and Baroque art, with stylistic divisions for key periods of the modern era. Also embedded in this edition is the narrative of how art has changed over time in the cultures that Europe has claimed as its patrimony.

Author Biography

Penelope J. E. Davies is Associate Professor at the University of Texas, Austin. She is a scholar of Greek and Roman art and architecture as well as a field archaeologist. She is author of Death and the Emperor: Roman Imperial Funerary Monuments from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius, winner of the Vasari Award.

 

Walter B. Denny is a Professor of Art History at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.  In addition to exhibition catalogues, his publications include books on Ottoman Turkish carpets, textiles, and ceramics, and articles on miniature painting, architecture and architectural decoration.

 

Frima Fox Hofrichter is Professor and former Chair of the History of Art and Design department at Pratt Institute.  She is author of Judith Leyster, A Dutch Artist in Holland’s Golden Age, which received CAA’s Millard Meiss Publication Fund Award.

 

Joseph Jacobs is an independent scholar, critic, and art historian of modern art in New York City.  He was the curator of modern art at the John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota, Florida, director of the Oklahoma City Art Museum, and curator of American art at The Newark Museum, Newark, New Jersey.

 

David L. Simon is Jetté Professor of Art at Colby College, where he received the Basset Teaching Award in 2005. Among his publications is the catalogue of Spanish and southern French Romanesque sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters.

 

Ann M. Roberts, Professor of Art at Lake Forest College has published essays, articles and reviews on both Northern and Italian Renaissance topics. Her research focuses on women in the Renaissance, and her most recent publication is entitled Dominican Women and Renaissance Art:The Convent of San Domenico of Pisa.

 

H. W. Janson was a legendary name in art history.  During his long career as a teacher and scholar, he helped define the discipline through his impressive books and other publications. 

 

Anthony F. Janson forged a distinguished career as a professor, scholar, museum professional and writer.  From the time of his father’s death in 1982 until 2004, he authored History of Art.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv

Faculty and Student Resources for Teaching and Learning with Janson’s History of Art xix

Introduction xxi

 

PART ONE: THE ANCIENT WORLD

 

Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art

PALEOLITHIC ART 2

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Cave Painting 5

Interpreting Prehistoric Painting 5

Paleolithic Carving 7

INFORMING ART: Telling Time: Labels and Periods 9

Paleolithic houses 11

NEOLITHIC ART 11

Settled Societies and Neolithic Art 11

Architecture in Europe: Tombs and Rituals 15

INFORMING ART: Dating Techniques 17

 

Chapter 2: Ancient Near Eastern Art

SUMERIAN ART 22

Temple Architecture: Linking Heaven and Earth 23

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mud Brick 23

Sculpture and Inlay 25

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Gilgamesh Epic 25

Visual Narratives 27

Cylinder Seals 29

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Losses Through Looting 29

ART OF AKKAD 30

Sculpture: Power and Narrative 30

NEO-SUMERIAN REVIVAL 32

Architecture: The Ziggurat of Ur 32

Sculpture: Figures of Gudea 32

PRIMARY SOURCES: Texts on Gudea Figures from Lagash and Surrounding Areas, ca. 2100 33

BABYLONIAN ART 33

The Code of Hammurabi 34

ASSYRIAN ART 34

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Code of Hammurabi 35

Art of Empire: Expressing Royal Power 37

LATE BABYLONIAN ART 37

The Royal Palace 38

REGIONAL NEAR EASTERN ART 38

The Hittites 40

The Phoenicians 40

The Hebrews 41

IRANIAN ART 41

Early Iranian Art 42

The Persian Empire: Cosmopolitan Heirs to the Mesopotamian Tradition 43

Mesopotamia Between Persian and Islamic Dominion 46


Chapter 3: Egyptian Art

PREDYNASTIC AND EARLY DYNASTIC ART 50

The Palette of King Narmer 50

INFORMING ART: Egyptian Gods and Goddesses 52

THE OLD KINGDOM: A GOLDEN AGE 53

Old Kingdom Funerary Complexes 53

INFORMING ART: Major Periods in Ancient Egypt 54

The Pyramids at Giza: Reflecting a New Royal Role 55

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Building the Pyramids 56

PRIMARY SOURCES: Excerpt from the Pyramid Text of Unis (r. 2341—2311 BCE) 58

Representing the Human Figure 59

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: REASSERTING

TRADITION THROUGH THE ARTS 62

Royal Portraiture: Changing Expressions and Proportions 62

Funerary Architecture 63

THE NEW KINGDOM: RESTORED GLORY 65

Royal Burials in the Valley of the Kings 65

Temples to the Gods 67

Block Statues 70

Images in New Kingdom Tombs 71

AKHENATEN AND THE AMARNA STYLE 72

The Amarna Style 72

Tutankhamun and the Aftermath of Amarna 75

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Interpreting Ancient Travel Writers 75

PAPYRUS SCROLLS: THE BOOK OF THE DEAD 77

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Book of the Dead 77

LATE EGYPT 78

 

Chapter 4: Aegean Art

EARLY CYCLADIC ART 82

MINOAN ART 84

The “Palace” at Knossos 84

Wall Paintings: Representing Rituals and Nature 86

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Two Excavators, Legend, and Archaeology 87

Minoan Pottery 89

Carved Minoan Stone Vessels 90

Late Minoan Art 92

MYCENAEAN ART 93

Architecture: Citadels 93

Mycenaean Tombs and Their Contents 96

Sculpture 99

 

Chapter 5: Greek Art

THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK ART: THE GEOMETRIC STYLE 104

INFORMING ART: Greek Gods and Goddesses 105

Geometric Style Pottery 105

Geometric Style Sculpture 107

THE ORIENTALIZING STYLE: HORIZONS EXPAND 107

Miniature Vessels 108

ARCHAIC ART: ART OF THE CITY-STATE 109

The Rise of Monumental Temple Architecture 109

STONE SCULPTURE 113

Architectural Sculpture: The Building Comes Alive 115

Vase Painting: Art of the Symposium 119

THE CLASSICAL AGE 123

Classical Sculpture 123

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Indirect Lost-Wax Process 128

Architecture and Sculpture on the Athenian Akropolis 131

PRIMARY SOURCES: Aristotle (384—322 BCE) 133

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Repatriation of Cultural Heritage 134

PRIMARY SOURCES: Plutarch (ca. 46—after 119 CE) 136

THE LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD 141

Late Classical Architecture: Civic and Sacred 141

Late Classical sculpture 142

Painting in the Late Classical Age 145

THE AGE OF ALEXANDER AND THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD 147

Architecture: The Scholarly Tradition and Theatricality 148

City Planning 150

Hellenistic Sculpture: Expression and Movement 154

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: J.J. Winckelmann and the Apollo Belvedere 157

Hellenistic Painting 161

 

Chapter 6: Etruscan Art

FUNERARY ART 165

Tombs and Their Contents 166

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Etruscan Gold-Working 169

ARCHITECTURE 173

City Planning 174

SCULPTURE 175

Dynamism in Terra Cotta and Bronze 175

 

Chapter 7: Roman Art

EARLY ROME AND THE REPUBLIC 181

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Recognizing Copies: The Case of the Laocoön 183

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ARCHITECTURE 183

Sculpture 188

PRIMARY SOURCES: Cicero (106—43 BCE) 192

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Copying Greek Sculptures 193

Painting and Mosaic 194

PRIMARY SOURCES: Polybius (ca. 200—ca. 118 BCE) 194

THE EARLY EMPIRE 195

Architecture 196

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Two Pantheon Problems 202

Portrait Sculpture 203

Relief Sculpture 207

PRIMARY SOURCES: Josephus (37/8—ca. 100 CE) 210

Art and Architecture in the Provinces 213

Domestic Art and Architecture 216

THE LATE EMPIRE 222

Architecture 222

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Painted Stone in Greece and Rome 223

Architecture in the Provinces 227

Portrait Sculpture 228

Relief Sculpture 229

 

PART TWO: THE MIDDLE AGES

 

Chapter 8: Early Jewish, Early Christian, and Byzantine Art

EARLY JEWISH ART 237

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART 240

Christian Art before Constantine 240

INFORMING ART: The Life of Jesus 241

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Book of the Popes (Liber Pontificalis) 244

Christian Art after Official Recognition of Christianity 245

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mosaics 248

BYZANTINE ART 254

Early Byzantine Art 254

PRIMARY SOURCES: Procopius of Caesarea (Sixth Century) 258

The Iconoclastic Controversy 265

Middle Byzantine Art 265

PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Theodore the Studite (759—826 CE) 266

Late Byzantine Art 273

INFORMING ART: Biblical and Celestial Beings 273

 

Chapter 9: Islamic Art

Religious Architecture 280

PRIMARY SOURCES: Muhammad Ibn Mahmud Al-Amuli (Iran, 14th Century) 280

THE FORMATION OF ISLAMIC ART 281

INFORMING ART: Islam and Its Messenger 283

Secular Architecture 284

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC STYLE 285

Religious Architecture 285

Luxury Arts 287

ISLAMIC ART AND THE PERSIAN INHERITANCE 287

Architecture 287

Figural Art Forms in Iran 288

THE CLASSICAL AGE 290

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Spanish Islamic Art and Europe in the Middle Ages 290

The Fatimid Artistic Impact 291

The Ayyubids and the Seljuk Turks of Asia Minor 292

LATER CLASSICAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE 294

Mongol Patronage 295

Timurid Patronage 295

Mamluk Patronage 296

Nasrid Patronage: The Alhambra 299

THE THREE LATE EMPIRES 300

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Ottoman Sultan Selim II (1524—1574) 300

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Oriental Carpet 301

The Ottomans in Europe and Asia 302

The Safavid Period in Iran 304

The Mughal Period in India 308

PRIMARY SOURCES: Abd Al-Hamid Lahori (d. 1654) 309

CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN ISLAMIC ART 310

 

Chapter 10: Early Medieval Art

ANGLO-SAXON ART 314

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Metalwork 315

The Animal Style 316

HIBERNO-SAXON ART 318

Manuscripts 318

PRIMARY SOURCES: Lindisfarne Gospels 320

VIKING ART 322

CAROLINGIAN ART 324

Sculpture 324

Illuminated Books 325

Architecture 328

PRIMARY SOURCES: Hariulf (ca.1060—1143) 331

PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Angilbert (ca. 750—814) 332

OTTONIAN ART 333

Architecture 333

Metalwork 336

Ivories and Manuscripts: Conveyors of Imperial Grandeur 340

Sculpture 343

 

Chapter 11: Romanesque Art

FIRST EXPRESSIONS OF ROMANESQUE STYLE 349

Architecture 349

Monumental Stone Sculpture 350

MATURE ROMANESQUE 351

Pilgrimage Churches and Their Art 351

PRIMARY SOURCES: The Pilgrim’s Guide 352

Cluniac Architecture and Sculpture 356

PRIMARY SOURCES: St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090—1153) 359

Cluniac Wall Painting 365

Cistercian Architecture and Art 366

Other Benedictine Architecture and Wall Painting 367

Book Illustration 368

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Preserving and Restoring Architecture 369

OTHER REGIONAL VARIANTS OF ROMANESQUE STYLE 372

Western France: Poitou 372

Southeastern France: Provence 373

The Holy Land 374

Tuscany 375

Germany 378

The Meuse Valley: Mosan Style 379

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Vaulting 380

Normandy and England 381

THE PARADOXICAL MEANING OF ROMANESQUE 386

 

Chapter 12: Gothic Art

EARLY GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 391

Saint-Denis: Suger and the Beginnings of Gothic Architecture 391

PRIMARY SOURCES: Suger of Saint-Denis (1081—1151) 393

Chartres Cathedral 395

Laon Cathedral 397

Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris 398

HIGH GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 399

The Rebuilding of Chartres Cathedral 400

PRIMARY SOURCES: Theophilus Presbyter (12th Century) 402

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Stained Glass 405

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Modules and Proportions 406

Amiens Cathedral 408

Reims Cathedral 408

RAYONNANT OR COURT STYLE 413

Sainte-Chapelle 413

Saint-Urbain in Troyes 415

Manuscript Illumination 416

LATE GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 418

Manuscript Illumination 418

Sculpture 420

Architecture: The Flamboyant Phase 422

THE SPREAD OF GOTHIC ART 423

Spain 423

England 426

Germany 430

 

PART THREE: THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH ROCOCO

 

Chapter 13: Art in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century Italy

THE GROWTH OF MENDICANT ORDERS AND THE VISUAL ARTS IN ITALY 438

The Franciscans at Assisi and Florence 438

Churches and Their Furnishings in Urban Centers 441

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Fresco Painting and Conservation 441

Pulpits in Pisan Churches 442

Expanding Florence Cathedral 445

Building for the City Government: The Palazzo della Signoria 448

PAINTING IN TUSCANY 449

Cimabue and Giotto 449

Siena: Devotion to Mary in Works by Duccio and Simone 453

PRIMARY SOURCES: Agnolo di Tura del Grasso 454

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: The Social Work of Images 455

Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti 458

Artists and Patrons in Times of Crisis 461

PRIMARY SOURCES: Inscriptions on the Frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena 461

NORTHERN ITALY 465

Venice: Political Stability and Sumptuous Architecture 465

Milan: The Visconti Family and Northern Influences 465

 

Chapter 14: Artistic Innovations in Fifteenth-Century Northern Europe

COURTLY ART: THE INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC 471

Sculpture for the French Royal Family 471

Illuminated Manuscripts: Books of Hours 473

Bohemia and England 474

URBAN CENTERS AND THE NEW ART 476

Robert Campin in Tournai 477

Jan van Eyck in Bruges 479

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Panel Painting in Tempera and Oil 479

Rogier van der Weyden in Brussels 485

PRIMARY SOURCES: Cyriacus of Ancona (1449) 485

LATE FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN THE NETHERLANDS 487

Aristocratic Tastes for Precious Objects, Personal Books, and Tapestries 487

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Scientific and Technical Study of Paintings 488

Panel Paintings in the Southern Netherlands 490

The Northern Netherlands 492

REGIONAL RESPONSES TO THE EARLY NETHERLANDISH STYLE 494

France 494

PRIMARY SOURCES: Fray José De Sigüenza (1544?—1606) 494

Spain 495

Central Europe 495

PRIMARY SOURCES: From the Contract for the St. Wolfgang Altarpiece 499

PRINTING AND THE GRAPHIC ARTS 499

Printing Centers in Colmar and Basel 501

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Printmaking 501

 

Chapter 15: The Early Renaissance in Fifteenth-Century Italy

FLORENCE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 507

The Baptistery Competition 507

PRIMARY SOURCES: In Praise of the City of Florence (ca. 1403—04) by Leonardo Bruni 507

Architecture and Antiquity in Florence 509

PRIMARY SOURCES: Lorenzo Ghiberti (ca. 1381—1455) 509

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Brunelleschi’s Dome 512

PRIMARY SOURCES: Leon Battista Alberti on what makes a building beautiful 514

Ancient Inspirations in Florentine Sculpture 515

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Perspective 516

Painting in Florentine Churches and Chapels 525

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Patronage Studies 525

Florentine Painters in the Age of the Medici 530

DOMESTIC LIFE: PALACES, FURNISHINGS,

AND PAINTINGS IN MEDICEAN FLORENCE 533

Palace Architecture 533

PRIMARY SOURCES: Domenico Veneziano Solicits Work 534

Paintings for Palaces 536

PRIMARY SOURCES: Giovanni Dominici Urges Parents to Put Religious Images in Their Homes 539

Portraiture 541

RENAISSANCE ART THROUGHOUT ITALY, 1450—1500 543

Piero della Francesca in Central Italy 543

Alberti and Mantegna in Mantua 546

Venice 550

Rome and the Papal States 553

 

Chapter 16: The High Renaissance in Italy, 1495—1520

THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN FLORENCE AND MILAN 558

Leonardo da Vinci in Florence 559

Leonardo in Milan 559

PRIMARY SOURCES: Leonardo da Vinci (1452—1519) 562

Leonardo Back in Florence and Elsewhere 564

ROME RESURGENT 566

Bramante in Rome 566

Michelangelo in Rome and Florence 568

PRIMARY SOURCES: Michelangelo Interprets the Vatican Pietà 568

Michelangelo in the Service of Pope Julius II 571

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Drawings 575

Raphael in Florence and Rome 577

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Cleaning and Restoring Works of Art 578

PRIMARY SOURCES: On Raphael’s Death 583

VENICE 584

Giorgione 584

Titian 585

 

Chapter 17: The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in Sixteenth-Century Italy

LATE RENAISSANCE FLORENCE: THE CHURCH, THE COURT, AND MANNERISM 593

Florentine Religious Painting in the 1520s 593

The Medici in Florence: From Dynasty to Duchy 595

PRIMARY SOURCES: Benvenuto Cellini (1500—1571) 600

ROME REFORMED 603

Michelangelo in Rome 603

PRIMARY SOURCES: Michelangelo the Poet 603

The Catholic Reformation and Il Gesù 607

NORTHERN ITALY: DUCAL COURTS AND URBAN CENTERS 609

The Palazzo del Te 609

PARMA AND CREMONA 611

Correggio and Parmigianino in Parma 611

Cremona 613

VENICE: THE SERENE REPUBLIC 613

Sansovino in Venice 613

Andrea Palladio and Late Renaissance Architecture 614

PRIMARY SOURCES: Andrea Palladio (1508—1580) 616

Titian 617

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Oil on Canvas 618

PRIMARY SOURCES: From a Session of the Inquisition Tribunal in Venice of Paolo Veronese 620

Titian’s Legacy 621

 

Chapter 18: Renaissance and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Northern Europe

FRANCE: COURTLY TASTES FOR ITALIAN FORMS 625

Chateaux and Palaces: Translating Italian Architecture 626

Art for Castle Interiors 628

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Making and Conserving Renaissance Tapestries 629

SPAIN: GLOBAL POWER AND RELIGIOUS ORTHODOXY 631

The Escorial 632

El Greco and Religious Painting in Spain 633

CENTRAL EUROPE: THE REFORMATION AND ART 634

Catholic Contexts: The Isenheim Altarpiece 635

Albrecht Dürer and the Northern Renaissance 638

PRIMARY SOURCES: Albrecht Dürer (1471—1528) 641

Religious and Courtly Images in the Era of Reform 643

Painting in the Cities: Humanist Themes and Religious Turmoil 646

ENGLAND: REFORMATION AND POWER 647

PRIMARY SOURCES: Elizabethan Imagery 649

THE NETHERLANDS: WORLD MARKETPLACE 650

The City and the Court: David and Gossaert 651

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: The Economics of Art 651

Antwerp: Merchants, Markets, and Morality 652

PRIMARY SOURCES: Karel van Mander Writes About Pieter Bruegel the Elder 656

 

Chapter 19: The Baroque in Italy and Spain

PAINTING IN ITALY 663

Caravaggio and the New Style 664

Artemisia Gentileschi 667

PRIMARY SOURCES: Artemisia Gentileschi (1593—ca. 1653) 669

Ceiling Painting and Annibale Carracci 670

ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY 675

The Completion of St. Peter’s and Carlo Maderno 675

Bernini and St. Peter’s 676

Architectural Components in Decoration 678

A Baroque Alternative: Francesco Borromini 679

The Baroque in Turin: Guarino Guarini 682

The Baroque in Venice: Baldassare Longhena 684

SCULPTURE IN ITALY 684

Early Baroque Sculpture: Stefano Maderno 684

The Evolution of the Baroque: Gianlorenzo Bernini 684

A Classical Alternative: Alessandro Algardi 687

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Bernini’s Sculptural Sketches 688

PAINTING IN SPAIN 689

Spanish Still Life: Juan Sánchez Cotán 690

Naples and the Impact of Caravaggio: Jusepe de Ribera 690

Diego Velázquez: From Seville to Court Painter 691

Monastic Orders and Zurbarán 695

PRIMARY SOURCES: Antonio Palomino (1655—1726) 695

Culmination in Devotion: Bartolomé Esteban Murillo 696

 

Chapter 20: The Baroque in the Netherlands

FLANDERS 701

Peter Paul Rubens and Defining the Baroque 701

PRIMARY SOURCES: Peter Paul Rubens (1577—1640) 704

Anthony van Dyck: History and Portraiture at the English Court 707

Local Flemish Art and Jacob Jordaens 708

The Bruegel Tradition 709

Still-Life Painting 710

THE DUTCH REPUBLIC 713

The Haarlem Academy: Hendrick Goltzius 713

The Caravaggisti in Holland: Hendrick Terbrugghen 713

The Haarlem Community and Frans Hals 714

The Next Generation in Haarlem: Judith Leyster 717

Rembrandt and the Art of Amsterdam 718

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Authenticity and Workshops: Rubens and Rembrandt 718

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Etching, Drypoint, and Selective Wiping 722

THE LANDSCAPE, STILL-LIFE, AND GENRE PAINTING 725

Landscape Painting: Jan van Goyen 725

City Views: Jacob van Ruisdael 726

Architectural Painting: Pieter Saenredam 728

Still-life Painting: Willem Claesz. Heda 729

Flower Painting: Rachel Ruysch 730

Genre Painting: Jan Steen 730

Intimate Genre Painting: Jan Vermeer 732

Exquisite Genre Painting: Gerard ter Borch 734

 

Chapter 21: The Baroque in France and England

FRANCE: THE STYLE OF LOUIS XIV 738

Painting and Printmaking in France 739

PRIMARY SOURCES: Nicolas Poussin (ca. 1594—1665) 742

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Forgeries and The Book of Truth 747

French Classical Architecture 748

Sculpture: The Impact of Bernini 754

BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND 754

Inigo Jones and the Impact of Palladio 755

Sir Christopher Wren 757

John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor 760

 

Chapter 22: The Rococo

FRANCE: THE RISE OF THE ROCOCO 762

Painting: Poussinistes versus Rubénistes 763

PRIMARY SOURCES: Jean de Jullienne (1686—1767) 766

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Pastel Painting 769

Chinoiserie 771

The French Rococo Interior 772

THE ROCOCO IN WESTERN EUROPE OUTSIDE OF FRANCE 774

William Hogarth and the Narrative 774

Canaletto 775

THE ROCOCO IN CENTRAL EUROPE 776

Johann Fischer von Erlach 777

Egid Quirin Asam 779

Dominikus Zimmermann 779

Balthasar Neumann 780

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Illusionistic Ceiling Decoration 781

 

PART FOUR: THE MODERN WORLD

 

Chapter 23: Art in the Age of the Enlightenment, 1750—1789

ROME TOWARD 1760: THE FONT OF NEOCLASSICISM 787

Artistic Foundations of Neoclassicism: Mengs and Hamilton 788

ROMANTICISM IN ROME: PIRANESI 789

NEOCLASSICISM IN BRITAIN 790

Sculpture and Painting: Historicism, Morality, and Antiquity 791

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Josiah Wedgwood and Neoclassical Jasperware 792

The Birth of Contemporary History Painting 793

Grand Manner Portraiture in the Neoclassical Style: Joshua Reynolds 795

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: The Elusive Meaning of West’s The Death of General Wolfe 795

Architecture and Interiors: The Palladian Revival 796

EARLY ROMANTICISM IN BRITAIN 798

Architecture and Landscape Design: The Sublime and the Picturesque 799

Early Romantic Painting in Britain 801

Romanticism in Grand Manner Portraiture: Thomas Gainsborough 805

NEOCLASSICISM IN FRANCE 806

Architecture: Rational Classicism 806

The Sublime in Neoclassical Architecture: The Austere and the Visionary 808

Painting and Sculpture: Expressing Enlightenment Values 810

PRIMARY SOURCES: Denis Diderot (1713—1784) 812

The Climax of Neoclassicism: The Paintings of Jacques-Louis David 813

PRIMARY SOURCES: Étienne-Jean Delécluze (1781—1863) 813

Neoclassical Portraiture: Marie-Louise-Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun 816

ITALIAN NEOCLASSICISM TOWARD 1785 817

Neoclassical Sculpture: Antonio Canova 817

 

Chapter 24: Art in the Age of Romanticism, 1789—1848

PAINTING 823

Spain: Francisco Goya 823

Britain: Spiritual Intensity and the Bond with Nature 825

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Blake’s Printing Process 827

PRIMARY SOURCES: John Constable (1776—1837) 829

Germany: Friedrich’s Pantheistic Landscape 831

America: Landscape as Metaphor 832

France: Neoclassical Romanticism 835

France: Painterly Romanticism and Romantic Landscape 840

PRIMARY SOURCES: Eugène Delacroix (1798—1863) 845

Romantic Landscape Painting 847

ROMANTIC SCULPTURE 850

ROMANTIC REVIVALS IN ARCHITECTURE 851

Britain: The Sublime and the Picturesque 851

Germany: Creating a New Athens 854

America: An Ancient Style for a New Republic 854

France: Empire Style 856

 

Chapter 25: The Age of Positivism: Realism, Impressionism, and the Pre-Raphaelites, 1848—1885

REALISM IN FRANCE 860

Realism in the 1840s and 1850s: Painting Contemporary Social Conditions 861

The Realist Assault on Academic Values and Bourgeois Taste 866

Impressionism: A Different Form of Realism 871

PRIMARY SOURCES: Lila Cabot Perry (1848?—1933) 872

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Impressionist Color Theory 874

BRITISH REALISM 881

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 881

The Aesthetic Movement: Personal Psychology and Repressed Eroticism 884

PRIMARY SOURCES: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834—1903) 885

REALISM IN AMERICA 887

Scientific Realism: Thomas Eakins 887

Iconic Imagery: Winslow Homer 888

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: An Artist's Reputation and Changes in Art Historical Methodology 889

PHOTOGRAPHY: A MECHANICAL MEDIUM FOR MASS-PRODUCED ART 890

First Innovations 891

Recording the World 891

Reporting the News: Photojournalism 894

Photography as Art: Pictorialism and Combination Printing 895

PRIMARY SOURCES: Charles Baudelaire (1821—1867) 896

ARCHITECTURE AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 897

Ferrovitreous Structures: Train Sheds and Exhibition Palaces 898

Historic Eclecticism and Technology 899

Announcing the Future: The Eiffel Tower 900

 

Chapter 26: Progress and Its Discontents: Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, and Art Nouveau, 1880—1905

POST-IMPRESSIONISM 905

Paul Cézanne: Toward Abstraction 905

PRIMARY SOURCES: Paul Cézanne (1839—1906) 907

Georges Seurat: Seeking Social and Pictorial Harmony 908

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: An Art for the Demimonde 911

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lithography 911

Vincent van Gogh: Expression Through Color and Symbol 912

Paul Gauguin: The Flight from Modernity 915

PRIMARY SOURCES: Paul Gauguin (1848—1903) 917

SYMBOLISM 917

The Nabis 917

Other Symbolist Visions in France 918

Symbolism Beyond France 920

Symbolist Currents in American Art 922

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Feminist Art History 923

The Sculpture of Rodin 924

ART NOUVEAU AND THE SEARCH FOR MODERN DESIGN 927

The Public and Private Spaces of Art Nouveau 927

AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: THE CHICAGO SCHOOL 931

Henry Hobson Richardson: Laying the Foundation for Modernist Architecture 931

Louis Sullivan and Early Skyscrapers 932

Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie House 934

PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE ADVENT OF FILM 936

Pictorialist Photography and the Photo Secession 936

Documentary Photography 939

Motion Photography and Moving Pictures 940

 

Chapter 27: Toward Abstraction: The Modernist Revolution, 1904—1914

FAUVISM 946

CUBISM 950

Reflecting and Shattering Tradition: Les Demoiselles d’Avignon 950

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: The Myth of the Primitive 951

Analytic Cubism: Picasso and Braque 952

Synthetic Cubism: The Power of Collage 953

THE IMPACT OF FAUVISM AND CUBISM 955

German Expressionism 955

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Woodcut in German Expressionism 958

PRIMARY SOURCES: Vasily Kandinsky (1866—1944) 960

Austrian Expressionism 962

Cubism after Picasso and Braque: Paris 963

Italian Futurism: The Visualization of Movement and Energy 964

Cubo-Futurism and Suprematism in Russia 966

PRIMARY SOURCES: Kazimir Malevich (1878—1935) 968

Cubism and Fantasy: Marc Chagall and Giorgio de Chirico 969

MARCEL DUCHAMP AND THE ADVENT OF AN ART OF IDEAS 970

CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI AND THE BIRTH OF MODERNIST SCULPTURE 972

AMERICAN ART 974

America’s First Modernists: Arthur Dove and Marsden Hartley 975

EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE 976

Austrian and German Modernist Architecture 976

German Expressionist Architecture 979

 

Chapter 28: Art Between the Wars

DADA 985

Zurich Dada: Jean Arp 985

New York Dada: Marcel Duchamp 986

Berlin Dada 987

Cologne Dada 991

PRIMARY SOURCES: Hannah Höch (1889—1978) 991

Paris Dada: Man Ray 992

SURREALISM 993

Picasso and Surrealism 993

Surrealism in Paris: Spurring the Imagination 995

Representational Surrealism: Magritte and Dalí 996

Surrealism and Photography 999

The Surrealist Object 999

ORGANIC SCULPTURE OF THE 1930S 1000

Alexander Calder in Paris 1001

Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth in England 1002

PRIMARY SOURCES: Barbara Hepworth (1903—1975) 1003

CREATING UTOPIAS 1003

Russian Constructivism: Productivism and Utilitarianism 1003

De Stijl and Universal Order 1005

The Bauhaus: Creating the “New Man” 1007

PRIMARY SOURCES: Piet Mondrian (1872—1944) 1007

The Machine Aesthetic in Paris 1011

PRIMARY SOURCES: Le Corbusier (1886—1965) 1012

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Reinforced Concrete 1013

ART IN AMERICAN: MODERNITY, SPIRITUALITY, AND REGIONALISM 1015

The City and Industry 1015

Art Deco and the International Style 1020

Seeking the Spiritual 1021

Regionalism and National Identity 1023

The Harlem Renaissance 1024

MEXICAN ART: SEEKING A NATIONAL IDENTITY 1025

Diego Rivera 1025

THE EVE OF WORLD WAR II 1028

America: The Failure of Modernity 1028

Europe: The Rise of Fascism 1030

 

Chapter 29: Postwar to Postmodern, 1945—1980

EXISTENTIALISM IN NEW YORK: ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM 1036

The Bridge from Surrealism to Abstract Expressionism: Arshile Gorky 1036

Abstract Expressionism: Action Painting 1038

PRIMARY SOURCES: Jackson Pollock (1912—1956) 1038

Abstract Expressionism: Color-Field Painting 1040

New York Sculpture: David Smith and Louise Nevelson 1041

EXISTENTIALISM IN EUROPE: FIGURAL EXPRESSIONISM 1042

Jean Dubuffet 1042

Francis Bacon 1043

REJECTING ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM: AMERICAN ART OF THE 1950s AND 1960s 1044

Re-Presenting Life and Dissecting Painting 1044

Environments and Performance Art 1046

Pop Art: Consumer Culture as Subject 1049

PRIMARY SOURCES: Roy Lichtenstein (1923—1997) 1050

FORMALIST ABSTRACTION OF THE 1950s AND 1960s 1053

Formalist Painting 1053

Formalist Sculpture: Minimal Art 1056

PRIMARY SOURCES: Frank Stella (b. 1936) 1056

THE PLURALIST 1970s: POST-MINIMALISM 1058

Post-Minimal Sculpture: Geometry and Emotion 1058

Earthworks and Site-Specific Art 1059

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: Studying the Absent Object 1059

Conceptual Art: Art as Idea 1062

Television Art: Nam June Paik 1063

ART WITH A SOCIAL AGENDA 1064

Street Photography 1064

African-American Art: Ethnic Identity 1065

PRIMARY SOURCES: Romare Bearden (1911—1988) 1066

Feminist Art: Judy Chicago and Gender Identity 1068

LATE MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE 1069

Continuing the International Style: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1069

Sculptural Architecture: Referential Mass 1070

 

Chapter 30: The Postmodern Era: Art Since 1980

ARCHITECTURE 1077

Postmodern Architecture: A Referential Style 1077

New Modernisms: High-Tech Architecture 1080

Deconstructivism: Countering Modernist Authority 1082

MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Computer-Aided Design in Architecture 1085

POSTMINIMALISM AND PLURALISM: LIMITLESS POSSIBILITIES IN FINE ART 1085

The Return of Painting 1085

Sculpture 1089

APPROPRIATION ART: DECONSTRUCTING IMAGES 1091

PRIMARY SOURCES: Cindy Sherman (b. 1954) 1091

Photography and LED Signs 1092

Context and Meaning in Art: The Institutional Critique and Art as Commodity 1094

MULTICULTURALISM AND POLITICAL ART 1096

African-American Identity 1096

The AIDS Pandemic and a Preoccupation with the Body 1098

The Power of Installation, Video, and Large-Scale Photography 1100

PRIMARY SOURCES: Ilya Kabakov (b. 1933) 1102

THE ART HISTORIAN’S LENS: The Changing Art Market 1104

GLOBAL ART 1105

El Anatsui, Adinkra Signs, and Postmodern Ambiguity 1105

Cai Guo Qing: Projects for Extraterrestrials 1106

 

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

Credits

 



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