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The last two centuries have witnessed a radical transformation of Jewish life. Marked by such profound events as the emancipation from the ghettoes of Europe, the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel, Judaism's long journey through the modern age has been a complex and tumultuous one, leading many Jews to ask themselves not only where they have been and where they are going, but what it means to be a Jew in today's world. Tracing the dramatic changes in Jewish religion, culture, and identity from the seventeenth century to 1948, The Jew in the Modern World , Third Edition, remains the most complete sourcebook on modern Jewish history available. Now thoroughly expanded and updated, this critically acclaimed volume of primary materials features previously unpublished and inaccessible sources concerning the Jewish experience in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; women in Jewish history; American Jewish life; the Holocaust; and Zionism and the nascent Jewish community in Palestine on the eve of the establishment of the State of Israel. The documents are arranged chronologically in each chapter and are meticulously and extensively annotated and cross-referenced. Providing useful tables detailing Jewish demographic trends, this unique text is ideal for courses in modern Jewish history, Zionism and Israel, the Holocaust, or modern European history. New to this Edition * Includes more documents that cover the post-1945 period * Offers more selections on Jewish women * A new chapter on Oriental and Sephardi Jewry * Provides additional maps and timelines
Paul Mendes-Flohr is Professor of Modern Jewish Thought in the Divinity School and an associate member of the department of history at the University of Chicago. He is the author or editor of numerous books and serves as the editor-in-chief, with Peter Schäfer and Bernd Witte, of the twenty-two-volume German edition of the collected works of Martin Buber.
Jehuda Reinharz is the Richard Koret Professor of Modern Jewish History at Brandeis University and President of the Mandel Foundation. He is the author, editor, or coeditor of numerous books, including Chaim Weizmann: The Making of a Statesman (OUP, 1993) and Chaim Weizmann: The Making of a ZionistLeader (OUP, 1985). His most recent book (with Yaacov Shavit) is Glorious, Accursed Europe (2010).
Table of Contents
Preface to the Third Edition Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Introduction I. HARBINGERS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE 1. How Profitable the Nation of the Jews Are (1655), MENASSEH BEN ISRAEL 2. Reasons for Naturalizing the Jews in Great Britain and Ireland (1714), JOHN TOLAND 3. Declaration Protecting the Interest of Jews Residing in the Netherlands (July 13, 1657), The Estates General of the Republic of the United Provinces 4. Act of Suriname (August 17, 1665), British Colonial Commissioner 5. The Appointment of Samson Wertheimer as Imperial Court Factor (August 29, 1703), EMPEROR LEOPOLD I 6. The Plantation Act (March 19, 1740), The Houses of Parliament 7. The Charter Decreed for the Jews of Prussia (April 17, 1750), FREDERICK II 8. "The Jew Bill" (1753), The Houses of Parliament of Great Britain 9. Concerning the Amelioration of the Civil Status of the Jews (1781), CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON DOHM 10. Arguments Against Dohm (1782), JOHANN DAVID MICHAELIS 11. Response to Dohm (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 12. Remarks Concerning Michaelis's Response to Dohm, MOSES MENDELSSOHN 13. Edict of Tolerance (January 2, 1782), JOSEPH II 14. Patent of Tolerance for Jews of Galicia (May 27, 1785), EMPEROR JOSEPH II 15. Petition to the Hungarian Diet (June 1790), The Community of Jews Living in Hungary 16. De Judaeis: Law Governing the Status of the Jews of Hungary (1791), LEOPOLD II 17. An Essay on the Physical, Moral and Political Reformation of the Jews (1789), ABBÉ GRÉGOIRE I I . HARBINGERS OF CULTURAL AND IDEOLOGICAL CHANGE 1. The Writ of Excommunication Against Baruch Spinoza (July 27, 1656), The Sephardi Community of Amsterdam 2. On the Election of the Jews, BARUCH SPINOZA 3. Moses Mendelssohn Visits the Seer of Koenigsberg (1777) 4. The Jews (1754), GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING 5. A Parable of Toleration (1779), GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING 6. Letter to Markus Herz (1777), IMMANUEL KANT 7. The Right to be Different (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 8. Words of Peace and Truth (1782), NAPHTALI HERZ (HARTWIG) WESSELY 9. A Sermon contra Wessely (1782), DAVID (TEVELE) BEN NATHAN OF LISSA 10. Sermon on Wessely and the Edict of Tolerance (1782), EZEKIEL LANDAU 11. The Stream of Besor (April 1783), HAMEASEF 12. We Shall Not Be Deterred (1787), HAMEASEF 13. Preface to Volume One of Shulamith (1806), JOSEPH WOLF 14. Call for Religious Enlightenment (1808), SULAMITH 15. On the Need for a German Translation of Scripture (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 16. On the Curtailment of Jewish Juridical Autonomy (1782), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 17. On Self-Development and the Abolishment of Jewish Autonomy (March 19, 1792), DAVID FRIEDLAENDER 18. Search for Light and Right: An Epistle to Moses Mendelssohn (1782) 19. Postscript to "Search for Light and Right" (1782), DAVID ERNST MOERSCHEL 20. Judaism Is the Cornerstone of Christianity (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 21. Judaism as Revealed Legislation (1783), MOSES MENDELSSOHN 22. A Time Will Come When No One Will Inquire Who Is a Jew or a Christian (1789), JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER 23. Leviathan (1792), SAUL ASCHER 24. Notes Regarding the Characteristics of the Jews (1793), LAZARUS BENDAVID 25. The Euthanasia of Judaism (1798), IMMANUEL KANT 26. Open Letter to His Reverence, Probst Teller (1799), DAVID FRIEDLAENDER I I I . THE PROCESS OF POLITICAL EMANCIPATION IN WESTERN EUROPE, 1789-1871 1. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 26, 1789), The French National Assembly 2. Debate on the Eligibility of Jews for Citizenship (December 23, 1789), The French National Assembly 3. Decree Recognizing the Sephardim as Citizens (January 28, 1790), The French National Assembly 4. The Constitution of France (September 3, 1791), The French National Assembly 5. The Emancipation of the Jews of France (September 28, 1791), The French National Assembly 6. Letter of a Citizen to His Fellow Jews (1791), BERR ISAAC BERR 7. Debate on Jewish Emancipation (August 22-31, 1796), National Assembly of Batavia 8. Emancipation of Dutch Jewry (September 9, 1796), National Assembly of Batavia 9. First Emancipation in Rome (February 1799), The Roman Republic 10. Tearing Down the Gates of the Venetian Ghetto (July 10, 1797), PIER GIAN MARIA DE FERRARI 11. Imperial Decree Calling for an Assembly of Jewish Notables (May 30, 1806), NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, EMPEROR OF FRANCE, KING OF ITALY 12. Instructions to the Assembly of Jewish Notables (July 29, 1806), COUNT MOLÉ 13. Reply on Behalf of the Assembly to Count Molé (July 29, 1806), ABRAHAM FURTADO 14. Answers to Napoleon (1806), The Assembly of Jewish Notables 15. Summons Convening the Parisian Sanhedrin (September 18, 1806), COUNT MOLÉ 16. Doctrinal Decisions (April 1807), The Parisian Sanhedrin 17. Reaction to Napoleon (c. 1814), The Hasidim of Poland 18. The "Infamous Decree" (1808), NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 19. Emancipation in Prussia (March 11, 1812), FREDERICK WILLIAM III 20. Article 16 of the Constitution of the German Confederation (June 8, 1815), The Congress of Vienna 21. The Paulus-Riesser Debate (1831), HEINRICH PAULUS AND GABRIEL RIESSER 22. Civil Disabilities of the Jews (1831), THOMAS MACAULAY 23. Emancipation Act (1832), Assembly of Lower Canada 24. The Law Concerning the Fundamental Rights of the German People: Religious Equality (1848), The Frankfurt National Parliament 25. The Jewish Relief Act (July 23, 1858), The Houses of Parliament 26. The North German Confederation and Jewish Emancipation (July 3, 1869), WILHELM I 27. Emancipation of Bavaria (April 22, 1871), WILHELM I IV. EMERGING PATTERNS OF RELIGIOUS ADJUSTMENT: REFORM, CONSERVATIVE, NEO-ORTHODOX, AND ULTRAORTHODOX JUDAISM 1. Constitution of the Hamburg Temple (December 11, 1817), The New Israelite Temple Association 2. The Light of Splendor (1818), ELIEZER LIEBERMAN 3. These Are the Words of the Covenant (1819), The Hamburg Rabbinical Court 4. A Reply Concerning the Question of Reform (1819), HATAM SOFER 5. The Sword Which Avenges the Covenant (1819), MEYER ISRAEL BRESSELAU 6. Last Will and Testament (1839), HATAM SOFER 7. Mendelssohn's Biur Is Heretical (1865), RABBI MOSES SCHICK 8. The Question of Patriotism (June 1844), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Brunswick 9. Hebrew as the Language of Jewish Prayer (1845), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Frankfurt 10. The Question of Messianism (1845), The Reform Rabbinical Conference at Frankfurt 11. This Is Our Task (1853), SAMUEL HOLDHEIM 12. The Rationale of Reform (1844), AARON CHORIN 13. Open Rebuke (1845), SALOMON JEHUDA LEIB RAPPOPORT 14. On Changes in Judaism (1845), ZECHARIAS FRANKEL 15. Religion Allied to Progress (1854), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH 16. The Manifesto of Ultra-Orthodoxy (1865), The Rabbinical Decision of the Michalowce Assembly 17. The Secession of the Orthodox (1877), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH V. MODERN JEWISH STUDIES 1. A Society for the Preservation of the Jewish People (1819), JOEL ABRAHAM LIST 2. Statutes (l822), The Society for the Culture and Science of the Jews 3. A Society to Further Jewish Integration (1822), EDUARD GANS 4. On the Concept of a Science of Judaism (1822), IMMANUEL WOLF 5. On Rabbinic Literature (1818), LEOPOLD ZUNZ 6. Scholarship and Emancipation (1832), LEOPOLOD ZUNZ 7. The Future of Jewish Studies (1869), MORITZ STEINSCHNEIDER 8. Jewish Scholarship and Religious Reform (1836), ABRAHAM GEIGER 9. A Sermon on the Science of Judaism (1855), SAMSON RAPHAEL HIRSCH 10. Learning Based on Faith (1860), SAMUEL DAVID LUZZATO 11. Mekize Nirdamim (1861), ELIEZER LIPMAN SILBERMANN 12. Jewish Scholarship: New Perspectives (1901), MARTIN BUBER 13. Documenting Jewish History in Eastern Europe (Februaury 25, 1927), SIMON DUBNOW ET AL. 14. What Is Jewish Ethnography? (1929), KHAYIM KHAYES AND NAFTULI VAYNIG 15. Science of Judaism, Its Achievements and Prospects (1971), GERSHOM SCHOLEM V I . POLITICAL AND RACIAL ANTISEMITISM 1. Jews (1756), FRANCOIS-MARIE AROUET (VOLTAIRE) 2. An Apology for the Jewish Nation (1762), ISAAC DE PINTO 3. Reply to de Pinto (c. 1762), FRANçOIS-MARIE AROUET (VOLTAIRE) 4. A State Within a State (1793), JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE 5. On the Danger to the Well-Being and Character of the Germans Presented by the Jews (1816), JAKOB FRIEDRICH FRIES 6. Our Visitors (1816), K. B. A. SESSA 7. Aspects of the Jewish Situation Requiring Correction (1819), LEOPOLD ZUNZ 8. The Jewish Mirror (1821), HARTWIG VON HUNDT-RADOWSKY 9. The Damascus Affair (1840) 10. Appeal to All Israelites (1860), Alliance Israélite Universelle 11. Our First Thirty-Five Years (1895), The Alliance Israélite Universelle 12. The Jewish Problem (1843), BRUNO BAUER 13. On the Jewish Problem (1844), KARL MARX 14. Jewry in Music (1850), RICHARD WAGNER 15. The Victory of Judaism over Germandom (1879), WILHELM MARR 16. The Question of the Jew Is a Question of Race (1881), KARL EUGEN DUEHRING 17. Judaism: Race or Religion? (1883), ERNEST RENAN 18. The Jews: Kings of the Epoch (1845), ALPHONSE TOUSSENEL 19. The Jews: Oppressed or Oppressors? (1877), FYODOR DOSTOIEVSKY 20. Jewish France (1886), EDOUARD-ADOLPHE DRUMONT 21. What We Demand of Modern Jewry (1879), ADOLF STOECKER 22. A Word About Our Jewry (1880), HEINRICH VON TREITSCHKE 23. Another Word About Our Jewry (1880), THEODOR MOMMSEN 24. Of the People of Israel (1882), FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE 25. The Racists' Decalogue (1883), THEODOR FRITSCH 26. J'accuse (1898), ÉMILE ZOLA 27. The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899), HOUSTON STEWART CHAMBERLAIN 28. The Rabbi's Speech: The Promise of World Domination (1872), ERMANN GOEDSCHE 29. Protocols of the Elders of Zion (c. 1902) 30. An Expert Opinion in Support of the Ritual Blood Accusation (1911), IVAN ALEXEYEVITCH SIKORSKY V I I . EAST EUROPEAN JEWRY 1. A People That Dwells Apart (1892), HAROLD FREDERIC 2. Statutes Concerning the Organization of Jews ( December 9, 1804), ALEXANDER I 3. Statutes Regarding the Military Service of the Jew (August 26, 1827), NICHOLAS I 4. Delineation of the Pale of Settlement (April 1835), NICHOLAS I 5. The May Laws (May 3, 1882), ALEXANDER III 6. The Need for Enlightenment (1840), S. J. FUENN 7. A Jewish Program for Russification (1841), Maskilim to the Governors of the Pale 8. Awake My People! (1866), JUDAH LEIB GORDON 9. For Whom Do I Toil? (1871), JUDAH LEIB GORDON 10. The Tip of the Yud (1875), JUDAH LEIB GORDON 11. The New Hasidim (1793), SOLOMON MAIMON 12. Excommunication of the Hasidim (April 1772), The Rabbinical Leaders of Vilna 13. How I Became a Hasid (c. 1850), BARUCH MORDECAI ETTINGER 14. The Volozhin Yeshivah (1909), RABBI DAVID MOSES JOSEPH OF KRYNKI 15. The Musar Yeshivah (c. 1910), HIRSCH LEIB GORDON 16. The Modern Yeshivah of Lida (1907), ISAAC JACOB REINES 17. Russian Must Be Our Mother Tongue (1861), OSIP ARONOWICH RABINOWICH 18. Program (February 8, 1864), Society for the Promotion of Culture Among Jews 19. Yiddish Is a Corrupt Jargon (1828), ISAAC DOV LEVINSOHN 20. Hebrew-Our National Fortress (1868), PERETZ SMOLENSKIN 21. My Soul Desired Yiddish (1862), MENDELE MOYKHER SFORIM 22. European Culture Destroyed My Family (1909), PAULINE WENGEROFF 23. The Jewish Question in Eastern Europe (1877), AARON LIEBERMANN 24. The Plight of the Jews of Rumania (1878), Congress of Berlin 25. Awaiting a Pogrom in Vilna (1882) 26. The Massacre of Jews at Kishinev (June 1, 1903), N. TCHAYKOVSKY 27. The City of Slaughter (1903), HAIM NAHMAN BIALIK 28. The Beilis Trial (1913), The New York Times 29. To America or the Land of Israel? (1881), JUDAH LEIB LEVIN 30. On the Latest Wave of Emigration (1891), HAZFIRAH 31. Appeal to the Jews in Russia (1891), BARON MAURICE DE HIRSCH 32. Cultural Autonomy (1901), SIMON DUBNOW 33. Decisions on the Nationality Question (1899, 1901, 1905, 1910), THE BUND 34. The Helsingfors Program (1906), All-Russian Zionist Conference 35. Czernowitz Conference of the Yiddish Language (1908) 36. Women in the Bund and Poalei Zion (1937), MANYA SHOHAT 37. Critical Remarks on the National Question (1913), V. I. LENIN 38. The Jews Are Not a Nation (1913), JOSEPH STALIN 39. Emancipation by the March Revolution (1917), The Provision Government 40. The Liquidation of Bourgeois Jewish Institutions (1918), YEVSEKTSIYA 41. Minorities Treaty (June 28, 1919), The Allies and the Republic of Poland 42. Hungary Violates the Minorities Treaty (1921), LUCIEN WOLF 43. The Position of Hungarian Jewry (c. February 1939), The Jewish Community of Budapest 44. Appeal to the Jewish Workers and Toilers (1920), A Group of Jewish Soldiers of the Red Army 45. Constitution of the Republic of Poland (1921) 46. Why Did We Create the Minorities Bloc? (1922), YITZHAK GRUENBAUM 47. Birobidzhan: A Jewish Autonomous Region (1928) 48. We, Polish Jews . . ., JULIAN TUWIM V I I I . SEPHARDI AND MIDDLE EASTERN JEWRY 1. A Call for Sephardi Enlightenment (1778), DAVID ATTIAS 2. The Crémieux Decree (October 24, 1870) 3. The Jews Under Italian Rule (circa 1906), MORDECHAI HA-KOHEN 4. The Privileges and Immunities of the Non-Muslim Communities (1856), SULTAN 'ABÜMECID 5. Petition for British Citizenship (November 18, 1918), The Jewish Community of Baghdad 6. Travail in an Arab Land (1792), SAMUEL ROMANELLI 7. A Critique of Popular Moroccan Jewish Culture (1891), YISHAQ BEN YA'IS HALEWI 8. Letter to the Jewish Community of Marakech (1892), STELLA CORCOS 9. Need for Alliance Schools in Algeria (1901), MOISE NAHON 10. Traditional Schools in Constantinople: A Critique (1906), MOISE FRESCO 11. General Instructions for Teachers (1903), Alliance Israélite Universelle 12. Beginnings of Westernization and Reform in the Mellah: Fe (1913), AMRAM ELMALEH 13. French Naturalization of Moroccan Jews (1923), Y. D. SEMACH 14. French to Replace the Local "Jargon" Casablanca (1898), M. NAHON 15. The Survival of Judeo-Spanish: Constantinople (1908), MOISE FRESCO 16. The Multiplicity of Languages in an Alliance School in Constantinople (1913), A. BENVENISTE 17. Response to Darwin, MORDECAI HA-KOHEN 18. Sigmund Freud on Moses and His Torah (1939), ABRAHAM SHALOM YAHUDA 19. A "Feminist" Look at the Women of Fez (1900), N. BENCHIMOL 20. Responsum on Women's Suffrages, BEN-ZION UZZIEL 21. A Jewish Egyptian Patriot Calls for Deemphasizing Religion in His Country's Public Life for the Sake of National Unity (1912), MURAD FARAJ 22. A Baghdad Rabbi Decries the Decline of Traditional Morals (1913), SIMEON AGASI 23. De-Judaization Among the Jews of Tunisia and the Steps Needed to Fight It (1929), L. LOUBATON 24. The Koran and Other Scriptures (1893), YAAQUB (JAMES) SANU' 25. The Third Redemption (1843), YEHUDA ALKALAI 26. A Letter to Theodor Herzl (1897), Bar Kokhba Jewish Society, Cario 27. A Call to Alexandrian Jewry to Celebrate the San Remo Recognition of the Balfour Declaration (1920), Zéire Zion Society, Alexandria 28. Iraqi Zionists Complain About Their Lack of Representation in the Jewish Agency and of Ashkenazi Bias (1925), The Mesopotamian Zionist Commitie, Baghdad 29. Disavowal of Zionism and Pledge of Loyalty to the Arab Cause (1929), Damascus Jewish Youth Association 30. An Iraqi Jewish Notable Expresses His Reservations on Zionism (1922), MENAHEM S. DANIEL 31. Events in the East and Their Repercussions on the Jewish Communities (1936), EZRA MENDA 32. The Report of the Iraqi Commission of Inquiry on the Farhud (1941) 33. Abrogation of the Crémieux Decree by the Vichy Regime (1940) 34. A Vichy Offi cial Discusses a German Proposal to Require Jews to Wear the Yellow Star in Tunis (1943) 35. A New Year's Sermon (1942), MOISE VENTURA 36. The Iraqi Law Permitting Jews to Emigrate with the Forfeiture of Nationality (1950) I X . AMERICAN JEWRY 1. Petition to Expel the Jews from New Amsterdam (September 22, 1654), PETER STUYVESANT 2. Reply to Stuyvesant's Petition (April 26, 1655), Dutch West India Company 3. Rights of the Jews of New Amsterdam (March 13, 1656), Dutch West India Company 4. The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) 5. The Virginia Act of 1785 6. The Constitution of the United States of America (1789) 7. Message of Welcome to George Washington (August 17, 1790), The Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island 8. A Reply to the Hebrew Congregation of Newport (c. August 17, 1790), GEORGE WASHINGTON 9. An Observant Jewish Woman in America (1791), REBECCA SAMUEL 10. A Country Where Religious Distinctions are Scarcely Known (1815), RACHEL MORDECAI LAZARUS 11. Proclamation to the Jews (September 15, 1825), MORDECAI MANUEL NOAH 12. American Is Not Palestine (March 29, 1841), REBECCA GRATZ 13. Jewish Publication Society of America (1845), ISAAC LEESER 14 Off to America! (May 6, 1848), L. KOMPERT 15. The Confirmation of Girls (1854), ISSAC MEYER WISE 16. Dedication of Hebrew Union College (1875), DAVID PHILIPSON 17. The Pittsburgh Platform (1885), Conference of Reform Rabbis 18. The Beginning of the Jewish Theological Seminary (1886), H. PEREIRA MENDES 19. The Orthodox Jewish Congregational Union of America (June 8, 1898) 20. The Concordance of Judaism and Americanism (1911), KAUFMANN KOHLER 21. The Manhattan Beach Affair (1879), NEWYORK HERALD 22. The Jews Make Me Creep (1896, 1901, 1914), HENRY ADAMS 23. Leo Frank Lynched (August 1915), New York Times 24. Jewish Immigration into the United States: 1881-1948 25. The Russian Jew in America (July 1898), ABRAHAM CAHAN 26. THE Bethlehem Judea Colony, South Dakota (1883), The Am Olam Movement 27. Women Wage-Workers (September 1893), JULIA RICHMAN 28. Sweatshops in Philadelphia (1905), CHARLES S. BERNHEIMER 29. The Economic Condition of the Russian Jew in New York City (1905), ISAAC M. RUBINOW 30. The International Ladies Garment Workers' Union and the American Labor Movement (1920), FORVERTS 31. Zionism and the Jewish Women of America (1915), HENRIETTA SZOLD 32. The Division Between German and Russian Jews (1915), ISRAEL FRIEDLAENDER 33. The American Jewish committee (January 12, 1906), LOUIS MARSHALL 34. The Galveston Project (October 25, 1907), JACOB H. SCHIFF 35. American Judaism Will Not Be Ghettoized (1908), DAVID PHILIPSON 36. Yiddish and the Future of American Jewry (1915), CHAIM ZHITLOWSKY 37. English and Hebrew Must Be the Languages of American Jewry (1904), SOLOMON SCHECHTER 38. A Republic of Nationalities (February 13, 1909), JUDAH L. MAGNES 39. Zionism Is Consistent with American Patriotism (June 1915), LOUIS D. BRANDEIS 40. Catholic Israel (c. 1896), SOLOMON SCHECHTER 41. The Reconstruction of Judaism (1920), MORDECAI M. KAPLAN 42. The Beginnings of Secular Jewish Schools (1918-1920) 43. The American Yeshiva (1926), BERNARD REVEL 44. A Statement of Policy (May 1915), The Anti-Defamation League 45. Temporary Suspension of Immigration (1920), Congressional Committee on Immigration 46. The International Jew: The World's Problem (1920), HENRY FORD 47. A Protest Against Antisemitism (January 16, 1921) 48. Social and Economic Change Reflected in Jewish School Enrollment (1936) 49. The Columbus Platform (1937), Conference Of Reform Rabbis 50. The American Jewish Conference (January 1943) 51. A Statement of Policy (1944), American Council of Judaism 52. An Exchange of Views (1950), DAVID BEN-GURION AND JACOB BLAUSTEIN X. ZIONISM 1. Manifesto (1882), The Bilu 2. Auto-Emancipation (1882), LEO PINSKER 3. Hovevei Zion (1884), ZALMAN EPSTEIN 4. Rishon Le-Zion (1882), JOSEPH FEINBERG 5. The Revival of Hebrew, ELIEZER BEN YEHUDA 6. A Solution of the Jewish Question (1896), THEODOR HERZL 7. Protest Against Zionism (1897), PROTESTRABBINER 8. The Basle Program (1897), The First Zionist Congress 9. The First Zionist Congress (August 1897), AHAD HAAM 10. The Zionists Are Not Our Saviors (c. 1900), RABBI ZADOK HACOHEN RABINOWITZ 11. Women and Zionism (1901), THEODOR HERZL 12. Manifesto (1902), The Mizrahi 13. Zionism and Jewish Art (1903), MARTIN BUBER 14. Jewry of Muscle (June 1903), MAX NORDAU 15. The Uganda Plan (1903), THEODOR HERZL 16. Anti-Uganda Resolution (July 30, 1905), Seventh Zionist Congress 17. Resolution on Palestine (July 31, 1905), Seventh Zionist Congress 18. The Jewish Territorial Organization (1905), ISRAEL ZANGWILL 19. Program for Proletarian Zionism (1906), BER BOROCHOV 20. Gegenwartsarbeit (December 1906), Helsingfors Conference 21. Our Goal (May 1907), HAPOEL HAZAIR 22. The Hidden Question (August 1907), YITZHAK EPSTEIN 23. The Founding of Tel Aviv: A Garden City (1906/7), Housing Association Of Jaffa And Arthur Ruppin 24. The Collective (1908), MANYA SHOHAT 25. Founding Program (May 1912), AGUDAT ISRAEL 26. The Language War of 1913 (June 2, 1913), High School Students in Eretz Yisrael 27. The Hebrew Book (1913), HAIM NAHMAN BIALIK 28. Contra Zionism (1919), NATHAN BIRNBAUM 29. A Debate on Zionism and Messianism (Summer 1916), MARTIN BUBER AND HERMANN COHEN 30. Our World-View (January 17, 1917), HASHOMER HAZAIR 31. An Anti-Zionist Letter to the Times [London] (May 24, 1917), Conjoint Committee of British Jewry 32. The Balfour Declaration (November 2, 1917), JAMES BALFOUR 33. Zionist Manifesto Issued After the Balfour Declaration (December 21, 1917), World Zionist Organization-London Bureau 34. Proposal to the General Assembly of the Workers of Eretz Israel (1919), AHDUT HAAVODAH 35. The Churchill White Paper (June 1922), WINSTON CHURCHILL 36. Mandate for Palestine (July 24, 1922), The Council of the League of Nations 37. What the Zionist-Revisionists Want (1926), VLADIMIR JABOTINSKY 38. Brith Shalom (1925), ARTHUR RUPPIN ET AL. 39. Opening of Hebrew University (1925), CHAIM WEIZMAN 40. Refl ections on Our Language, GERHARD SCHOLEM 41. Kibbutz Hakhsharah: A Memoir (c. 1935), DAVID FRANKEL 42. "The Worker's Wife": A Public Trial (February 7, 1937), ABBA HOUSHI AND ADA MAIMON 43. On the Arab Question (January 7, 1937), DAVID BEN-GURION 44. Jewish Needs vs. Arab Claims (February 14, 1937), VLADIMIR JABOTINSKY 45. The Peel Commission Report (July 1937) 46. White Paper of 1939 (May 1939), MALCOLM MACDONALD 47. Statement on the MacDonald White paper of 1939 (May 17, 1939), The Jewish Agency For Palestine 48. The Biltmore Program (May 1942) 49. The Sermon (1942), HAIM HAZAZ 50. The Case for a Bi-National Palestine (November 1945), HASHOMER HAZAIR 51. Bi-Nationalism Is Unworkable (July 17, 1947), MOSHE SHERTOK 52. Resolution on Palestine (November 29, 1947), United Nations General Assembly 53. Proclamation of the State of Israel (May 14, 1948) 54. Address to the Knesset on the Law of Return (July 3, 1950), DAVID BEN-GURION 55. The Law of Return (July 5, 1950) XI. THE SHOAH 1. A Letter on the Jewish Question (September 16, 1919), ADOLF HITLER 2. Mein Kampf (1923), ADOLF HITLER 3. Wear the Yellow Badge with Pride (April 4, 1933), ROBERT WELTSCH 4. First Racial Definition (April 11, 1933) 5. Decrees Excluding Jews from German Cultural and Public Life (1933 to 1942) 6. Proclamation of the (New) Reichsvertretung (September 28, 1933), REICHSVERTRETUNG DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN 7. Why the Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935), ADOLF HITLER 8. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, The Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935) 9. The Reich Citizenship Law, The Nuremberg Laws (September 15, 1935) 10. First Decree to the Reich Citizenship Law (November 14, 1935) 11. Response of the Christian Population in Germany to the Nuremberg Laws (September 1935), A Public Opinion Survey 12. German Economic Goals and the Jewish Question (August 1936), ADOLF HITLER 13. Kristallnacht-A Preliminary Secret Report to H. W. Goering (November 1938), R. T. HEYDRICH 14. The Operation Against the Jews (November 9-10, 1938), Security Service Report on the Kristallnacht 15. Decree Regarding Atonement Fine of Jewish State Subjects (November 12, 1938), H. W. GOERING 16. Public Response to the Kristallnacht (December 1938) 17. Decree for the Elimination of the Jews from German Economic Life (November 12, 1938) 18. Numerus Nullus in Schools (November 16, 1938) 19. Ghetto Decreed for Berlin (December 5, 1938) 20. A Prophecy of Jewry's Annihilation (January 30, 1939), ADOLF HITLER 21. The Plight of the Refugees (June 1939), New York Times 22. The Jewish Refugee Community of Shanghai (1941), YEHOSHUA RAPOPORT 23. "We Must Finish with the Jews" (December 16, 1941), HANS FRANK 24. Protocols Of The Wannsee Conference (January 20, 1942) 25 The Nazi Response to Resistance (May 1942), JOSEPH GOEBBELS 26. A Warsaw Ghetto Diary (March 10 and October 2, 1940), CHAIM A. KAPLAN 27. Warsaw Ghetto Memoirs (May to August 1942), JANUSZ KORCZAK 28. Call to Resistance (January 1943), Jewish Fighting Organization 29. His Last Communication as Ghetto Revolt Commander (April 23, 1943), MORDECAI ANIELEWICZ 30. Last Letter from Warsaw (March 1, 1944), EMANUEL RINGELBLUM 31. The Jewish Residential Area in Warsaw Is No More (May 16, 1943), JUERGEN STROOP 32. Going Underground in Holland, MAX M. ROTHSCILD 33. Bermuda conference joint Communiqué (May 1, 1943) 34. Where Is the World's Conscience? (June 1943), SHMUEL ZYGELBOYM 35. A Secret Speech on the Jewish Question (October 8, 1943), HEINRICH HIMMLER 36. Commandant of Auschwitz (c.1945), RUDOLF HOESS 37. On the Deportation of Children from the Lodz Ghetto (September 4, 1942), MORDECAI CHAIM RUMKOWSKI 38. Inside Auschwitz-A Memoir (c. 1970), FRANZI EPSTEIN 39. Estimated number of Jews Killed by the Nazis 40. Six Million Accusers (1961), GIDEON HAUSNER 41. Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (1950), HANNAH ARENDT X I I . JEWISH IDENTITY CHALLENGED AND REDEFINED 1. My Emergence from Talmudic Darkness (1793), SOLOMON MAIMON 2. Every Country Has the Jews that It Deserves (1877), KARL EMIL FRANZOS 3. My Father's Bourgeois Judaism (1919), FRANZ KAFKA 4. Memoirs of a Balkan Jew, ELIAS CANETTI 5. I Have Converted (1785), JOSEPH MICHAEL EDLER VON ARNSTEINER 6. Why I Have Raised You as a Christian: A Letter to His Daughter (c. July 1820), ABRAHAM MENDELSSOHN 7. A Ticket of Admission to European Culture (1823, c. 1854), HEINRICH HEINE 8. Because I Am a Jew I Love Freedom (1832), LUDWIG BOERNE 9. O How Painful to Have Been Born a Jewess! (1795-1833), RAHEL LEVIN VARNHAGEN 10. No Room in My Heart for Jewish Suffering (1916), ROSA LUXEMBURG 11. How I Grew Up as a Jew in the Diaspora (1918), EDUARD BERNSTEIN 12. The Non-Jewish Jew (1958), ISAAC DEUTSCHER 13. Hear, O Israel! (1897), WALTER RATHENAU 14. The Jew Must Free Himself from Jewishness (1903), OTTO WEININGER 15. Jewish Self-Hatred (1930), THEODOR LESSING 16. Returning Home (1862), MOSES HESS 17. I Am a Child of Israel and a Feminist (1852), ERNESTINE LOUISE ROSE 18. An Epistle to the Hebrews (1882), EMMA LAZARUS 19. Jewishness Is an Inalienable Spiritual Sensibility (1913), GUSTAV LANDAUER 20. The Donme (Donme) Affair: A Letter on Assimilation (1925), A Sabbatian from Salonica, Greece 21. Address to the Society of Bnai Brith (May 6, 1926), SIGMUND FREUD 22. A Valedictory Message to the Jewish People (1949), ARTHUR KOESTLER 23. Jewish Learning and the Return to Judaism (1920), FRANZ ROSENZWEIG 24. From Prague to Belz (1937), JERI LANGER 25. The Jewish Woman (c. 1930), BERTA PANPENHEIM 26. What I Would Do If I Became a Rabbi (1890), RAY (RACHEL) FRANK 27. Why I Became a Rabbi (1938), REGINA JONAS 28. Portrait of a Jew (1962), ALBERT MEMMI 29. Reflections of a "Holocaust Jew" (1966), JEAN AMERY 30. A Parable of Alienation (1946), DANIEL BELL 31. Letter to an Intellectual: A Reply to Daniel Bell (1946), BEN HALPERN 32. Why I Choose to Be a Jew (1959), ARTHUR A. COHEN 33. A Kind of Survivor (1969), GEORGE STEINER 34. The Meaning of Homeland (2006), A. B. YEHOSHUA 35. A Convert's Affi rmations (2003), MARTHA C. NUSSBAUM 36. The Jew Who Wasn't There: Halacha and the Jewish Woman (1971), RACHEL ADLER Appendix: The Demography of Modern Jewish History Index