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Joint Structure and Function : A Comprehensive Analysis,9780803611917
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Joint Structure and Function : A Comprehensive Analysis

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780803611917

ISBN10:
0803611919
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/30/2005
Publisher(s):
F a Davis Co
List Price: $76.48
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Summary

Striking an optimum, user-friendly balance between basic and more advanced content, this is the ideal text for your program's Kinesiology course. A clear and logical presentation of the basic theory of joint structure and muscle action provides the foundation necessary to understand both normal and pathologic functions. Full-color, well-referenced, up-to-date research and the liberal use of figures, examples, and tables make this the most comprehensive text on the market. An extensive new art program, including photographs, radiographs, and scans, enhances visual learning. Unique focus on normal structure and function rather than specific patient problems shows how deviations from normal may create or underlie dysfunction. Patient case studies at the beginning of each chapter and case applications throughout illustrate clinical relevance. Increased use of highlights and call-out boxes underscore key points and Continuing Exploration boxes highlight controversial topic. Evidence-based approaches used throughout.

Table of Contents

SECTION 1 Joint Structure and Function: Foundational Concepts
2(138)
Biomechanical Applications to Joint Structure and Function
3(66)
Pamela K. Levangie
Introduction
4(1)
Patient Case
4(1)
Part 1: Kinematics and Introduction to Kinetics
5(1)
Descriptions of Motion
5(5)
Types of Displacement
5(2)
Location of Displacement in Space
7(2)
Direction of Displacement
9(1)
Magnitude of Displacement
9(1)
Rate of Displacement
10(1)
Introduction to Forces
10(9)
Definition of Forces
10(2)
Force Vectors
12(3)
Force of Gravity
15(4)
Introduction to Statics and Dynamics
19(1)
Newton's Law of Inertia
19(1)
Newton's Law of Acceleration
20(1)
Translatory Motion in Linear and Concurrent Force Systems
20(5)
Linear Force System
21(1)
Determining Resultant Forces in a Linear Force System
21(1)
Concurrent Force System
22(2)
Newton's Law of Reaction
24(1)
Additional Linear Force Considerations
25(10)
Tensile Forces
26(2)
Joint Distraction
28(3)
Revisting Newton's Law of Inertia
31(1)
Shear and Friction Forces
32(3)
Part 2: Kinetics - Considering Rotatory and Translatory Forces and Motion
35(1)
Torque, or Moment of Force
35(7)
Angular Acceleration and Angular Equilibrium
37(1)
Parallel Force Systems
38(3)
Meeting the Three Conditions for Equilibrium
41(1)
Muscle Forces
42(2)
Total Muscle Force Vector
42(2)
Torque Revisited
44(4)
Changes to Moment Arm of a Force
45(1)
Angular Acceleration with Changing Torques
46(1)
Moment Arm and Angle of Application of a Force
46(2)
Lever Systems, or Classes of Levers
48(5)
Muscles in Third-Class Lever Systems
50(1)
Muscles in Second-Class Lever Systems
50(1)
Muscles in First-Class Lever Systems
51(1)
Mechanical Advantage
51(1)
Trade-Offs of Mechanical Advantage
52(1)
Limitations to Analysis of Forces by Lever Systems
53(1)
Force Components
53(7)
Resolving Forces into Perpendicular and Parallel Components
54(1)
Perpendicular and Parallel Force Effects
54(6)
Translatory Effects of Force Components
60(2)
Rotatory Effects of Force Components
61(1)
Total Rotation Produced by a Force
62(4)
Multisegment (Closed-Chain) Force Analysis
63(3)
Summary
66(3)
Joint Structure and Function
69(44)
Sandra Curwin
Introduction
70(1)
Joint Design
70(1)
Materials Used in Human Joints
71(12)
Structure of Connective Tissue
72(5)
Specific Connective Tissue Structures
77(6)
General Properties of Connective Tissue
83(8)
Mechanical Behavior
83(4)
Viscoelasticity
87(1)
Time-Dependent and Rate-Dependent Properties
87(2)
Properties of Specific Tissues
89(2)
Complexities of Human Joint Design
91(7)
Synarthroses
91(2)
Diarthroses
93(5)
Joint Function
98(4)
Kinematic Chains
98(1)
Joint Motion
99(3)
General Changes with Disease, Injury, Immobilization, Exercise, and Overuse
102(5)
Disease
102(1)
Injury
102(1)
Immobilization (Stress Deprivation)
103(1)
Exercise
104(2)
Overuse
106(1)
Summary
107(6)
Muscle Structure and Function
113(27)
Gary Chleboun
Introduction
113(1)
Patient Case
114(1)
Elements of Muscle Structure
114(9)
Composition of a Muscle Fiber
114(1)
The Contractile Unit
115(2)
The Motor Unit
117(2)
Muscle Structure
119(2)
Muscular Connective Tissue
121(2)
Muscle Function
123(12)
Muscle Tension
123(6)
Classification of Muscles
129(3)
Factors Affecting Muscle Function
132(3)
Effects of Immobilization, Injury, and Aging
135(1)
Immobilization
135(1)
Injury
135(1)
Aging
136(1)
Summary
136(4)
SECTION 2 Axial Skeletal Joint Complexes
140(92)
The Vertebral Column
141(52)
Diane Dalton
Introduction
142(1)
Patient Case
142(1)
General Structure and Function
142(14)
Structure
142(8)
Function
150(6)
Regional Structure and Function
156(20)
Structure of the Cervical Region
156(5)
Function of the Cervical Region
161(3)
Structure of the Thoracic Region
164(1)
Function of the Thoracic Region
165(1)
Structure of the Lumbar Region
166(4)
Function of the Lumbar Region
170(3)
Structure of the Sacral Region
173(1)
Function of the Sacral Region
174(2)
Muscles of the Vertebral Column
176(11)
The Craniocervical/Upper Thoracic Regions
176(4)
Lower Thoracic/Lumbopelvic Regions
180(6)
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
186(1)
Effects of Aging
187(1)
Summary
188(5)
The Thorax and Chest Wall
193(22)
Julie Starr
Diane Dalton
Introduction
193(1)
Patient Case
193(1)
General Structure and Function
193(15)
Rib Cage
193(7)
Muscles Associated With the Rib Cage
200(8)
Coordination and Integration of Ventilatory Motions
208(1)
Developmental Aspects of Structure and Function
209(1)
Differences Associated with the Neonate
209(1)
Differences Associated with the Elderly
210(1)
Pathological Changes in Structure and Function
210(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
210(2)
Summary
212(3)
The Temporomandibular Joint
215(17)
Don Hoover
Pamela Ritzline
Patient Case
215(1)
Introduction
215(1)
Structure
216(3)
Articular Surfaces
216(1)
Articular Disk
217(1)
Capsule and Ligaments
218(1)
Upper and Lower Temporomandibular Joints
219(1)
Function
219(6)
Mandibular Motions
219(3)
Muscular Control of the Temporomandibular Joint
222(1)
Relationship with the Cervical Spine
223(2)
Dentition
225(1)
Age-Related Changes in the Temporomandibular Joint
225(1)
Dysfunctions
226(2)
Inflammatory Conditions
226(1)
Capsular Fibrosis
226(1)
Osseous Mobility Conditions
226(1)
Articular Disk Displacement
227(1)
Degenerative Conditions
227(1)
Summary
228(4)
SECTION 3 Upper Extremity Joint Complexes
232(122)
The Shoulder Complex
233(40)
Paula M. Ludewig
John D. Borstead
Introduction
233(1)
Patient Case
234(1)
Components of the Shoulder Complex
234(25)
Sternoclavicular Joint
234(3)
Acromioclavicular Joint
237(5)
Scapulothoracic Joint
242(4)
Glenohumeral Joint
246(13)
Integrated Function of the Shoulder Complex
259(8)
Scapulothoracic and Glenohumeral Contributions
259(1)
Sternoclavicular and Acromioclavicular Contributions
260(2)
Structural Dysfunction
262(1)
Muscles of Elevation
263(1)
Deltoid Muscle Function
263(1)
Supraspinatus Muscle Function
264(1)
Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, and Subscapularis Muscle Function
264(1)
Upper and Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscle Function
264(2)
Rhomboid Muscle Function
266(1)
Muscles of Depression
266(1)
Latissimus Dorsi and Pectoral Muscle Function
266(1)
Teres Major and Rhomboid Muscle Function
266(1)
Summary
267(6)
The Elbow Complex
273(32)
Cynthia C. Norkin
Introduction
273(1)
Patient Case
274(1)
Structure: Elbow Joint (Humeroulnar and Humeroradial Articulations)
274(8)
Articulating Surfaces on the Humerus
274(1)
Articulating Surfaces on the Radius and Ulna
275(1)
Articulation
276(1)
Joint Capsule
276(2)
Ligaments
278(2)
Muscles
280(2)
Function: Elbow Joint (Humeroulnar and Humeroradial Articulations)
282(7)
Axis of Motion
282(2)
Range of Motion
284(2)
Muscle Action
286(3)
Structure: Superior and Inferior Articulations
289(3)
Superior Radioulnar Joint
289(1)
Inferior Radioulnar Joint
289(1)
Radioulnar Articulation
290(1)
Ligaments
290(2)
Muscles
292(1)
Function: Radioulnar Joints
292(3)
Axis of Motion
292(1)
Range of Motion
293(1)
Muscle Action
293(1)
Stability
294(1)
Mobility and Stability: Elbow Complex
295(1)
Functional Activities
295(1)
Relationship to the Hand and Wrist
295(1)
Effects of Age and Injury
296(4)
Age
296(1)
Injury
297(3)
Summary
300(5)
The Wrist and Hand Complex
305(49)
Noelle M. Austin
Introduction
305(1)
The Wrist Complex
305(14)
Radiocarpal Joint Structure
306(4)
Midcarpal Joint Structure
310(1)
Function of the Wrist Complex
311(8)
The Hand Complex
319(21)
Carpometacarpal Joints of the Fingers
319(2)
Metacarpophalangeal Joints of the Fingers
321(3)
Interphalangeal Joints of the Fingers
324(1)
Extrinsic Finger Flexors
325(3)
Extrinsic Finger Extensors
328(1)
Extensor Mechanism
329(4)
Intrinsic Finger Musculature
333(4)
Structure of the Thumb
337(2)
Thumb Musculature
339(1)
Prehension
340(6)
Power Grip
341(3)
Precision Handling
344(2)
Functional Position of the Wrist and Hand
346(1)
Summary
346(8)
SECTION 4 Hip Joint
354(124)
The Hip Complex
355(82)
Pamela K. Levangie
Introduction
355(1)
Patient Case
356(1)
Structure of the Hip Joint
356(10)
Proximal Articular Surface
356(2)
Distal Articular Surface
358(3)
Articular Congruence
361(1)
Hip Joint Capsule and Ligaments
362(3)
Structural Adaptations to Weight-Bearing
365(1)
Function of the Hip Joint
366(12)
Motion of the Femur on the Acetabulum
366(2)
Motion of the Pelvis on the Femur
368(3)
Coordinated Motions of the Femur, Pelvis, and Lumbar Spine
371(2)
Hip Joint Musculature
373(5)
Hip Joint Forces and Muscle Function in Stance
378(7)
Bilateral Stance
378(1)
Unilateral Stance
379(2)
Reduction of Muscle Forces in Unilateral Stance
381(4)
Hip Joint Pathology
385(3)
Arthrosis
386(1)
Fracture
386(1)
Bony Abnormalities of the Femur
387(1)
Summary
388(5)
The Knee
Lynn Snyder-Macker
Michael Lewek
Introduction
393(1)
Patient Case
394(1)
Structure of the Tibiofemoral Joint
394(15)
Femur
394(1)
Tibia
395(1)
Tibiofemoral Alignment and Weight-Bearing Forces
395(2)
Menisci
397(2)
Joint Capsule
399(3)
Ligaments
402(5)
IIiotibial Band
407(1)
Bursae
408(1)
Tibiofemoral Joint Function
409(11)
Joint Kinematics
409(4)
Muscles
413(6)
Stabilizers of the Knee
419(1)
Patellofemoral Joint
420(9)
Patellofemoral Articular Surfaces and Joint Congruence
421(1)
Motions of the Patella
422(1)
Patellofemoral Joint Stress
423(2)
Frontal Plane Patellofemoral Joint Stability
425(3)
Weight-Bearing vs. Non-Weight-Bearing Exercises with Patellofemoral Pain
428(1)
Effects of Injury and Disease
429(2)
Tibiofemoral Joint
429(1)
Patellofemoral Joint
430(1)
Summary
431(6)
The Ankle and Foot Complex
437(41)
Michael J. Mueller
Introduction
437(1)
Patient Case
438(1)
Definitions of Motions
438(2)
Ankle Joint
440(5)
Ankle Joint Structure
440(3)
Ankle Joint Function
443(2)
The Subtalar Joint
445(7)
Subtalar Joint Structure
445(2)
Subtalar Joint Function
447(5)
Transverse Tarsal Joint
452(6)
Transverse Tarsal Joint Structure
452(2)
Transverse Tarsal Joint Function
454(4)
Tarsometatarsal Joints
458(2)
Tarsometatarsal Joint Structure
458(1)
Tarsometatarsal Joint Function
459(1)
Metatarsophalangeal Joints
460(4)
Metatarsophalangeal Joint Structure
460(1)
Metatarsophalangeal Joint Function
461(3)
Interphalangeal Joints
464(1)
Plantar Arches
464(4)
Structure of the Arches
464(1)
Function of the Arches
465(3)
Muscular Contribution to the Arches
468(1)
Muscles of the Ankle and Foot
468(4)
Extrinsic Musculature
468(4)
Intrinsic Musculature
472(1)
Deviations from Normal Structure and Function
472(2)
Summary
474(4)
SECTION 5 Integrated Function
478(91)
Posture
479(38)
Cynthia C. Norkin
Introduction
479(1)
Patient Case
480(1)
Static and Dynamic Postures
480(4)
Postural Control
481(1)
Major Goals and Basic Elements of Control
481(3)
Kinetics and Kinematics of Posture
484(3)
Inertial and Gravitational Forces
485(1)
Ground Reaction Forces
485(1)
Coincident Action Lines
485(1)
Sagittal Plane
486(1)
Optimal Posture
487(1)
Analysis of Standing Posture
487(16)
Sagittal Plane Alignment and Analysis
488(5)
Deviations from Optimal Alignment in the Sagittal Plane
493(5)
Frontal Plane Optimal Alignment and Analysis
498(1)
Deviations from Optimal Alignment in the Frontal Plane
498(5)
Analysis of Sitting Postures
503(5)
Muscle Activity
504(1)
Interdiskal Pressures and Compressive Loads on the Spine
505(1)
Seat Interface Pressures
506(2)
Analysis of Lying Postures
508(1)
Interdiskal Pressures
508(1)
Surface Interface Pressures
508(1)
Effects of Age, Pregnancy, Occupation, and Recreation on Posture
509(3)
Age
509(2)
Pregnancy
511(1)
Occupation and Recreation
511(1)
Summary
512(5)
Gait
517(52)
Sandra J. Olney
Introduction
517(1)
General Features
518(1)
Patient Case
518(1)
Kinematics
519(8)
Phases of the Gait Cycle
519(3)
Gait Terminology
522(2)
Joint Motion
524(3)
Saunders' ``Determinants'' of Gait
527(1)
Kinetics
527(24)
Ground Reaction Force
527(1)
Center of Pressure
528(1)
Kinetic Analysis
528(2)
Internal and External Forces, Moments, and Conventions
530(4)
Energy Requirements
534(1)
Mechanical Energy of Walking
534(1)
Mechanical Energy: Kinematic Approach
534(3)
Mechanical Power and Work
537(6)
Muscle Activity
543(4)
Ground Reaction Force: Sagittal Plane Analysis
547(4)
Kinematics and Kinetics of the Trunk and Upper Extremities
551(2)
Trunk
551(2)
Upper Extremities
553(1)
Stair and Running Gaits
553(6)
Stair Gait
553(2)
Running Gait
555(3)
Summary
558(1)
Effects of Age, Gender, Assistive Devices, and Orthoses
559(2)
Age
559(1)
Gender
560(1)
Assistive Devices
561(1)
Orthoses
561(1)
Abnormal Gait
561(3)
Structural Impairment
562(1)
Functional Impairment
562(2)
Summary
564(5)
Index 569


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