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Justice Administration : Police, Courts, and Corrections Management,9780132206730

Justice Administration : Police, Courts, and Corrections Management

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780132206730

ISBN10:
0132206730
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $118.60

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Summary

Justice Administration: Police, Courts, and Corrections Management, Fifth Edition,is the only single-author book of its kind: exploring administration from a systems perspective and examining the organization, operation, personnel roles, functions, issues and practices of the police, courts, and corrections. Drawing on the authorrs"s 35 years of experience, the text offers an authentic and unique real -world perspective. This revision incorporates more than 30 case studies, discussions of future considerations, articles fromLaw Enforcement Newsand a new chapter on terrorism and homeland defense. Updated material addresses topics such as the Prison Litigation Reform Act, probation-police partnerships, computer crime and probation, and new technologies.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
About the Author xxi
Introduction by Hon. Procter Hug, Jr. xxiii
PART I JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION: AN INTRODUCTION 1(60)
Chapter 1 The Study and Scope of Justice Administration
3(19)
Key Terms and Concepts
4(1)
Learning Objectives
4(1)
Why Study Justice Administration?
4(3)
Purpose of the Book and Key Terms
5(1)
Organization of the Book
5(2)
A True System of Justice?
7(6)
A Criminal Justice Process?
8(1)
A Criminal Justice Network?
8(2)
A Criminal Justice Nonsystem?
10(3)
Or a True Criminal Justice System?
13(1)
The Foundations of Justice and Administration: Legal and Historical Bases
13(3)
The Consensus versus Conflict Debate
14(1)
Crime Control through Due Process
15(1)
Public-Sector versus Private-Sector Administration
16(1)
Policymaking in Justice Administration
17(2)
SUMMARY
19(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
19(1)
NOTES
20(2)
Chapter 2 Organization and Administration: Principles and Practices
22(39)
Key Terms and Concepts
23(1)
Learning Objectives
23(1)
Introduction
24(1)
Defining Organizations
24(1)
Organizational Theory and Function
25(3)
Elements of an Organization
25(2)
Organizational Inputs/Outputs
27(1)
Organizational Structure
28(1)
Leading the Organization
29(2)
What Is Leadership?
30(1)
Organizational Communication
31(5)
Definition and Characteristics
31(2)
Communication within Criminal Justice Organizations
33(1)
The Grapevine
34(1)
Oral and Written Communication
35(1)
Other Barriers to Effective Communication
35(1)
Cultural Empathy
36(1)
Historical Approaches to Management
36(2)
Scientific Management
36(1)
Human Relations Management
37(1)
Systems Management
38(1)
Primary Leadership Theories
38(5)
Trait Theory
38(2)
Style Theory
40(1)
Situational Leadership
41(2)
The Managerial Grid
43(2)
Types of Leadership Skills
45(1)
Motivating Employees
46(9)
The Hawthorne Studies
46(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
47(4)
McGregor's Theory X/Theory Y
51(1)
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
52(1)
Expectancy and Contingency Theories
52(3)
A Diversion: Managing Generation X/Y Employees
55(1)
SUMMARY
56(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
56(1)
NOTES
57(4)
PART II THE POLICE 61(114)
Chapter 3 Police Organization and Operation
63(20)
Key Terms and Concepts
64(1)
Learning Objectives
64(1)
Introduction
64(1)
Police Agencies as Organizations
65(1)
The Grouping of Activities
65(1)
The Division of Labor
65(1)
Elements of Police Organizational Structure
66(2)
Examples of Police Organization
68(4)
The Basic Organizational Structure
68(3)
Commentary on the Quasi-Military Style of Policing
71(1)
Organizational Guidelines: Policies, Procedures, Rules, and Regulations
72(1)
Community-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
73(4)
Rationale and Definitions
73(1)
The S.A.R.A. Process
74(2)
Desired Organizational Elements under COPPS
76(1)
Effecting Change in Policing
77(2)
Change Begins with the Supervisor
77(1)
The Chief Executive and Mid-Level Manager
78(1)
Case Studies
79(1)
SUMMARY
80(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
80(1)
NOTES
81(2)
Chapter 4 Police Personnel Roles and Functions
83(32)
Key Terms and Concepts
84(1)
Learning Objectives
84(1)
Introduction
85(1)
Roles of the Police Executive: The Mintzberg Model of CEOs
85(3)
The Interpersonal Role
85(1)
The Informational Role
86(1)
The Decision-Maker Role
87(1)
Law Enforcement Executives, Generally
88(3)
Obtaining the Best: The Assessment Center
88(1)
Skills of Good Managers
89(1)
The "Ten Commandments"
89(1)
Managing the Organization's Critical Components
90(1)
Chiefs of Police
91(3)
Expectations of Government and Community
91(1)
Qualifications
92(1)
Job Protection, Termination, and the Political Arena
93(1)
The Sheriff
94(1)
Role and Functions
94(1)
Middle Managers: Captains and Lieutenants
95(3)
First-Line Supervisors: The Patrol Sergeant
98(6)
Seeking the Gold Badge
98(1)
Assuming the Position: General Roles and Functions
98(4)
Types of Supervisors
102(2)
The Patrol Officer
104(3)
Basic Tasks
104(1)
What Traits Make a Good Officer?
104(1)
Can People Be Too Smart for Police Work?
105(1)
Policy Implications
106(1)
Strategies for Hiring the Best
107(1)
Roles and Functions of Police Personnel under COPPS
107(3)
The Chief Executive
108(1)
Middle Managers
108(1)
First-Line Supervisors
109(1)
Rank-and-File Officers
109(1)
Case Studies
110(2)
SUMMARY
112(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
112(1)
NOTES
112(3)
Chapter 5 Police Issues and Practices
115(30)
Key Terms and Concepts
116(1)
Learning Objectives
116(1)
Introduction
116(1)
Managing the Use of Force
117(4)
Power to Be Used judiciously
117(1)
A Typology of Abuse of Authority
118(2)
Reporting and Examining Use-of-Force Occurrences
120(1)
Vehicular Pursuits
121(4)
A High-Stakes Operation
121(1)
The Supreme Court's View
122(1)
Leadership Rejoinder
122(3)
Border and Heartland Troubles
125(2)
A Daily Deluge of Humanity
125(1)
Crimes Wrought by Undocumented Aliens
126(1)
New Technologies: Drones and Databases
127(1)
Challenges with Racial Profiling
127(4)
A "Hot Button" Issue
127(2)
Need for Data
129(1)
Leadership Challenges
130(1)
Bringing Down the Walls: Women and Minorities Wearing the Badge
131(4)
Women as Officers and Executives
131(2)
Key Issues
133(2)
Minorities as Law Enforcement Officers
135(1)
The High Cost of Hunting Missing Persons in an Age of Media Superfluity
135(3)
Future Considerations
136(1)
Forecasts and Strategies
136(1)
COPPS and Other Trends
136(2)
Case Studies
138(3)
SUMMARY
141(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
141(1)
NOTES
142(3)
Chapter 6 Terrorism and Homeland Defense
145(30)
Key Terms and Concepts
146(1)
Learning Objectives
146(1)
Introduction
146(2)
Types and Categories of Terrorism
148(43)
Definitions
148(1)
Categories
148(1)
Nuclear Biological, and Environmental Terrorism
148(2)
Other Threats: Cyberterrosism and Agriculture Shock
150(41)
Law Enforcement Responses
191(6)
General Approaches and Posse Comitatus
151(1)
The Department of Homeland Security
151(46)
Establishing Command and Control: The National Incident Management System
197
Emergency Response Checklist
162(1)
Tactical Concerns
163(1)
Technology Needs
164(1)
Interagency Cooperation, Command and Control: The Washington, D.C.-Area Sniper Investigation
164(3)
Unfinished Business with Regard to Vulnerability to Terrorism
167(2)
Case Studies
169(1)
SUMMARY
170(1)
ITEMS FOR REVIEW
171(1)
NOTES
171(4)
PART III THE COURTS 175(64)
Chapter 7 Court Organization and Operation
177(17)
Key Terms and Concepts
178(1)
Learning Objectives
178(1)
Introduction
178(1)
By the Numbers: Court Statistics
179(1)
Inside the Courts: Decor, Decorum, Citizens
179(3)
Hallowed Places
179(1)
Justice in the Eye of the Beholder
180(1)
Seeking Truth in an Adversarial Atmosphere
181(1)
Courts as Organizations
182(3)
A Nonbureaucratic Work Group
182(1)
Organizational Structure
183(2)
The Influence of Courts in Policymaking
185(1)
Decreasing Litigation: Alternative Dispute Resolution
186(2)
ADR Options: Arbitration and Mediation
187(1)
Attempts at Reforming Court Organization
188(3)
Case Study
191(1)
SUMMARY
192(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
192(1)
NOTES
192(2)
Chapter 8 Court Personnel Roles and Functions
194(21)
Key Terms and Concepts
195(1)
Learning Objectives
195(1)
Introduction
195(1)
Defining Judicial Administration
196(2)
The Jurists
198(4)
Those Who Would Be Judges: Methods of Selection
198(1)
Benefits and Problems
199(3)
Good Judging and Courtroom Civility
202(2)
Judges as Court Managers
204(1)
Court Clerks
204(1)
Key Individuals
204(1)
The Forgotten Majority: Clerks in Rural Courts
205(1)
Trained Court Administrators
205(2)
Development and Training
205(2)
General Duties
207(1)
How Judges Evaluate Administrators
207(1)
Jury Administration
208(2)
Case Study
210(1)
SUMMARY
211(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
211(1)
NOTES
212(3)
Chapter 9 Court Issues and Practices
215(24)
Key Terms and Concepts
216(1)
Learning Objectives
216(1)
Introduction
216(1)
Justice from the Due Process and Crime Control Perspectives
217(3)
Courthouse Violence
217(1)
Types of Courthouse Violence
218(1)
Making a Threat Assessment
219(1)
Problem-Solving Courts
220(2)
"Therapeutic Justice," Not "McJustice"
220(1)
In the Spotlight: Drug Courts
221(1)
The Dilemma of Delay
222(3)
"Justice Delayed..."
222(1)
The Consequences
222(1)
Suggested Solutions
223(1)
Case Scheduling: Two Systems
224(1)
A Blockbuster Supreme Court Decision on Federal Sentencing Guidelines
225(5)
Other Issues
226(1)
Gender Bias
226(1)
Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults?
227(1)
Should the Exclusionary Rule Be Banned?
228(1)
Should Cameras Be Banned?
228(1)
Does Plea Bargaining Belong?
229(1)
Jury Science
230(1)
Future Considerations
231(2)
Shifts in Philosophy and Practice
231(1)
Trends and Expectations
231(2)
Case Studies
233(2)
SUMMARY
235(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
235(1)
NOTES
236(3)
PART IV CORRECTIONS 239(88)
Chapter 10 Corrections Organization and Operation
241(28)
Key Terms and Concepts
242(1)
Learning Objectives
242(1)
Introduction
243(1)
Correctional Organizations
243(3)
Inmates, Employment, Expenditures
243(1)
Why the Increase in Corrections Populations?
244(1)
General Mission and Features
245(1)
Prisons as Organizations
246(3)
Statewide Central Offices
246(3)
Prison Organization and Administration
249(4)
Inmate Litigation
253(3)
Rights of Inmates
253(1)
A Resurgence of the Hands-off Doctrine?
253(1)
Increases in Litigation and Frivolous Lawsuits prior to the New Millennium
254(1)
The Prison Litigation Reform Act
255(1)
Jails as Organizations
256(3)
The "New-Generation" Jail
256(2)
Making Jails Productive
258(1)
Probation and Parole Agencies as Organizations
259(4)
Probation Systems
259(2)
Parole Systems
261(2)
Case Studies
263(1)
SUMMARY
264(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
265(1)
NOTES
265(4)
Chapter 11 Corrections Personnel Roles and Functions
269(25)
Key Terms and Concepts
270(1)
Learning Objectives
270(1)
Introduction
270(1)
Prisons
271(8)
The Warden: A Profile
271(1)
Preparing New Wardens for Success
272(1)
Principles of Good Prison Leadership
273(2)
Administering the Death Penalty
275(1)
Achieving Racial Balance
275(1)
Middle Managers and Supervisors
276(1)
"Thy Brother's Keeper": Correctional Officers
276(1)
A Typology: Eight Types of Correctional Officers
277(2)
Inappropriate Relationships with Inmates
279(1)
Jail Personnel
280(3)
Jail Purpose and Environment
280(1)
Choosing Jail Work and Type of Facility
280(1)
Female Jail Employees
281(1)
Detention as a Career Path
282(1)
Employee Training
282(1)
Correctional Officer Stress and Burnout
283(1)
Probation and Parole Officers
283(1)
Primary Duties
283(1)
To Arm or Not to Arm?
284(1)
Probation Management Styles
284(2)
Case Studies
286(4)
SUMMARY
290(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
291(1)
NOTES
291(3)
Chapter 12 Corrections Issues and Practices
294(33)
Key Terms and Concepts
295(1)
Learning Objectives
295(1)
Introduction
295(1)
Issues Facing Correctional Administrators
296(3)
Substantive Correctional Issues
296(1)
Administrative Correctional Issues
297(2)
Issues Concerning Inmate Populations
299(5)
Sexual Coercion in Correctional Institutions
299(1)
Averting Inmate Suicides
300(1)
The Aging Offender
301(1)
Juvenile Offenders Sentenced as Adults
302(1)
Female Offenders
302(1)
Mentally Ill Offenders
303(1)
Minority Inmates
303(1)
Segregating Inmates
304(1)
Drug Use in Prisons: Interdiction and Treatment
304(2)
The Pennsylvania Plan
305(1)
Treating the Problem in Prisons
305(1)
The Move toward Privatization
306(1)
Emergence of the Concept
306(1)
Arguments For and Against
306(1)
Alternatives to Incarceration: Intermediate Sanctions
307(7)
Intensive Probation or Parole
308(2)
House Arrest
310(1)
Electronic Monitoring
311(1)
Shock Probation/Parole
312(1)
Boot Camps/Shock Incarceration
313(1)
Day Reporting Centers
313(1)
Reinventing Probation: Partnering with the Police
314(2)
A Crisis in Boston
314(1)
Before Replication Is Attempted...
315(1)
Computer Crime and the Probation Officer
316(1)
Legal Provisions
316(1)
Supervising the Computer Offender
316(1)
Corrections and the Future
317(2)
The Changing Nature qf 'justice," Treatment; and Custody
317(1)
Changing Personnel and Populations
317(2)
Case Studies
319(2)
SUMMARY
321(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
321(1)
NOTES
322(5)
PART V ISSUES SPANNING THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: ADMINISTRATIVE CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES 327(158)
Chapter 13 Ethical Considerations
329(29)
Key Terms and Concepts
330(1)
Learning Objectives
330(1)
Introduction
330(7)
Food for Thought: Some Ethical Dilemmas
337
Ethics
333(2)
Philosophical Foundations
333(1)
Types of Ethics
334(1)
Ethics in Policing
335(7)
A Primer: The Oral Interview
335(1)
A "Slippery Slope"? Lying and Deception
336(1)
Gratuities
337(2)
Greed and Temptation
339(2)
Community Policing
341(1)
Training, Supervision, Values
341(1)
Ethics in the Courts
342(4)
The Evolution of Standards of Conduct
342(1)
The Judge
343(2)
Lawyers for the Defense
345(1)
Prosecutors
345(1)
Other Court Employees
345(1)
Ethics in Corrections
346(1)
Guiding Decision Making
347(1)
Some Ethics Tests for the Justice Professional
348(1)
Is Workplace Loyalty Always Good?
348(3)
Case Studies
351(3)
SUMMARY
354(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
354(1)
NOTES
355(3)
Chapter 14 Rights of Criminal Justice Employees
358(33)
Key Terms and Concepts
359(1)
Learning Objectives
359(1)
Introduction
359(1)
Overview
360(1)
The Employment Relationship
361(8)
Recruitment and Hiring
361(1)
Disparate Treatment
362(1)
How Old Is "Too Old" in Criminal Justice?
363(1)
Criminal Justice and Affirmative Action
364(1)
Property Rights in Employment
365(2)
Pay and Benefits
367(1)
Criminal Justice and a Safe Workplace
368(1)
Constitutional Rights of Criminal Justice Employees
369(11)
Freedom of Speech and Association
369(3)
Searches and Seizures
372(1)
Self-Incrimination
373(1)
Religious Practices
374(1)
Sexual Misconduct
374(1)
Residency Requirements
375(1)
Moonlighting
376(1)
Misuse of Firearms
376(2)
Alcohol and Drugs in the Workplace
378(2)
Rights of Police Officers
380(1)
Sexual Harassment
381(2)
The Family and Medical Leave Act
383(1)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
383(2)
Case Studies
385(1)
SUMMARY
386(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
386(1)
NOTES
387(4)
Chapter 15 Special Challenges: Discipline, Labor Relations, and Liability
391(34)
Key Terms and Concepts
392(1)
Learning Objectives
392(1)
Introduction
392(1)
Disciplinary Policies and Practices
393(12)
Maintaining the Public Trust
393(1)
Due Process Requirements
394(1)
A Tradition of Problems in Policing
395(1)
Automated Records Systems
395(1)
Determining the Level and Nature of Action
396(1)
Positive and Negative Discipline
397(1)
Dealing with Complaints
398(2)
Making a Determination and Disposition
400(5)
Labor Relations in Criminal Justice Agencies
405(3)
The Movement Begins: Policing Then and Now
405(2)
Corrections Follows the Precedent
407(1)
Unionization in the Courts
408(1)
Collective Bargaining: Types, Relationships, Negotiations, Job Actions
408(6)
Three Models
408(3)
The Bargaining Relationship
411(1)
Negotiations
411(2)
In the Event of an Impasse
413(1)
Job Actions
414(1)
Civil Liability
414(6)
Torts and Negligence
415(1)
Section 1983 Legislation
416(1)
New Areas of Potential Liability
417(1)
Liability of Corrections Personnel
418(2)
Case Studies
420(1)
SUMMARY
421(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
421(1)
NOTES
422(3)
Chapter 16 Financial Administration
425(34)
Key Terms and Concepts
426(1)
Learning Objectives
426(1)
Introduction
426(1)
The Budget
427(1)
A Working Definition
427(1)
Elements of a Budget
428(9)
The Budget Cycle
428(1)
Budget Formulation
428(3)
Budget Approval
431(2)
Budget Execution
433(1)
The Audit
433(4)
Budget Formats
437(10)
The Line-Item Budget
437(5)
The Performance Budget
442(2)
The Program Budget
444(1)
PBS and Zero-Based Budgeting Formats
445(2)
Potential Pitfalls in Budgeting
447(2)
The Need for Budgeting Flexibility
447(1)
Common Cost and Waste Problems
448(1)
Should Criminal Justice Policies—and Budgets—Be Reformed?
449(6)
States Grapple with Large Deficits
449(1)
Strategies for Policy Makers to Consider
450(2)
Steps in Budget Development
452(3)
Case Study
455(1)
SUMMARY
456(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
456(1)
NOTES
456(3)
Chapter 17 Technologies Now and for the Future
459(26)
Key Terms and Concepts
460(1)
Learning Objectives
460(1)
Introduction
460(1)
Law Enforcement Tools and Methods
461(11)
Technologies Versus Terrorists
461(1)
Recent Developments in Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
462(1)
Crime Mapping
463(3)
Accident Investigation
466(1)
Ending High-Speed Pursuits
467(1)
Crime Scenes
468(1)
Gang Intelligence Systems
468(2)
Other Technologies
470(2)
Reverse 911
472(1)
Future Attractions: Augmented Reality and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
472(1)
Court Technologies
473(4)
Six Types
474(2)
The Courtroom 21 Project
476(1)
Institutional Corrections
477(2)
Putting down a Riot
477(1)
Offender Management
478(1)
Automated Direct-Supervision in Jails
478(1)
"Virtual Visits" to Hospitals and Courtrooms
479(1)
Probation and Parole
479(1)
Corrections-Police Interface: Sharing Information
479(1)
Kiosk Check-in for Probationers
479(1)
A Body of Evidence: Biometrics
480(1)
For More Information
481(1)
SUMMARY
481(1)
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
481(1)
NOTES
482(3)
Appendix I Relevant Web Sites and Listservs 485(11)
Appendix II Writings of Confucius, Machiavelli, and Lao-Tzu 496(3)
Index 499


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