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Offering a highly analytical yet balanced approach, Juvenile Delinquency: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Third Edition, encourages students to think critically about important real-world issues including the effects of inequality, race, class, and gender on juvenile delinquency and the juvenile justice system. Lively, engaging, and accessible, it is ideal for juvenile delinquency courses in both criminal justice and sociology departments.
A critical approach highlighting issues of race, class, gender, and inequality
Straightforward explanations of theory, history, gender, and international issues
"Crosscurrents" boxes on engaging and controversial challenges in the field
Rich pedagogical features including critical-thinking questions as captions for photos, "Focus on Ethics" boxes, and Learning Objectives that are keyed to the Summary tables
An online Ancillary Resource Center (ARC) containing an Instructor's Manual, a Computerized Test Bank, and PowerPoint-based lecture slides
An open-access Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/fuller that provides additional resources for students
John Randolph Fuller is Professor Emeritus of Criminology at the University of West Georgia, where he taught for more than thirty years. He is the author of several books, including Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Third Edition (OUP, 2013).
Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgements PART I: Juvenile Delinquency Chapter 1: WHAT IS A JUVENILE DELINQUENT? THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF CHILDHOOD Defining the Terms Transition or Rebellion Parens Patriae and the Law Adolescents and Juvenile Delinquency MEASURING DELINQUENCY Defining Crime and Delinquency The Dark Figure of Crime Measurement Tools The Uniform Crime Reports The National Incident-based Reporting System The National Crime Victimization Survey Self-report Studies Measures of Youths as Victims and Offenders Youths as Victims A Typology of Juvenile Delinquents THE SYSTEM OF LAST RESORT Growing Up Too Soon Are We Waging a War on Children? Chapter 2: THE CONTROL OF CHILDREN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD Acquiring Adulthood Leaving Home at an Early Age REFORMING THE LIVES OF CHILDREN The Child-savers Orphan Trains Orphanages, Houses of Refuge, and Reform Schools The Progressive Era THE CHANGING NATURE OF CHILDHOOD Modern Childhood Trends in Delinquency and Juvenile Justice PART II: Theories of Delinquency Chapter 3: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CRIME AND DELINQUENCY WHAT GOOD IS THEORY AND WHAT IS GOOD THEORY? The Importance of Theory The Scientific Method and Social Science SPIRITUAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME AND DELINQUENCY THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY History of the Classical School Cesare Beccaria Jeremy Bentham Deterrence Theory What Is Deterrence? Deterrence and Juveniles The Classical School of Criminology Today Rational Choice Theory Shock Deterrence Shock Incarceration Scared Straight-style Programs Can Modern Deterrence Work? THE POSITIVIST SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY History of the Positivist School Positivism and Juveniles Chapter 4: BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DELINQUENCY BIOLOGICAL THEORIES Early Biological Theories of Crime William Sheldon and Body Types Franz Joseph Gall and Phrenology Heredity Studies of Twins and Adopted Children Heredity and Behavior Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis Neurotransmitters Hormones Biosocial Theory PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES Piaget's Cognitive Development Moral Development Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development Intelligence and Delinquency Psychodynamic Perspective Freud, Personality, and Delinquent Behavior Erikson's Psychosocial Theory Is There an Antisocial Personality? Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Chapter 5: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DELINQUENCY SOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORIES SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES Learning Theories Differential Association Social Learning Theory Techniques of Neutralization Anomie and Strain Theory Durkheim and Anomie Merton and Strain Agnew and Strain Social Control Theory Personality and Social Control Containment Theory Hirschi's Social Control Theory SUBCULTURAL THEORIES Delinquent Boys Differential Opportunity Theory Focal Concerns of the Lower Class Subculture of Violence The Code of the Street SOCIAL REACTION THEORIES Labeling Theory Shaming Theory Chapter 6: CRITICAL THEORIES, LIFE-COURSE, AND INTEGRATED THEORIES Marxist Theory Left Realism Critical-Race Theory Postmodern Criminology Cultural Criminology Peacemaking Criminology LIFE-COURSE THEORIES Life-course Persistent and Adolescent-limited Crime Life-course Persistent Offenders Adolescence-limited Offenders Pathways and Turning Points The Prediction Problem INTEGRATED THEORIES Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquent Behavior Thornberry's Interactional Theory of Delinquency Tittle's Control Balance Theory PART III: Delinquency in Society Chapter 7: FEMALE DELINQUENCY GIRLS TO WOMEN: A DEVELOPMENTAL VIEW Physical Development Cognitive Development Psychological and Social Development Identity Fitting In and Being Popular Dating and Sex Cutting the Strings of Parental Control THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF FEMALE DELINQUENCY THEORIES OF FEMALE DELINQUENCY Biological Theories Psychological Theories Sociological Theories Feminist Theories GENDER AND THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM Chapter 8: THE FAMILY AND DELINQUENCY FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY Challenges in Families Today Child Victimization in the Family Child Neglect Physical Child Abuse Sexual Child Abuse FAMILIES AND DELINQUENCY Divorce Social Support Family Conflict Parents and Siblings Chapter 9: SCHOOLS AND DELINQUENCY THE PURPOSE OF SCHOOL KEEPING CONTROL Preventing Delinquency in School What about the Teachers? SCHOOL SAFETY School Shootings Bullying SCHOOL FAILURE AND DELINQUENCY Suspension and Expulsion Dropping Out EDUCATION AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Chapter 10: YOUTH GANGS AND DELINQUENCY WHAT IS A GANG? Precursors to Modern Gangs Studying Gangs Delinquency, Peers, and Group Activity Joining the Gang Types of Gangs Black and Hispanic Gangs Asian Gangs White Gangs Gangs And Females DEALING WITH GANGS Primary Gang Prevention Secondary Gang Prevention Tertiary Gang Prevention Chapter 11: SUBSTANCE ABUSE DRUGS YOUTHS USE Tobacco Alcohol Marijuana Methamphetamine Inhalants Club Drugs Prescription Drugs Performance-Enhancing Drugs Other Substances WHY DO YOUTHS TAKE DRUGS? Peer Pressure Family Neighborhoods Individual Factors DRUGS AND DELINQUENCY The Drug Trade Supporting a Drug Habit PREVENTION AND TREATMENT Prevention Treatment Juvenile Drug Courts PART IV: Juvenile Justice System and Cultural Comparisons Chapter 12: THE POLICE A SHORT HISTORY OF JUVENILE POLICING THE POLICE: DEALING WITH JUVENILE DELINQUENTS AND VICTIMS Dealing with Juveniles Specialized Juvenile Policing Juvenile Officers Juvenile Units Neglected and Abused Children Status Offenders Violent Juveniles PROCEDURE: WHAT THE POLICE DO Taking into Custody Booking Search and Seizure Interrogation Miranda and Juveniles Waiver of Miranda Rights The Juvenile Miranda Custody DISCRETION: HOW THE POLICE DECIDE WHAT TO DO Demands of the Law Demands of the Situation Bias Racial Discrimination by the Police Gender Discrimination by the Police Controlling Police Discretion PREVENTION: WHAT THE POLICE DO TO HELP Community Policing Problem-oriented Policing Zero-tolerance Policing Chapter 13: THE JUVENILE COURT A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE JUVENILE COURT THE MODERN SYSTEM: ORGANIZATION AND JURISDICTION Status Offenses Language and Terminology Process KEY PLAYERS Juveniles Juvenile Court Judge Prosecutor Juvenile Defense Counsel Juvenile Intake Officers Juvenile Probation Officers JUVENILE COURT PROCESS Custody and Detention Petitions and Summons Juvenile Court Hearings Preliminary Hearing Adjudicatory Hearing Dispositional Hearing Jury Trials and Plea Bargaining Jury Trial Plea Bargaining Due Process Right to an attorney Protection against Self-Incrimination Right to Notice of Charges Right to Confront and Cross-Examine Witnesses Protection against Double Jeopardy Confidentiality and Accountability TRYING JUVENILES AS ADULTS Blended Sentencing Who Gets Waived to the Criminal Court? Chapter 14: JUVENILE CORRECTIONS COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS Standard Probation Intensive-supervision Probation Electronic Monitoring Home Confinement Fines and Victim Compensation Residential Treatment Programs Foster Care Group Homes and Halfway Houses Alternative-experience Programs Advantages of Residential Treatment Programs SECURE CONFINEMENT Jails Detention Centers Juvenile Correctional Facilities State Prisons Crowding Suicide Prevention Incarcerated Girls Correctional Programs Education Vocational Training Recreational Programs Counseling and Treatment Directive Counseling Reentry Chapter 15: INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE DELINQUENCY CULTURE AND THE DISCONTENTED JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND JUVENILE JUSTICE IN OTHER COUNTRIES China India Russia South Africa Japan England and Wales INTERNATIONAL VICTIMIZATION OF CHILDREN Children at War Child Prostitution Glossary Credits Index Index of Authors