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A Critical Issue Demands a Critical Approach. Juvenile Delinquency: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition, is a broad, comprehensive introduction to one of society's most pressing problems. Offering a highly analytical yet balanced approach, the book gets readers thinking critically about important real-world issues including the effects of inequality, race, class, and gender on juvenile delinquency and the justice system. Lively, engaging, and accessible,Juvenile Delinquencyis ideal for delinquency courses in both criminal justice and sociology departments. FEATURES OF THIS EDITION *Straightforward explanationsof theory, history, gender, and international issues *Rich pedagogical features,including a new box program highlighting issues of race, class, and gender, as well as new review questions and learning objectives *New chapter on substance abuse *Enhanced coverage of many issuesincluding biological theories of crime, prevention strategies and programs, and reentry *Completely updatedwith the latest research, statistics, and developments in the field SUPPLEMENTARY RESOURCES *New companion website(www.oup.com/us/fuller) featuring a variety of resources * A thoroughly updatedInstructor's Manual(ISBN 978-0-19-994465-1) containing PowerPoint-based lecture slides, a test bank, and more
John Randolph Fuller is Professor of Criminology at the University of West Georgia.
Table of Contents
PART I. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: DEFINITIONS, HISTORY, AND MEASUREMENT CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS A JUVENILE DELINQUENT? The Social Construction of Childhood Defining the Terms Transition or Rebellion > Parens Patriae and the Law Adolescents and Juvenile Delinquency Measuring Delinquency Defining Crime and Delinquency > The Dark Figure of Crime Measurement Tools > The Uniform Crime Reports ---- Juvenile Delinquency and the UCR > The National Incident-Based Reporting System > The National Crime Victimization Survey > Self-Report Studies Measures of Youths as Victims and Offenders > Youths as Victims ---- Sexual Victimization ---- Effects of Youth Victimization > A Typology of Juvenile Delinquents ---- Status Offenders ---- Property Offenders ---- Drug Users and Abusers ---- Gang Members ---- Chronic and Violent Juvenile Delinquents The System of Last Resort Growing Up Too Soon Are We Waging a War on Children? CHAPTER 2: THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL CONTROL Development of the Concept of Childhood Acquiring Adulthood Leaving Home at an Early Age The Child Reform Movement The Child Savers The Juvenile Court History of the Juvenile Court Boys, Girls, and Bias: The Double Standard For Their Own Good The Modern System > Status Offenses > Language and Terminology > Process The Changing Nature of Childhood Modern Childhood Trends in Thinking about Delinquency and Juvenile Justice PART II. THEORIES OF DELINQUENCY CHAPTER 3: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CRIME AND DELINQUENCY What Good Is Theory and What Is Good Theory? The Scientific Method and Social Science Spiritual Explanations of Crime and Delinquency The Classical School of Criminology History of the Classical School > Cesare Beccaria > Jeremy Bentham Deterrence Theory > What Is Deterrence? > Deterrence and Juveniles The Classical School of Criminology Today > Rational Choice Theory > Shock Deterrence > Shock Incarceration > Scared Straight-Style Programs > Juvenile Boot Camps > Can Modern Deterrence Work? The Positivist School of Criminology History of the Positivist School > Adolphe Quetelet > Andre-Michel Guerry > Auguste Comte > Cesare Lombroso Positivism and Juveniles CHAPTER 4: BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DELINQUENCY Biological Theories The First Biological Theories of Crime > Cesare Lombroso and Atavisms > William Sheldon and Body Types > Franz Joseph Gall and Phrenology Heredity > Studies of Twins and Adopted Children > Heredity and Behavior Neurotransmitters Hormones Biosocial Theory Psychological Theories Psychodynamic Perspective Piaget's Cognitive Development Moral Development > Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development > Does Sex Affect Morality? Intelligence and Delinquency > Intellectual Disability Freud, Personality, and Delinquent Behavior Is There an Antisocial Personality? > Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory > Psychopathy CHAPTER 5: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DELINQUENCY Social Structure Theories Social Disorganization > Urban Inequality Social Process Theories Learning Theories > Differential Association > Social Learning Theory > Techniques of Neutralization Anomie and Strain Theory > Durkheim and Anomie > Merton and Strain > Agnew and Strain Social Control Theory > Personality and Social Control > Containment Theory Hirschi's Social Control Theory Subcultural Theories Delinquent Boys Differential Opportunity Theory Focal Concerns of the Lower Class Subculture of Violence The Code of the Street Social Reaction Theories Labeling Theory Shaming Theory CHAPTER 6: CRITICAL, LIFE-COURSE, AND INTEGRATED THEORIES Critical Theories Marxist Theory Left Realism Critical Race Theory Postmodern Criminology Cultural Criminology Peacemaking Criminology Life-Course Theories Life-Course-Persistent and Adolescent-Limited Crime > Life-Course-Persistent Offenders > Adolescent-Limited Offenders Pathways and Turning Points The Prediction Problem Integrated Theories Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquent Behavior Thornberry's Interactional Theory of Delinquency Tittle's Control Balance Theory PART III. DELINQUENCY IN SOCIETY CHAPTER 7: FEMALE DELINQUENCY Girls to Women: A Developmental View Physical Development Cognitive Development Psychological and Social Development > Identity > Fitting In and Being Popular > Dating and Sex > Cutting the Strings of Parental Control The Extent and Nature of Female Delinquency Theories of Female Delinquency Biological Theories > Early Puberty and Delinquency in Girls Psychological Theories Sociological Theories Feminist Theories Gender and the Juvenile Justice System CHAPTER 8: THE FAMILY AND DELINQUENCY Functions of the Family Challenges in Families Today Child Victimization in the Family > Child Neglect ---- Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome ---- Emotional Neglect ---- Unsafe Home Environment ---- Drug and Alcohol Use ---- Medical Neglect ---- Abandonment > Physical Child Abuse > Sexual Child Abuse Families and Delinquency Divorce Social Support Family Conflict Parents and Siblings CHAPTER 9: SCHOOLS AND DELINQUENCY The Purpose of School Keeping Control Preventing Delinquency in School What about the Teachers? School Safety School Shootings Bullying School Failure and Delinquency Suspension and Expulsion Dropping Out Education and Juvenile Delinquency CHAPTER 10: YOUTH GANGS AND DELINQUENCY What Is a Gang? Studying Gangs Delinquency, Peers, and Group Activity Joining the Gang Types of Gangs > Black and Hispanic Gangs ---- Crips ---- Bloods ---- The People, Latin Kings, and Vice Lords ---- Folks > Asian Gangs > White Gangs > Gangs and Females Dealing with Gangs Prevention, Suppression, and Treatment of Gangs > Primary Gang Prevention > Secondary Gang Prevention > Tertiary Gang Prevention CHAPTER 11: SUBSTANCE ABUSE Drugs Youths Use Tobacco Alcohol Marijuana Methamphetamine Inhalants Prescription Drugs Performance-Enhancing Drugs Other Substances Why Do Youths Take Drugs? Peer Pressure Family Neighborhoods Individual Factors Drugs and Delinquency The Drug Trade Supporting a Drug Habit Prevention and Treatment Prevention Treatment PART IV. JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM AND CULTURAL COMPARISONS CHAPTER 12: THE POLICE A Short History of Juvenile Policing The Police: Dealing with Juvenile Delinquents and Victims Dealing with Juveniles Specialized Juvenile Policing > Juvenile Officers > Juvenile Units ---- Gang Units Neglected and Abused Children Status Offenders Violent Juveniles Procedure: What the Police Do Taking into Custody Booking > Fingerprints and Photographs Search and Seizure Interrogation > Miranda and Juveniles > Waiver of Miranda Rights > The Juvenile Miranda Custody Discretion: How the Police Decide What to Do Demands of the Law Demands of the Situation Bias > Racial Discrimination by the Police > Sex Discrimination by the Police Controlling Police Discretion Prevention: What the Police Do to Help Community Policing Problem-Oriented Policing Zero-Tolerance Policing CHAPTER 13: THE JUVENILE COURT Organization and Jurisdiction Key Players Juveniles Juvenile Court Judge Prosecutor Juvenile Defense Counsel > Public Defenders Juvenile Intake Officers Juvenile Probation Officers Juvenile Court Process Custody and Detention Petitions and Summonses Juvenile Court Hearings > Preliminary Hearing > Adjudicatory Hearing > Dispositional Hearing Jury Trials and Plea Bargaining > Jury Trial > Plea Bargaining Due Process > Right to a Lawyer > Protection against Self-Incrimination > Right to Notice of Charges > Right to Confront and Cross-Examine Witnesses > Protection against Double Jeopardy > Confidentiality and Accountability Trying Juveniles as Adults Judicial Waiver Direct Filing Statutory Exclusion Blended Sentencing Who Gets Waived to the Criminal Court? CHAPTER 14: JUVENILE CORRECTIONS Community Corrections Standard Probation Intensive-Supervision Probation Electronic Monitoring Home Confinement Fines and Victim Compensation Residential Treatment Programs > Foster Care > Group Homes and Halfway Houses > Alternative-Experience Programs > Advantages of Residential Treatment Programs Secure Confinement Jails Detention Centers Juvenile Correctional Facilities Boot Camp Prisons State Prisons Crowding Suicide Prevention Incarcerated Girls Correctional Programs > Education > Vocational Training > Recreational Programs > Counseling and Treatment ---- Nondirective Counseling ---- Directive Counseling ---- Group Counseling > Reentry CHAPTER 15: INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE DELINQUENCY Culture and the Discontented Comparative Delinquency Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice in Other Nations China India Russia South Africa Japan England and Wales > Drugs > Joyriding > Yob Culture > Riots Hong Kong International Victimization of Children Children at War Child Prostitution