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Juvenile Delinquency : A Sociological Approach,9780205401505
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Juvenile Delinquency : A Sociological Approach

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205401505

ISBN10:
0205401503
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
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Summary

Taking a sociological approach, this text discusses delinquency as it relates to and emerges from the youth's family, neighborhood, school, peer group, social class, and overall cultural and social environment. The authors incorporate contributions from psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other specialists who have sought to understand, explain, control, and prevent juvenile delinquency. An exploration of juvenile delinquency in other nations -- including England, Australia, Israel, Russia, and selected countries of South America and Africa --iquest;gives a point of comparison and a global perspective.

Table of Contents

Preface xxii
PART ONE Conformity, Deviance, and Juvenile Delinquency
1(86)
Introduction: The Sociological Perspective and Focus on Juvenile Delinquency
1(2)
Juvenile Delinquency: The Act, Actor, and the Audience
3(22)
Reading Objectives
3(1)
Introduction
3(1)
What Is Juvenile Delinquency?
4(9)
Who Is a Juvenile?
4(2)
What Is Delinquency?
6(2)
The Legal Definition
8(2)
Status Offenses
10(2)
The Role Definition
12(1)
Controversial Issue: ``Child or Adult?''
13(6)
The Societal Response Definition
17(2)
An Integrated Definition of Delinquency
19(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Cultural and Legal Definitions of ``Child'' and ``Juvenile Offender'' in Other Nations
20(2)
Summary
22(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
23(1)
References
23(2)
A Sociological Overview: Society, Norms, Conformity, and Deviant Behavior
25(25)
Reading Objectives
25(1)
Introduction
25(1)
The Sociological Perspective
26(1)
The Social Nature of Humans
27(4)
The Social Imperative
27(1)
Social Interaction
28(1)
Social Interdependence
29(1)
Social Organization
30(1)
Norms
31(1)
Sources of Norms
31(2)
Social Consensus
31(1)
Social Conflict
32(1)
Folkways and Mores
33(2)
Folkways
33(1)
Mores
33(2)
Normative Behavior: Conformity
35(1)
Deviant Behavior: Nonconformity
36(2)
Negative Aspects of Deviance
38(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Conformity, Deviance, and Delinquency among Native Americans
39(3)
Positive Aspects of Deviance
42(2)
Juvenile Delinquency
44(2)
Concept Application: ``Deviance or Conformity?''
46(1)
Summary
47(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
48(1)
References
48(2)
The Dimensions of the Delinquency Problem
50(37)
Reading Objectives
50(1)
Introduction
50(1)
Juvenile Delinquency Data
51(2)
Validity and Reliability
51(2)
Official Sources of Delinquency Information
53(8)
FBI Uniform Crime Reports
53(8)
Juvenile Court Statistics
61(1)
Methodology
62(1)
Findings
63(3)
The Composite Delinquent Profile: Typical or Stereotypical?
66(3)
Limitations of Official Delinquency Data
67(2)
Unofficial Sources of Delinquency Information
69(1)
Self-Report Studies
69(1)
Concept Application: ``Undetected and Unreported Delinquency: The Missing Statistics''
70(5)
Victimization Surveys
73(2)
Controversial Issue: Juvenile Violence: Guns and the U.S. Constitution
75(1)
The Magnitude and Trends of Juvenile Delinquency
76(3)
Addendum: A Balanced Perspective on Youth
79(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Juvenile Delinquency in Russia
80(1)
Summary
81(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
82(1)
References
83(4)
PART TWO Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
87(140)
Introduction: Theory and the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquency
87(3)
Biological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
90(26)
Reading Objectives
90(1)
Introduction
90(1)
The Link between Biology and Behavior: Myths and Folklore
90(2)
The Classical School of Criminological Thought
92(1)
The Positive School of Criminology
92(2)
Twentieth-Century Constitutional Typologies
94(1)
The Continuing Search for the Biological Connection
95(1)
Concept Application: ``An Ugly Girl''
96(8)
Gender
97(2)
Race and Ethnicity
99(1)
Age
100(2)
Genetic Crime Causation: The XYY Hypothesis
102(1)
Diet and Deviant Behavior
103(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Study of Twins and Adopted Children in Scandinavia
104(4)
Brain Malfunctions
107(1)
Sociobiological Explanations
108(2)
Controversial Issue: Heredity Versus Environment in Deviant and Delinquent Behavior
110(1)
Summary
111(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
112(1)
References
112(4)
Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
116(29)
Reading Objectives
116(1)
Introduction
116(1)
The Psychogenic Approach
117(2)
The Discovery of the Unconscious
119(1)
The Formation of Personality
119(1)
Freudian Theory as an Explanation of Crime and Delinquency
120(1)
Psychoanalysis
121(1)
Projective Tests
121(3)
The Rorschach Ink-Blot Test
121(1)
Projective Tests and Homicidal Children
122(2)
Delinquent Acts as Symptoms
124(1)
Conduct Disorders
124(1)
Other Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
125(2)
Early Theories of Feeblemindedness
126(1)
Controversial Issue: The Debate over Television Violence, Childhood Personality Development, and Criminal Behavior
127(9)
Neurological Abnormalities
128(2)
The Flawed Personality
130(3)
Adolescent Identity Crisis
133(2)
Insufficient Moral Development
135(1)
Predictors of Youth Violence
136(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of the Psychogenic Approach
137(2)
Critique of Theoretical Assumptions and Concepts
137(1)
Critique of Research Methodology
138(1)
Critique of Psychogenic Applications to Crime and Delinquency
138(1)
Concept Application: The Psychological and Social Impacts on Victims of Crime and Delinquency
139(1)
Summary
140(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
141(1)
References
142(3)
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Strain and Cultural Transmission Theories
145(25)
Reading Objectives
145(1)
Introduction
145(1)
Theory
146(1)
Social Strain Theories
147(10)
Durkheim's Concept of Anomie
147(1)
Merton's Theory of Anomie
148(2)
Cohen's ``Delinquent Boys''
150(1)
Cloward and Ohlin's ``Delinquency and Opportunity''
151(3)
Contributions of Social Strain Theories
154(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Strain Theories
155(1)
Agnew's General Strain Theory
156(1)
Controversial Issue: Social Structure as a Proposed Cause of Urban Crime and Delinquency
157(1)
Cultural Transmission Theories
158(8)
Sellin's Theory of Culture Conflict
158(1)
Burgess' Concentric Zone Theory
159(1)
Shaw and McKay's ``High Delinquency Areas''
160(1)
Miller's Focus on Lower Class Culture
161(2)
Contributions of Cultural Transmission Theories
163(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Cultural Transmission Theories
164(2)
Concept Application: ``Searching for Causal Explanations of Contemporary School Shootings''
166(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
167(1)
References
168(2)
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Learning and Social Control Theories
170(24)
Reading Objectives
170(1)
Introduction
170(2)
Social Learning Theories
172(5)
Sutherland and Cressey's Theory of Differential Association
172(1)
Glaser's Concept of Differential Identification
173(1)
Akers's Theory of Differential Reinforcement
174(1)
Contributions of Social Learning Theories
175(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Learning Theories
176(1)
Concept Application: Grand Theft-Auto
177(2)
Social Control Theories
179(7)
Reckless' Containment Theory
181(1)
Sykes and Matza's Techniques of Neutralization
181(3)
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
184(1)
Contributions of Social Control Theories
185(1)
Controversial Issue: Religiosity and Juvenile Delinquency
186(4)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Control Theories
189(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Criminality among the Children of Immigrants in Western Europe
190(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
191(1)
References
191(3)
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Labeling and Radical Theories
194(21)
Reading Objectives
194(1)
Introduction
194(1)
Labeling Theories
195(7)
Early Contributions to Labeling Theory
196(1)
Tannenbaum's Concept of ``Tagging''
196(1)
Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviance
197(1)
Becker's Developmental Career Model
198(1)
Contributions of Labeling Theory
199(2)
Criticisms and Limitations of Labeling Theory
201(1)
Radical Theories
202(8)
The Marxian Heritage
203(1)
Quinney's Social Reality of Crime and Delinquency
204(1)
Greenberg's Focus on Adolescent Frustration
205(1)
Schwendingers's Instrumental Theory
206(1)
Contributions of Radical Theories
207(2)
Criticisms and Limitations of Radical Theories
209(1)
Concept Application: Power Control Theory: Females in a Male World
210(2)
An Overview of the Sociological Explanations
212(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
212(1)
References
213(2)
The Future for Causal Explanations of Delinquency: The Ongoing Process of Theory Building
215(12)
Reading Objectives
215(1)
Introduction: A Review of Past Theory Building for Explaining Juvenile Delinquency
215(1)
A Renewed Examination of Delinquency Motivation: ``Crime Is Fun!''
216(2)
Making Decisions for Delinquency: Rational Choice Theory
218(1)
Concept Application: The Jackass Scrapbooks
219(2)
The Punishment Response: Deterrence Theory
221(2)
Evaluation of Rational Choice and Deterrence Theories
221(2)
Back to the Future: The Prospects and Direction for New Theory Building
223(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
225(1)
References
226(1)
PART THREE Juvenile Delinquency in a Social Context
227(126)
Introduction: Collective Behavior and Social Groupings
227(2)
The Family and Juvenile Delinquency
229(25)
Reading Objectives
229(1)
Introduction
229(1)
The Changing Role of the Family
229(2)
Increasing Importance of the Nuclear Family and the Creation of ``Adolescence''
231(1)
The Family as an Agent of Socialization
232(1)
Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquency
233(2)
Controversial Issue: Latchkey Children: Independence or Neglect
235(2)
Other Family Variables and Juvenile Delinquency
237(6)
Social Class
237(1)
Family Size and Birth Order
238(1)
Family Interaction
239(2)
Parental Discipline
241(2)
Broken Homes and Delinquency
243(3)
The Family and Delinquency Prevention
246(2)
Concept Application: The Role of the Family in Preventing Delinquency
248(1)
Summary
249(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
249(1)
References
250(4)
Schools and Delinquency
254(27)
Reading Objectives
254(1)
Introduction
254(1)
The School as an Arena
254(1)
Schools and the Socialization Process
255(2)
Juvenile Delinquency and the School Experience
257(1)
Schools as a ``Screening Device''
258(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Self-Concept and Delinquency among Chinese Schoolchildren
259(4)
Schools as ``Combat Zones''
263(1)
Controversial Issue: Dealing with the Problem of Truancy
264(6)
Vandalism and Destruction
266(1)
Violence and Personal Attacks
267(3)
Concept Application: Bullying and School Violence
270(3)
School Safety and ``Zero Tolerance''
272(1)
School as Bureaucracy
273(1)
Schools and Delinquency Prevention
274(2)
Summary
276(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
276(1)
References
277(4)
The Youth Subculture
281(33)
Reading Objectives
281(1)
Introduction
281(1)
Culture, Subcultures, and Countercultures
282(1)
The Creation of a Youth Subculture
282(2)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Japanese Youth Subculture, Skinheads, and Counterculture
284(1)
Role of the Youth Subculture
285(2)
Distinctive Elements of the Youth Subculture
287(1)
Youth Values
287(1)
Concept Application: The American Youth Subculture: Youth Values in the 21st Century
288(7)
Dress, Grooming, and Fads
290(2)
Tatoos
292(1)
Mass Media
293(1)
Language
294(1)
Controversial Issue: Censoring Rock Music
295(1)
The Youth Subculture and Juvenile Delinquency
296(8)
Juvenile Runaways
297(1)
Juvenile Prostitution
298(2)
Juveniles and Drugs
300(2)
Juveniles and Sex
302(2)
Youth Countercultures and Delinquency
304(3)
Teenage Satanic Groups
304(1)
Youth Hate Groups
305(2)
The Youth Subculture and Delinquency Prevention
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
309(1)
References
309(5)
Juvenile Gangs and Delinquent Behavior
314(39)
Reading Objectives
314(1)
Introduction
314(1)
Predatory Youths: A National Alarm
314(1)
The Solitary Delinquent
315(2)
Group Delinquency
317(1)
The Play Group
317(2)
The Juvenile Gang
319(3)
What Is a Gang?
319(2)
History of Youth Gangs
321(1)
Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States
322(3)
Number of Gangs and Members
322(1)
Locale
323(2)
The Motives for Gang Membership
325(1)
Concept Application: Group Shoplifting and ``The Swarm''
326(2)
Initiation Rituals
327(1)
Gang Organization
328(4)
The Near Group
329(1)
Gang Graffiti, Slanguage, and Symbols
330(2)
Composition of Gang Membership
332(6)
Social Class
333(1)
Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs
334(2)
Female Participation in Delinquent Gangs
336(2)
Gang Violence
338(2)
Concept Application: ``The Weapon of Choice: The Dogs of War''
340(3)
Drug Franchises and Gang Warfare
341(1)
Gang Rape
342(1)
Dyads and Triads
343(1)
Explanatory Theories of Gang Formation and Behavior: A Summary and Synthesis
343(3)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Urban Youth Gangs in Russia
346(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
348(1)
References
349(4)
PART FOUR Social Control: The Juvenile Justice System
353(84)
Introduction: Elements of Social Control
353(2)
Juveniles and the Police
355(24)
Reading Objectives
355(1)
Introduction
355(1)
Juvenile Encounters with Police
355(2)
Policing Juveniles
357(3)
Law Enforcement Role
359(1)
Crime Prevention Role
359(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Policing Juveniles in Great Britain
360(1)
Police Discretion in Handling Juveniles
361(8)
Legal Factors
362(3)
Extralegal Factors
365(4)
Police and Due Process
369(2)
Police, Community Policing, and Delinquency Prevention
371(2)
Controversial Issue: Targeting Serious Habitual Offenders: Delinquency Prevention or Police Harassment?
373(1)
Summary
374(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
375(1)
References
376(3)
Juvenile Court
379(26)
Reading Objectives
379(1)
Introduction
379(1)
Historical Background of the Juvenile Court
380(1)
The Child Savers Movement
381(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Development of the Juvenile Court in Canada
381(2)
The Juvenile Court
383(1)
The Juvenile Court and Due Process
384(4)
Juvenile Court Procedures
388(5)
Intake
388(1)
Adjudication
389(2)
Disposition
391(2)
The Role of Attorneys in Juvenile Court
393(2)
The District Attorney
393(1)
The Defense Attorney
393(2)
Controversial Issue: The Use of Attorneys in the Juvenile Court
395(1)
Criticisms of the Juvenile Court
396(2)
The Multifaceted Juvenile Court
398(2)
The Future of the Juvenile Court
400(1)
Summary
401(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
402(1)
References
402(3)
Juvenile Corrections
405(32)
Reading Objectives
405(1)
Introduction
405(1)
Social Control and Deterrence Theory
406(1)
Voluntary Social Control
406(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Caning of an American Youth in Singapore: Justice or Abuse?
407(1)
Informal Social Control
408(2)
Formal Social Control
410(6)
Juvenile Probation
411(1)
Restitution and ``Restorative Justice''
412(1)
Juvenile Incarceration
413(3)
Controversial Issue: Institutionalization versus Community Treatment
416(4)
Juvenile Aftercare
417(1)
Remanding Juveniles to Adult Courts
417(2)
Juveniles in Adult Jails and Prisons
419(1)
Capital Punishment for Juveniles
420(1)
Controversial Issue: Should Juveniles Be Executed?
421(3)
Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
424(7)
House Arrest
426(1)
Youth Service Bureaus
426(1)
Scared Straight!
427(1)
S.H.A.P.E.U.P.
428(1)
Place
429(1)
VisionQuest
429(1)
Juvenile Boot Camps
430(1)
Other Diversion Programs
431(1)
Evaluation of Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
431(1)
Summary
432(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
433(1)
References
433(4)
PART FIVE Strategies for Dealing with Juvenile Delinquency
437(60)
Introduction: Approaching Treatment and Prevention in a Social Context
437(2)
Treatment and Prevention Strategies
439(28)
Reading Objectives
439(1)
Introduction
439(1)
Treatment Ideology and Delinquency Treatment Programs
440(1)
Controversial Issue: Applying the Medical Model in the Treatment of Delinquency
441(1)
Behavior Modification
442(5)
Transactional Analysis
444(1)
Reality Therapy
445(1)
Group and Individual Counseling and Therapy
446(1)
Prevention Ideology and Delinquency Prevention Programs
447(2)
Early Identification
448(1)
Predelinquents and Early Intervention
448(1)
Sociological Approaches to Delinquency Treatment and Prevention
449(1)
Cross-Cultural Focus: Delinquency Prevention in Japan
450(8)
The Chicago Area Project
451(1)
The Mid-City Project
452(1)
Mobilization for Youth
452(1)
Minnesota Youth Advocate Program
453(1)
Neighborhood Youth Corps and Job Training
453(1)
The Highfields Project
454(1)
The Provo Experiment
455(1)
Millcreek Youth Correctional Facility
455(1)
The Paint Creek Youth Center
456(1)
Project New Pride
456(1)
Mentoring Programs
456(1)
Other Programs
457(1)
Mobilizing the Community to Prevent Delinquency
458(4)
Crimestoppers and Hotlines
459(1)
Neighborhood Watch and Youth Crime Watch
459(1)
Guardian Angels
460(1)
S.H.O.D.I.
460(1)
Gang Intervention and Prevention Programs
461(1)
Evaluation of Delinquency Treatment and Prevention Strategies
462(1)
Summary
462(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
463(1)
References
464(3)
Rethinking the Delinquency Problem
467(30)
Reading Objectives
467(1)
Introduction
467(1)
The Social Nature of Juvenile Delinquency
468(2)
Eliminating the Marginal Status of Juveniles
470(6)
Rites of Passage
471(3)
Meaningful Social Participation
474(2)
Concept Application: Meaningful Social Participation for Youths
476(1)
Standardization or Elimination of Juvenile Codes
477(1)
Decriminalization of Status Offenses
478(1)
Revision of the Juvenile Court
479(4)
Limited Jurisdiction
480(1)
Due Process
481(1)
Professional Judges and Court Personnel
481(1)
Dispositional Alternatives
482(1)
Other Revisions
482(1)
Modification of Juvenile Corrections
483(1)
Controversial Issue: Should Juvenile Courts Be Abolished?
484(3)
Strengthening the Family
487(1)
Changing the Educational System
488(2)
Redefining Juvenile Delinquency
490(2)
Summary
492(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
494(1)
References
494(3)
Glossary 497(18)
Name Index 515(8)
Subject Index 523


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