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Juvenile Justice in America,9780131123267
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Juvenile Justice in America

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131123267

ISBN10:
0131123262
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For juvenile justice/juvenile delinquency courses in Criminal Justice, Criminology and Sociology departments. Fully focused on the important issues, emerging trends, contemporary research, and special challenges facing juvenile justice today, this comprehensive exploration of the American juvenile justice system covers the history and philosophy of juvenile justice, the current practices for processing youthful offenders, the detention of juveniles, and the diversion of youth from the juvenile justice system. Unique in its approach, it gives students an up-close and personal view of the fascinating and sometimes tragic world of the juvenile offenderand the personal, psychological and thinking processes that characterize juvenile misbehavior.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART I: INTRODUCTION
Juvenile Justice: An Overview
1(34)
What Are the Historical Themes of Juvenile Justice?
4(6)
Declining Authority of the Family
5(1)
Reform and Retrenchment
6(2)
Get Tough and Go Soft Approaches
8(1)
Threat of the Dangerous Poor
9(1)
The Unsolvable Nature of Youth Crime
10(1)
What Are the Juvenile Justice Agencies and Functions?
10(2)
How Are Juvenile Offenders Processed?
12(6)
What Are the Main Challenges to the Juvenile Justice System?
18(12)
Conflicting Philosophies and Strategies on Correcting Juveniles
18(8)
Social Injustice
26(2)
Fragmentation
28(2)
Summary
30(1)
Web Sites of Interest
30(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
31(1)
Notes
31(4)
The Measurement of Juvenile Crime and Victimization
35(42)
What Are Official Measurements of Juvenile Crime?
37(17)
Uniform Crime Reports
37(8)
Juvenile Court Statistics
45(6)
Victimization Surveys
51(3)
What Are the Unofficial Measurements of Juvenile Crime?
54(5)
Self-Report Studies
54(2)
Cohort Studies
56(3)
How Much Drug Use Is There among Juveniles?
59(2)
What Are the Dimensions of Law-Violating Behaviors?
61(4)
Age of Onset
61(3)
Escalation of Offenses
64(1)
Specialization of Offenses
64(1)
Desistance from Crime
64(1)
Transition to Adult Crime
64(1)
What about Juvenile Victims?
65(5)
The Maltreatment of Children
65(2)
Victimized at School
67(3)
Summary
70(1)
Web Sites of Interest
71(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
71(1)
Notes
72(5)
Causes of Juvenile Crime
77(34)
What Is the Relationship between Theory and Research?
79(3)
Is Juvenile Crime Rational Behavior?
82(3)
Classical School of Criminology
82(1)
Rational Choice Theory
83(2)
How Has Determinism Influenced the Development of the Positive School?
85(15)
Development of Positivism
85(1)
Biological Positivism
86(1)
Psychological Positivism
87(5)
Sociological Positivism
92(8)
How Does Integrated Theory Explain Juvenile Crime?
100(4)
Gottredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime
101(1)
Elliott and Colleagues' Integrated Social Process Theory
102(1)
Thornberry's Interactional Theory
103(1)
Summary
104(1)
Web Sites of Interest
104(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
104(1)
Notes
105(6)
PART II: THE SYSTEM AND EARLY DECISION MAKING
The Police
111(38)
What Is the History of Police--Juvenile Relations?
113(1)
Have Juveniles' Attitudes toward the Police Changed?
114(4)
How Do the Police Respond to Youthful Lawbreakers?
118(3)
Factors That Influence Police Discretion
118(2)
Informal and Formal Dispositions of Juvenile Offenders
120(1)
What Legal Rights Do Juveniles Have with the Police?
121(12)
Search and Seizure
121(4)
Interrogation and Confession
125(6)
Fingerprinting
131(1)
Lineups and Photographs
132(1)
How Does the Police Organization Function?
133(3)
Departments without Specialized Units of Personnel
133(1)
Departments with Specialized Units of Personnel
134(2)
What Are the Special Challenges Facing the Police in the Community?
136(7)
Pursuing Problem-Oriented Policing
137(1)
Preventing Drug Use by School-Age Children
137(5)
Getting Guns Out of the Hands of Juveniles
142(1)
Participating in Gang Prevention and Control Strategies
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Web Sites of Interest
143(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
143(1)
Notes
144(5)
The Juvenile Court
149(28)
What Is the Tradition Behind the Juvenile Court?
151(1)
How Did the Juvenile Court Develop?
152(2)
How Have Legal Norms Changed?
154(6)
Kent v. United States
154(2)
In re Gault
156(2)
In re Winship
158(1)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, In re Terry, and In re Barbara Burrus
158(2)
Breed v. Jones
160(1)
How Is the Status Offender Controlled?
160(3)
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders
161(1)
Jurisdiction Over Status Offenders
162(1)
What Are the Pretrial Procedures of the Juvenile Court?
163(8)
Detention Hearing
164(3)
Intake Process
167(2)
The Transfer Procedure
169(1)
Plea Bargaining
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Web Sites of Interest
172(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
172(1)
Notes
173(4)
Juvenile Trial and Disposition
177(18)
Who Are the Juvenile Courtroom Players?
178(4)
The Judge
179(1)
The Referee
180(1)
The Defense Attorney
180(1)
The Prosecutor
181(1)
The Nonjudicial Support Personnel
182(1)
What Are Other Stages of Juvenile Court Proceedings?
182(6)
Adjudicatory Hearing
182(1)
Disposition Hearing
183(3)
Judicial Alternatives
186(2)
What Right Does the Child Have to Appeal?
188(1)
What Is the Juvenile Sentencing Structure?
188(2)
What Would Justice for Juveniles Look Like?
190(2)
Summary
192(1)
Web Sites of Interest
192(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
192(1)
Notes
193(2)
Juveniles in Adult Court
195(30)
Children or Adults?
196(3)
How Does Transfer to Adult Court Take Place?
199(8)
Judicial Waiver
202(1)
Prosecutorial Discretion
202(1)
Statutorial Exclusion
202(3)
Changing Criteria for Waiver
205(1)
Evaluation of Waiver
205(2)
How Does a Youthful Offender System Work?
207(2)
What Is Life Like for a Juvenile Sent to Prison?
209(3)
Should Juveniles Be Put to Death?
212(3)
A Proposed Adult Court for Juveniles
215(5)
Summary
220(1)
Web Sites of Interest
220(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
220(1)
Notes
220(5)
PART III: COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS
Juvenile Probation
225(32)
How Did Probation Develop?
227(2)
How Is Probation Administered?
229(2)
What Are the Functions of Probation Services?
231(10)
Intake
231(1)
Investigation
231(1)
Supervision
232(9)
How about Risk Control and Crime Reduction?
241(5)
Restitution
241(2)
Intensive Supervision
243(1)
House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
244(2)
How Do Probation Officers Do Their Jobs?
246(2)
Role Conflict
246(1)
Conflicting Pressures
246(1)
Communication with Clients
247(1)
What Are the Rights of Probationers?
248(1)
What Is the Role of Volunteers in Probation?
249(2)
Is Probation Effective?
251(1)
Summary
252(1)
Web Sites of Interest
252(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
253(1)
Notes
253(4)
Community-Based Programs
257(38)
How Have Community-Based Programs Evolved?
258(3)
What Has Been the Community's Acceptance of Community-Based Programs?
261(1)
How Are Community-Based Programs Administered?
262(1)
What Is the Role of Delinquency Prevention?
263(8)
Chicago Area Projects
266(1)
Perry Preschool
267(1)
School Development Program
268(1)
Program Development Evaluation
268(1)
Parent Training
269(1)
The Violent Juvenile and Delinquency Prevention
270(1)
What Is the Role of Diversion?
271(8)
The Youth Service Bureau
272(1)
Runaway Centers
272(2)
Elan
274(1)
Teen Courts
274(3)
The Juvenile Drug Court Movement
277(1)
Juvenile Mediation Program
277(1)
Gang Intervention Programs
278(1)
How Do Day Treatment Programs Operate?
279(3)
Associated Marine Institute
280(1)
Project New Pride
280(2)
How Do Group Homes Operate?
282(2)
What Are Wilderness Programs?
284(4)
Outward Bound
284(3)
VisionQuest
287(1)
Are Community-Based Programs Effective?
288(1)
Summary
289(1)
Web Sites of Interest
290(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
290(1)
Notes
290(5)
Juvenile Aftercare
295(34)
What Is the Definition and Scope of Juvenile Aftercare?
297(1)
History of Aftercare
297(1)
Aftercare Objectives
297(1)
How Does Juvenile Aftercare Operate?
298(16)
The Prediction and Reduction of Recidivism
300(5)
The Reentry Process
305(1)
The Length of Aftercare Supervision
306(1)
Risk Control and Crime Reduction
307(5)
Community Experience
312(2)
What Are the Main Responsibilities of Aftercare Officers?
314(6)
Supervision
314(3)
Revocation of Aftercare
317(3)
What Are Interstate Compacts?
320(2)
How Can Aftercare Be Improved?
322(1)
Summary
323(1)
Web Sites of Interest
323(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
323(1)
Notes
324(5)
PART IV: INSTITUTIONALIZATION
Juvenile Institutionalization
329(40)
What Is the History of Juvenile Confinement?
331(4)
The House of Refuge
332(2)
The Reformatory or Training School
334(1)
The Cottage System
334(1)
What Are Twentieth-Century Changes in Juvenile Confinement?
335(2)
Brutal Treatment and Critical Response
336(1)
Institutional Reforms
337(1)
What Are the Short-Term Confinements of Juveniles?
337(4)
Jails
338(1)
Detention Centers
338(2)
Shelter Care Facilities
340(1)
What Are the Long-Term Confinements of Juveniles?
341(17)
Boot Camps
341(2)
Reception and Diagnostic Centers
343(1)
Ranches and Forestry Camps
344(1)
Training Schools
345(11)
Mental Health Placements
356(2)
What Are the Troubling Aspects of Juvenile Institutionalization?
358(3)
Residential Social System
358(1)
Juvenile Victimization
359(2)
Do Institutionalized Youths Have Rights?
361(1)
Right to Treatment
361(1)
Right Not to Be Treated?
361(1)
Right to Be Free from Cruel and Unusual Punishment
362(1)
CRIPA and Juvenile Correctional Facilities
362(1)
Summary
362(1)
Web Sites of Interest
363(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
363(1)
Notes
363(6)
Treatment Technologies
369(38)
What Is the Treatment Debate?
371(2)
How Are Youthful Offenders Classified?
373(2)
What Are the Main Treatment Modalities?
375(18)
Psychotherapy
375(1)
Transactional Analysis
376(2)
Reality Therapy
378(3)
Behavior Modification
381(2)
Family Therapy
383(1)
Guided Group Interaction
384(2)
Positive Peer Culture
386(2)
Drug and Alcohol Abuse Interventions
388(1)
Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
388(3)
Law-Related Education
391(1)
Gang Deactivation Groups
392(1)
Why Is Treatment Effectiveness So Difficult to Attain?
393(7)
Ingredients of Effective Programs
397(2)
Strategy for Improving the Effectiveness of Correctional Programs
399(1)
What Works for Whom and in What Context
400(1)
Summary
400(2)
Web Sites of Interest
402(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
402(1)
Notes
403(4)
PART V: TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE YOUTHFUL OFFENDER
Juvenile Gangs
407(32)
How Have Gangs Evolved in the United States?
409(6)
Gangs and Play Activity: The 1920s through the 1940s
409(1)
West Side Story Era: The 1950s
409(1)
Development of the Modern Gang: The 1960s
410(4)
Expansion, Violence, and Criminal Operations: The 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s
414(1)
What Is Important to Know about Urban Street Gangs?
415(13)
Types of Urban Gangs
415(1)
Organizational Features of Urban Gangs
416(1)
Drug-Trafficking and Gangs
417(2)
Gangs in School
419(1)
Law-Violating Behaviors and Gang Activities
419(4)
Racial and Ethnic Gangs
423(1)
Females in Gangs
424(1)
What Are Emergent Street Gangs?
424(4)
How Is Gang Involvement Toxic?
428(3)
What Can Communities Do to Prevent and Control Youth Gangs?
431(1)
Summary
432(1)
Web Sites of Interest
432(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
433(1)
Notes
433(6)
The Juvenile Offender
439(44)
What Are Problem Behaviors among Adolescents?
441(2)
Who Can Be Defined as Noncriminal Youths?
443(4)
Status Offenders
443(1)
Dependent and Neglected Children
444(3)
Who Are Irresponsible Youths?
447(3)
Naive Offenders
447(2)
Emotionally Disturbed Children
449(1)
Who Are Situational Offenders?
450(6)
Property Offenders
452(2)
Violent Offenders
454(2)
What Categories Make Up Drug and Alcohol Users?
456(3)
Social or Recreational Users
457(1)
Addicts
458(1)
Who Are Chronic Offenders?
459(2)
Who Are Juvenile Sex Offenders and What Do We Know about Them?
461(14)
Prostitutes
465(9)
Street Gang Members
474(1)
What Are the Limitations to This Classification Scheme?
475(1)
Summary
476(1)
Web Sites of Interest
477(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
477(1)
Notes
477(6)
PART VI: THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE
International Juvenile Justice
483(42)
What Are the Beijing Rules?
486(2)
How Do Industrialized Nations Handle Juvenile Crime?
488(14)
Canada
488(4)
England and Wales
492(6)
Australia
498(4)
How Do Emerging Nations Handle Juvenile Crime?
502(16)
South Africa
502(3)
China
505(5)
India
510(4)
Brazil
514(4)
Summary
518(1)
Web Sites of Interest
518(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
519(1)
Notes
519(6)
PART VII: THE FUTURE
Juvenile Justice in the Twenty-First Century
525(18)
How Do the Problems of Modern Society Affect Youths at Risk?
527(4)
The Family
527(1)
The Socioeconomic Structure
527(1)
The Neighborhood
528(1)
The School
528(1)
The Gang
529(1)
Youth Attitudes
530(1)
Why Is It Hard for a Juvenile Offender to ``Go Straight''?
531(3)
Habilitation
531(1)
Healing
531(2)
Hope
533(1)
Honor
534(1)
What Problems Are There in the Administration of Juvenile Justice?
534(3)
What Will Juvenile Justice Look Like in the Twenty-First Century?
537(2)
What Is a Viable Credo for Juvenile Justice in the Next One Hundred Years?
539(2)
Systemic Changes in Juvenile Justice
539(1)
Structural Changes in Modern Society
540(1)
Summary
541(1)
Critical Thinking Questions
541(1)
Notes
541(2)
Name Index 543(10)
Subject Index 553

Excerpts

Juvenile justice is part of a broader human rights movement that is concerned with far more than society's response to juvenile lawbreaking. Indeed, as globalization, urbanization, industrialization, and worldwide communications increase, the world's attention increasingly is directed to the plight of all children, regardless of circumstances. This concern is extremely late in coming. Approximately one-half of the world's population today is age fifteen or younger, and the magnitude of the problems these youths face is staggering. Poverty, racism, sexism, ethnocentrism, and religious differences all influence how children are treated. The reality is that in many societies, children are considered to be economic hindrances and expendable. Local, municipal, state, provincial, territorial, and national governments often lump together the needy, the dependent and neglected, the status offender, the mentally ill, the violent, and the victim of abuse. These children are discriminated against, victimized, persecuted, and sometimes executed by citizens, police, and paramilitary forces. The problems youths face go to the core of cultural thinking, far beyond the needs of societies simply to fine-tune agencies and rules for the handling of youths in need. English-speaking countries such as the United States provide many of the ideals that are behind current world efforts to reform the world's approach to juvenile justice. Unfortunately, even world leaders often fall far short of their own ideals. In this regard, the United States is an excellent case study of what is and what could be in juvenile justice in the world today. Our primary purpose in this text is to explore and define the important components of and debates over juvenile justice in the United States. Some believe that juvenile justice involves only a study of the early processing bf juvenile offenders; others state that the processing of any or all who come through the juvenile justice system should come under the purview of juvenile justice. Because the authors regard the basic focus of juvenile justice as the control, correction, and treatment of both juvenile offenders and the other groups mentioned, we have accepted the latter definition. We judge that the history and philosophy of juvenile justice, the processing of youths, the detention of juveniles, and the diversion of youths from the juvenile justice system should all be included in discussing juvenile justice. We are committed, moreover, to depicting the fascinating and sometimes tragic world of the juvenile offender, to describing the jobs and problems of practitioners in the justice system who work with youths, and to addressing important issues inherent in juvenile justice. This new edition includes two new chapters, Chapters 3 and 13. The former focuses on explanations for why juveniles become involved in illegal behaviors; the latter, on juveniles' participation in youth gangs and urban street gangs. Other important new features of this text are more emphases on the balanced and restorative justice model, on updating juvenile sentencing structures, on expanding prevention programs for juveniles and boot camps, on developing an understanding of and treatment for sex offenders, and on revealing more on how participants in the juvenile justice system do their jobs. There continue to be frequent glimpses into the mind and perspective of the youthful offender, a portrayal of the emerging trends of juvenile justice and an examination of the risk control and crime reduction measures in probation and aftercare. This book begins with an overview of the juvenile justice system, with a special emphasis on the challenges facing juvenile justice in the twenty-first century. Chapter 2 presents an empirical profile on youth crime, derived from the main official and unofficial measurement of crime. Chapter 3 examines the causes of juvenile crime, ranging from the perspective that the origins of del


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