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Juvenile Justice System, The: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law,9780132193740
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Juvenile Justice System, The: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780132193740

ISBN10:
0132193744
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $126.40
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Summary

A market-leader,The Juvenile Justice System: Delinquency, Processing, and the Law, Fifth Edition,provides a detailed examination of the juvenile justice system. Known for its comprehensive coverage, the author explores all aspects of juvenile justiceincluding intake, adjudication, dispositions, juvenile probation, parole, and community correctionsand maintains a legal emphasis throughout. Up-to-date tables, figures and statistics give readers the most current perspective of juvenile justice trends. Chapter-opening scenarios, personality highlights and career snapshots use personal accounts to capture the essence of what it means to be part of the juvenile justice system. Covers all aspects of juvenile justice, including intake, adjudication, dispositions, juvenile probation, parole, and community corrections. Covers all levels of offenders and clearly delineates the differences between status offenses and delinquent offenses. Discusses the history of juvenile justice system and the crucial events that have influenced its development. Includes early legal cases, landmark U.S. Supreme Court cases, current juvenile cases, select state court cases, etc. to show the legal bases for decisions about juveniles. Discusses the different rights juveniles have acquired and how different components of the juvenile justice system relate to them. Shows readers the steps involved with processing a juvenile offender and includes topics such as intake, adjudication, dispositions, probation, parole, and aftercare. Feature various professionals who work with juveniles in positions such as juvenile court judge, juvenile probation and parole officer and counselor. Highlights juvenile justice systems in 13 different countries and provide interesting contrasts with the U.S. juvenile justice system. Anyone involved in or interested in Juvenile Justice.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
An Introduction to Juvenile Justice in the United States
1(34)
Chapter Objectives
2(2)
Introduction
4(1)
The Juvenile Justice System
5(2)
A Process or System?
The History of Juvenile Courts
7(16)
Workhouses and Poor Laws
Indentured Servants
Hospital of Saint Michael
The Quakers and Walnut Street Jail
The Child Savers and Houses of Refuge
Ex Parte Crouse
Reform Schools and People ex rel. O'Connell v. Turner
Community-Based Private Agencies
Truancy Statutes
Juveniles as Chattel Children's Tribunals
Informal Welfare Agencies and Emerging Juvenile Courts
The Lack of Juvenile Court Uniformity
From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft and Reconceptualizing Juveniles
Specialized Juvenile Courts
Kangaroo Courts in Action
The Increasing Bureaucratization and Criminalization of Juvenile Justice
Parens Patriae
23(4)
Modern Interpretations of Parens Patriae
27(8)
The Get-Tough Movement
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Measuring Delinquency: Types of Offenders and Trends
35(56)
Chapter Objectives
36(2)
Introduction
38(2)
Who Are Juvenile Offenders?
40(2)
Juvenile Offenders Defined
The Age Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courts
Juvenile Delinquents and Delinquency
42(1)
Juvenile Delinquents
Juvenile Delinquency
Status Offenders
43(12)
Runaways
Truants and Curfew Violators
Juvenile and Criminal Court Interest in Status Offenders
The Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses
55(7)
The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
Changes and Modifications in the JJDPA
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenses Defined Potential Outcomes of DSO
The Uniform Crime Reports and National Crime Victimization Survey
62(4)
Uniform Crime Reports
National Crime Victimization Survey
Strengths of These Measures
Weaknesses of These Measures
Other Sources
66(5)
Self-Report Information
Violence and Nonviolence: Career Escalation?
71(13)
School Violence
At-Risk Youths and the Pittsburgh Youth Study
Gang Violence
Kids Who Kill
Juvenile Violence Trends
Career Escalation
Female versus Male Delinquency: Cataloging the Differences
84(7)
Profiling Female Juveniles
Trends in Female Juvenile Offending
Myths and Misconceptions: Changing Views of Juvenile Females
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Theories of Delinquency
91(51)
Chapter Objectives
92(2)
Introduction
94(2)
Classical and Biological Theories
96(8)
Classical Theory
Biological Theories
Psychological Theories
104(3)
Psychoanalytic Theory
Social Learning Theory
Sociological Theories
107(14)
The Concentric Zone Hypothesis and Delinquency
The Subculture Theory of Delinquency
The Anomie Theory of Delinquency
Labeling Theory
Bonding Theory
Agnew's General Strain Theory
Extraneous Factors
121(2)
An Evaluation of Explanations of Delinquent Conduct
123(3)
Models for Dealing with Juvenile Offenders
126(6)
The Rehabilitation Model
The Treatment or Medical Model
The Noninterventionist Model
The Due Process Model
The Just-Deserts/Justice Model
The Crime Control Model
Delinquency Prevention Programs and Community Interventions
132(10)
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System
142(45)
Chapter Objectives
143(2)
Introduction
145(2)
The Criminal Justice System
147(10)
Legislatures
Law Enforcement
Prosecution and the Courts
Corrections
Some Important Distinctions between Juvenile and Criminal Courts
157(5)
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice System
162(14)
The Ambiguity of Adolescence and Adulthood
Being Taken Into Custody and Being Arrested
Juveniles in Jails
Referrals
Intake
Alternative Prosecutorial Actions
Adjudicatory Proceedings
176(1)
Juvenile Dispositions
177(3)
Nominal Dispositions
Conditional Dispositions
Custodial Dispositions
Juvenile Corrections
180(7)
Juvenile Parole
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
The Legal Rights of Juveniles
187(52)
Chapter Objectives
188(1)
Introduction
189(2)
Original Juvenile Court Jurisdiction: Parens Patriae
191(4)
The ``Hands-Off'' Doctrine
Landmark Cases in Juvenile Justice
195(10)
Kent v. United States (1966)
In re Gault (1967)
In re Winship (1970)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
Breed v. Jones (1975)
Schall v. Martin (1984)
Implications of More Constitutional Rights for Juveniles
205(9)
The Juvenile's Right to Waive Rights
The Continued Leniency of Juvenile Court Adjudications and Dispositions
An Update on Jury Trials for Juvenile Delinquents
The Death Penalty for Juveniles
214(9)
Reasons for Supporting the Death Penalty
Reasons for Opposing the Death Penalty
U.S. Supreme Court Death Penalty Cases
223(8)
Eddings v. Oklahoma (1982)
Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988)
Stanford v. Kentucky (1989)
Wilkins v. Missouri (1989)
Roper v. Simmons (2005)
Public Sentiment About the Death Penalty for Juveniles
231(1)
Unification of Criminal and Juvenile Courts
232(7)
Implications of Court Unification for Juveniles
Getting Tough and Court Unification
Politicizing Juvenile Punishments
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Juveniles and the Police
239(37)
Chapter Objectives
240(1)
Introduction
241(2)
Police Discretion: Use and Abuse
243(17)
The Diffuseness of Police Officer Roles
Juvenile Gang Units in Police Departments
Proactive Restorative Policing
Youth Gangs, Minority Status, and Gender
Myths and Truths About Gangs
Female Gangs
Juvenile Response to Police Officer Contacts
Arrests of Juveniles
260(8)
Juvenile--Adult Distinctions
The Ambiguity of Juvenile Arrests
Booking, Fingerprinting, and Photographing Juvenile Suspects
Interrogations of Juvenile Suspects
Expungement and Sealing Policies
Status Offenders and Juvenile Delinquents
268(1)
Divestiture and Its Implications: Net-Widening
269(2)
Relabeling Status Offenses as Delinquent Offenses
Protecting Status Offenders from Themselves
Parens Patriae versus Due Process
Gender Stereotyping and DSO
Race and Ethnicity
Redefining Delinquency
271(5)
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Intake and Preadjudicatory Processing
276(32)
Chapter Objectives
277(2)
Introduction
279(1)
What Is Intake?
280(8)
The Discretionary Powers of Intake Officers
Florida Assessment Centers
The Increasing Formalization of Intake
The Need for Greater Accountability
Intake Proceedings: Where Do We Go from Here?
288(3)
Intake Compared with Plea Bargaining
Parens Patriae Perpetuated
Legal Factors: Crime Seriousness, Type of Crime Committed, Evidence, and Prior Record
291(3)
Offense Seriousness
Type of Crime Committed
Inculpatory or Exculpatory Evidence
Prior Record
Extralegal Factors: Age, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status of Juvenile Offenders
294(4)
Age
Gender
Race and Ethnicity
Socioeconomic Status
Preliminary Decision Making: Diversion and Other Options
298(5)
Diverting Certain Juveniles from the System
How Should We Deal with Chronic Violent Offenders?
The Inadequacy of Treatment and Community Services Getting Tough with Persistent Offenders
Is There Too Much Juvenile Incarceration?
Assessment of Guardianship
303(5)
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Prosecutorial Decision Making in Juvenile Justice
308(30)
Chapter Objectives
309(1)
Introduction
310(1)
The Changing Prosecutorial Role in Juvenile Matters
311(14)
Modifying Prosecutorial Roles by Changing the Standard of Proof in Juvenile Proceedings
Eliminating the Confidentiality of Juvenile Court Proceedings and Record-Keeping
Open Juvenile Court Proceedings and Changing Judicial Conduct
The Prosecution Decision Beyond 2000
Time Standards in Juvenile Court for Prosecutors and Other Actors
Why Should the Juvenile Justice Process Be Accelerated?
Public Defenders for Juveniles
325(2)
The Speedy Trial Rights of Juveniles
327(2)
The Advocacy Role of Defense Attorneys
329(9)
Attorneys for Juveniles as a Matter of Right
Defense Counsel and Ensuring Due-Process Rights for Juveniles
Are Attorneys Being Used More Frequently By Juvenile Defendants?
Do Defense Counsel for Juveniles Make a Difference in Their Case Dispositions?
Defense Counsel as Guardians Ad Litem
Juvenile Offender Plea Bargaining and the Role of Defense Counsel
Parental Intrusion in Juvenile Courts Is Often More Damaging Than Attorney Involvement
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Classification and Preliminary Treatment: Waivers and Other Alternatives
338(54)
Chapter Objectives
339(2)
Introduction
341(2)
Seriousness of the Offense and Waiver Decision Making
343(18)
Seriousness of the Offense
Separating Status Offenders from Delinquent Offenders
Juvenile Court Adjudications for Status Offenders
The Use of Contempt Power to Incarcerate Nondelinquent Youths
Delinquent Offenders and Juvenile Court Dispositions
Transfers, Waivers, and Certifications
Waiver Decision Making
Types of Waivers
361(11)
Judicial Waivers
Direct File
Statutory Exclusion
Demand Waivers
Other Types of Waivers
Waiver and Reverse Waiver Hearings
372(3)
Waiver Hearings
Reverse Waiver Hearings
Time Standards Governing Waiver Decisions
Implications of Waiver Hearings for Juveniles
375(3)
Positive Benefits Resulting from Juvenile Court Adjudications
Unfavorable Implications of Juvenile Court Adjudications
Defense and Prosecutorial Considerations Relating to Waivers
378(4)
Juvenile Trial Options: Interstate Variations
Implications of Criminal Court Processing
Jury Trials as a Matter of Right for Serious Offenses
The Potential for Capital Punishment
Blended Sentencing Statutes
382(10)
The Juvenile-Exclusive Blend
The Juvenile-Inclusive Blend
The Juvenile--Contiguous Blend
The Criminal-Exclusive Blend
The Criminal-Inclusive Blend Jury Trials as a Matter of Right in All Juvenile Court Blended Sentencing Proceedings
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
The Adjudicatory Process: Dispositional Alternatives
392(52)
Chapter Objectives
393(1)
Introduction
394(2)
The Nature of the Offense
396(3)
First-Offender or Repeat Offender?
399(6)
Is the First-Offender/Repeat Offender Distinction Relevant? Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status Revisited
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances
405(3)
Aggravating Circumstances
Mitigating Circumstances
Juvenile Risk Assessments and Predictions of Dangerousness
408(21)
Dangerousness and Risk
Needs Assessment and Its Measurement
Selective Incapacitation
Common Elements of Risk Assessment Instruments
The Functions of Classification
Risk Prediction from Arizona and Florida
Needs Assessments
Predisposition Reports
429(15)
The Predisposition Report and Its Preparation
Victim-Impact Statements in Predisposition Reports
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Nominal Sanctions: Warnings, Diversion, and Alternative Dispute Resolution
444(51)
Chapter Objectives
445(1)
Introduction
446(2)
Nominal Dispositions Defined
448(2)
Diversion
450(5)
Functions and Dysfunctions of Diversion
Diversion Programs for Juveniles
455(5)
Youth Service Bureaus
Youth Services/Diversion and Community Service Programs, Inc.
The Diversion Plus Program
See Our Side (SOS) Program
The Community Board Program
Implications of Diversion Programs for Juveniles
460(1)
Teen Courts
461(19)
The Use of Teen Courts
The Anchorage Youth Court
Teen Court Variations
The Successfulness of Teen Courts
Day Reporting Centers
480(9)
Goals and Functions of Day Reporting Centers
Some Examples of Day Reporting Centers
Alternative Dispute Resolution
489(6)
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Juvenile Probation and Community-Based Corrections
495(60)
Chapter Objectives
496(2)
Introduction
498(2)
Standard Probation for Juveniles
500(6)
Standard Probation Defined
The Youth-to-Victim Restitution Project
Juvenile Probation Camps
The Intensive Aftercare Program
The Sexual Offender Treatment Program
The Successfulness of Standard Juvenile Probation
506(4)
Probation and Recidivism
Intermediate Punishments for Juvenile Offenders
510(3)
Intermediate Punishments Defined
The Goals of Intermediate Punishment Programs
Classification Criteria for Placement in ISP Programs
Juvenile Intensive Supervised Probation
513(10)
Characteristics of JISP Programs
The Ohio Experience
Strengths and Weaknesses of JISP Programs
523(4)
Terminating One's Probation Program
Case Supervision Planning
527(3)
Caseload Assignments
Models of Case Supervision Planning
The Balanced Approach
Community-Based Alternatives
530(8)
Community Corrections Acts
Electronic Monitoring
538(4)
Electronic Monitoring Defined
How Much Electronic Monitoring Is There in the United States?
Types of Signalling Devices
Types of Offenders on Electronic Monitoring
The SpeakerID Program
Some Criticisms of Electronic Monitoring
Home Confinement or House Arrest
542(2)
Functions and Goals of Home Confinement Programs
Advantages and Disadvantages of Home Confinement
Other ISP Program Conditions
544(11)
Restitution, Fines, Victim Compensation, and Victim-Offender Mediation Community Service
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Juvenile Corrections: Custodial Sanctions and Parole
555(68)
Chapter Objectives
556(2)
Introduction
558(2)
Goals of Juvenile Corrections
560(3)
Deterrence
Rehabilitation and Reintegration
Prevention
Punishment and Retribution
Isolation and Control
Current Juvenile Custodial Alternatives
563(6)
Nonsecure Confinement
569(8)
Foster Homes
Group Homes and Halfway Houses
Camps, Ranches, Experience Programs, and Wilderness Projects
Secure Confinement: Variations
577(11)
Shock Probation
Boot Camps
Industrial Schools and Other Juvenile Institutions
Persistent Problems of Nonsecure and Secure Confinement
588(8)
Architectural Improvements and Officer Training Reforms
Juvenile Detention Resource Centers
Short- and Long-Term Facilities
Some Criticisms of Incarcerating Juveniles
Disproportionate Minority Confinement
Example of Residential Failure
Example of Program Success
Juvenile Parole
596(5)
Juvenile Parole Defined
Purposes of Parole for Juveniles
How Many Juveniles Are On Parole?
Characteristics of Juvenile Parolees
Juvenile Parole Policy
Deciding Who Should Be Paroled
Recidivism and Parole Revocation
601(5)
Mempa v. Rhay (1967)
Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)
Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973)
Examples of Probation and Parole Revocation for Juveniles
606(7)
Juvenile Probation and Parole Revocation Cases
Selected Issues in Juvenile Corrections
613(10)
The Privatization of Juvenile Corrections
The Classification of Juvenile Offenders
Juveniles Held in Adult Jails or Lock-Ups
Summary
Questions for Review
Internet Connections
Glossary 623(24)
Bibliography 647(20)
Case Index 667(2)
Name Index 669(6)
Subject Index 675


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