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Kitchen Planning : Guidelines, Codes, Standards,9781118367629
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Kitchen Planning : Guidelines, Codes, Standards

by Unknown
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9781118367629

ISBN10:
1118367626
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/18/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley
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Summary

The leading'resource for professional kitchen designers, Kitchen Planning is the definitive, one-stop reference based on the NKBAs Kitchen and Bathroom Planning Guidelines and the related Access Standards published in 2012. This kitchen design "bible" presents the best practices developed by the associations committee of professionals. Illustrated in full color throughout'with'clear'graphics'that allow visual learners to easily absorb both technical and'aesthetic information, this second edition is completely revised and redesigned throughout with new photographs and with a special emphasis on client needs, research, and references to industry information.

Author Biography

The NATIONAL KITCHEN & BATH ASSOCIATION is the only nonprofit trade association dedicated exclusively to the kitchen and bath industry and is the leading source of information and education for professionals in the field. With more than 50,000 members, it has provided valuable resources for industry professionals, students, and consumers for more than fifty years.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION  . . . XIX

CHAPTER 1: KITCHEN HISTORY AND TRENDS  1

A Brief History of the Kitchen. . 1

The Colonial Kitchen          2

Hearth and Beehive Ovens 2

The Modern Kitchen           3

The Victorian Kitchen         3

The Beecher Kitchen          4

The Plumbed Sink   4

Standardization: The 1900s 5

The Laboratory Look          5

Major Kitchen Trends Through the 1900s. . 6

Early 1900s 6

The 1920s   7

The 1930s   9

The 1940s   10

The 1950s   11

The 1960s   12

The 1970s   12The 1980s    13

The 1990s   15

Current and Continuing Design Trends – The 2000s . . 18

Demographic and Population Trends . 18

Population Diversity           18

An Aging Population           19

Household Composition     19

Consumer References 20

Space Usage Trends . 21

Environmental Awareness Trends . . . . 24

Activity Trends . . . . . 24

Location Trends . . . . 27

Product Trends . . . . . 28

Summary. . . 28

CHAPTER 2: KITCHEN DESIGN RESEARCH  . . . . . 29

Early Studies. 29

Studies at Mid-Century.. . . . . 30

Guides For Arrangement Of Urban Family Kitchens          31

Energy Saving Kitchen        31

Kitchen Guidelines 32

Kitchen Research in the 1990s32

Virginia Tech Kitchen Research33

Someone’s In The Kitchen  33

Content Analysis     34

Personal Interview and Cooking Activity    34

National Telephone Survey 34

Results and Implications     35

Kitchen Storage Research Project    40

Kitchen Inventory Survey   40

Kitchen Design Research.. . . . 41

Measuring for Storage Needs          41

Implications            42

Summary. . . 42

CHAPTER 3: INFRASTRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS. . . . 43

Codes. . . . . . 43

Structural Issues . . . . 44

Floors. . . . . . 44

Oversized Appliances         45

Stability and Evenness        46

Moisture Control     48

Walls.. . . . . . 48

Load-Bearing Walls            48

Uneven Walls         49

Insulation    50

Doors and Windows  50

Door Choices          51

Window Options     53

Plumbing. . . 55

Plumbing Fixtures   55

Water Delivery        56

Drain/Waste/Vent Pipes      57

Septic Systems        59

Hot Water   59

Summary. . . 60

CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . . 61

Green Building . . . . . 61

Energy Management in the Kitchen . . 63

Energy Star. 63

Water Quality64

Water Quality Standards. . . . . 64

Primary Drinking Water Standards . . . 64

Secondary Drinking Water Standards . 65

Canadian Water Quality Guidelines . . 65

Other Water Contaminants.. . 66

Water Quality Testing 67

Solving Water Quality Problems . . . . . 68

Water Treatment Equipment.. 69

Filters          69

Water Softeners      69

Iron Removal Equipment    70

Neutralizers 70

Distillation Units     71

Reverse Osmosis Unit         71

Disinfection Methods          71

Summary. . . 72

Water Conservation . 72

Air Quality. . 73

Source Control . . . . . 73

Indoor Air Quality and Construction           74

Renovation Hazards            74

Air Cleaning. 75

Ventilation Systems and Filters75

Moisture Problems . . 76

Moisture from Kitchens. . . . . 77

Moisture Basics       77

Molds and Moisture . 78

Molds and Health    79

Preventing Moisture Problems79

Waste Management in the Home . . . . 82

Planning for Waste in the Kitchen. . . . 82

Community Practices and Regulations        83

Waste Management Appliances      83

A Recycling Center . . 84

Noise. . . . . . 86

Sound Insulating Construction Techniques  . . . 89

CHAPTER 5: HUMAN FACTORS AND UNIVERSAL DESIGN IMPLICATIONS . . . . 91

Anthropometry. . . . . 91

Structural Anthropometry   92

Functional Anthropometry. . . 95

Reach Ranges         99

Range-of-Joint Motion        100

Mobility Aids . . . . . 101

Comfort Zone . . . . 104

Anthropometry of Children. 104

Ergonomic & Universal Design . . . . . 105

History and State of the Art            106

Equitable Use          107

Flexibility in Use     108

Simple and Intuitive Use     109

Perceptible Information      110

Tolerance for Error 111

Low Physical Effort            112

Size and Space for Approach and Use        113

Dispelling Myths. . . 115

U.S. Access Codes, Laws and Standards  . . . . 116

American National Standard For Accessible and

Useable Buildings and Facilities (ANSI A117.1)     116

Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS)   117

Fair Housing Act Accessibility Guidelines  117

“Safe Harbors”       117

Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines   118

Canadian Policies and Practices . . . . 118

Ontarians with Disabilities Act        119

ODA           119

Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program        119

Incorporating Human-Based Kitchen Design  120

CHAPTER 6: ASSESSING NEEDS. . . 121

Elements of a Design Program . . . . . 122

Interviewing the Client. . . . . 122

Prepare for the Interview    122

Needs Assessment Forms    123

Client Information Forms    123

Job Site and House Information Forms       124

Personal Information          124

Getting To Know Your Client (Form 1)  . . . . . 124

Getting to Know Your Client’s Home (Form 2) . . . . .  125

Type of Home        126

The Home of the Future      127

Activities in the Kitchen (Form 3) . . . 127

Storage in the Kitchen (Form 4) . . . . 128

Your Client’s Kitchen (Forms 5 and 6)   . . . . . 129

Appliances  130

Client Preferences and Specifications         130

Budget        131

The Job Site            131

New Construction   131

Job Site Inspection (Form 7). 132

Dimensions (Forms 8 Through 13) . . 132

Preparing the Client 134

Establish A Plan      134

Ready For the Design Program? . . . . 135

Form 1: Getting to Know Your Client         136

Form 2: Getting to Know Your Client’s Home        143

Form 3: Checklist for Kitchen Activities [Client Checklist] 145

Form 4: Kitchen Storage Inventory [Client Checklist]         150

Form 5: Cabinetry, Surfaces, and Kitchen Features Checklist [Client Checklist]     166

Form 6: Appliance Preference Checklist [Client Checklist] 179

Form 7: Job Site Inspection 189

Form 8: Dimensions of the Kitchen – Floor Plan    196

Form 9: Dimensions of the Kitchen – Elevations    197

Form 10: Dimensions of Mechanical Devices         198

Form 11: Window Measurements   199

Form 12: Door Measurements         200

Form 13: Fixture and Appliance Measurements      201

CHAPTER 7: KITCHEN PLANNING. 203

Location and Types of Kitchens . . . . 203

Location of Kitchen            203

Work Zone  203

Social Area 204

Types of Kitchens   204

Closed Arrangements          205

Open Arrangements            208

Size of Kitchens      213

The Center Concept 214

Designing Kitchen Centers  221

Background on the Guidelines        221

Access Standards    222

Food Preparation Centers and Guidelines  . . . 222

Traffic and Work Aisles     223

Entry           223

Work Aisles            225

Circulation  227

Sink Center.228

Food Preparation Activities 228

Cleanup Activities   229

Other Activities       230

Recommendations  230

Refrigeration Center    .. . . 241

Recommendations  241

Cooking Centers. . . . 244

Recommendations  245

Combining Centers 257

Arranging the Centers         257

Counter Areas         261

Storage        266

Cabinet Calculations           282

Serving and Dining Guidelines . . . . . 292

Recommendations  293

Dining         296

Recommendations  296

That’s Entertaining . 301

Kitchens for Caterers          301

Outdoor Kitchens    302

Location      302

Equipment  303

Space Planning        305

A Kitchen Where You Need It306

Morning Kitchen     306

Mini Kitchen           306

Considerations        306

Summary. . 308

CHAPTER 8: MECHANICAL PLANNING  . . 309

Wiring/Electrical . . . 309

Wiring         309

Receptacles 312

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters    313

Special Wiring Needs          343

Communications     315

Gas 316

Heating. . . 316

Types of Heaters     316

Considerations for the Kitchen . . . . . 320

Cooling . . . 321

Natural Cooling       322

Mechanical Cooling            322

Ventilation. 323

Updraft Ventilation Systems           326

Microwave Ovens and Ventilation System Combinations   328

Downdraft Ventilation Systems      328

Ventilation Efficiency         329

Ducts          330

Fan Size      330

Replacement Air     332

Noise          332

Controls and Features         333

Lighting. . . 333

Natural or Daylighting         334

Types of Artificial Lighting 335

General or Ambient Lighting           335

Task Lighting          338

Accent Lighting       338

Lighting Fixtures     338

Location      340

Controls      342

Low Voltage Lighting          343

Safety         344

CHAPTER 9: MORE THAN A KITCHEN . . . 345

The Family Foyer or Mudroom . . . . . 345

Designing the Family Foyer/Mudroom        349

Coats, Jackets, Hats, and Other Outerwear  349

Seating Area            352

Design Details         353

Materials     353

Mechanical Systems            353

Home Planning Center. . . . . 354

Locating the Home Planning Center            355

The Desk Area        356

Desk Area Storage  358

Clearance Around the Desk Area    359

Lighting       360

A Standing Desk     360

Household Communications           361

Computer Workstation        362

A Laundry Area . . . . 364

What Type of Laundry?      364

Laundry Equipment            366

Utility Service         368

Space Planning in the Laundry Area           369

Laundry in Transition         371

Storage        373

Ironing        374

A Craft/Hobby Area 376

A Gardening Area . . 379

Planning the Indoor Garden Area    379

Work Counter Area 379

A Garden Sink        381

Storage        382

A Growing Area      383

Social Spaces . . . . . 383

The Kitchen Sitting Area     383

Summary. . 392

CHAPTER 10: A CLOSER LOOK AT YOUR CLIENT  . . . . . 393

Addressing Differences. . . . . 393

Design Considerations for Users . . . . 394

Across The Lifespan           394

Children. . . 395

Middle Years 399

Aging. . . . . 400

Physical Changes    400

Mobility . . . 404

Kitchen Design Implications           405

Refrigeration Center            411

Flooring      412

Dexterity/Strength/Balance/Stamina. 413

Kitchen Design Implications           413

General       413

Sink Center 414

Cooking Center       415

Refrigeration Center            416

Storage        416

Vision. . . . . 417

Kitchen Design Implications           418

Lighting       418

Color and Cueing    419

Storage        421

Controls      421

Sink Center 422

Cooking Center       422

Hearing and Speech 422

Kitchen Design Implications           424

General       424

Noise Control          425

Visual Cueing         425

Cognition. . 425

Kitchen Design Implications           426

General       426

Refrigeration Center            428

Storage        428

Summary. . 428

CHAPTER 11: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER  . . . . 429

The Design Process. 430

The Design Program.. . . . . . 432

Goals and Purpose  433

Objectives   433

Activities and Relationships            433

Relationship Matrix 436

Bubble Diagram      437

The Design Drawing.. . . . . . 438

Templates   438

Room Outline         441

Visual Diagrams      445

Three Dimensions and Vertical Relationships         445

Priority Areas          446

A Sample Design Drawing  447

Finishing The Floor Plan     456

Adjusting the Dimensions   456

Vertical Relationships         458

Evaluating and Checking    461

Putting It All Together – A Sample Project  . . 466

A Sample Design Program  467

Goals and Purpose  467

Scope of the Project            468

Objectives and Priorities     468

Activities and Relationships            469

The Design Solution            469

Leah and Matthew’s Kitchen          472

CHAPTER 12: KITCHEN PLANNING GUIDELINES WITH  ACCESS STANDARDS. . . . 475

Kitchen Planning Guideline 1: Door/Entry   . . 476

Kitchen Planning Guideline 2: Door Interference . . . . 477

Kitchen Planning Guideline 3: Distance Between Work Centers . . . . . . 478

Kitchen Planning Guideline 4: Separating Work Centers  . . . . . 479

Kitchen Planning Guideline 5: Work Triangle Traffic . . 480

Kitchen Planning Guideline 6: Work Aisle  . . . 481

Kitchen Planning Guideline 7: Walkway  . . . . 484

Kitchen Planning Guideline 8: Traffic Clearance at Seating  . . . 485

Kitchen Planning Guideline 9: Seating Clearance . . . . 487

Kitchen Planning Guideline 10: Cleanup/Prep Sink Placement  489

Kitchen Planning Guideline 11: Cleanup/Prep Sink Landing Area . . . . . 490

Kitchen Planning Guideline 12: Preparation/Work Area  . . . . . 491

Kitchen Planning Guideline 13: Dishwasher Placement492

Kitchen Planning Guideline 14: Waste Receptacles . . . 493

Kitchen Planning Guideline 15: Auxiliary Sink 494

Kitchen Planning Guideline 16: Refrigerator Landing Area  . . . 495

Kitchen Planning Guideline 17: Cooking Surface Landing Area . . . . . . 496

Kitchen Planning Guideline 18: Cooking Surface Clearance  . . 498

Kitchen Planning Guideline 19: Cooking Surface Ventilation   . 499

Kitchen Planning Guideline 20: Cooking Surface Safety  . . . . . 500

Kitchen Planning Guideline 21: Microwave Oven Placement  . 501

Kitchen Planning Guideline 22: Microwave Landing Area  . . . . 502

Kitchen Planning Guideline 23: Oven Landing Area . . 503

Kitchen Planning Guideline 24: Combining Landing Areas  . . . 504

Kitchen Planning Guideline 25: Countertop Space . . . 505

Kitchen Planning Guideline 26: Countertop Edges . . . 506

Kitchen Planning Guideline 27: Storage  . . . . 507

Kitchen Planning Guideline 28: Storage at Cleanup/Prep Sink  509

Kitchen Planning Guideline 29: Corner Cabinet Storage . . . . . 510

Kitchen Planning Guideline 30: Electrical Receptacles . 511

Kitchen Planning Guideline 31: Lighting . . . . 512

GLOSSARY. . . . 513

APPENDIX. . . . . 520

LIST OF PHOTOS . . . . . 540

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ... 542

REFERENCES. . 545

RESOURCES. . . 547

INDEX . . 551



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