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Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry (with CD-ROM and CengageNOW Printed Access Card)

by ; ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495014775

ISBN10:
049501477X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/6/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $328.33

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This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 3/6/2006.
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Summary

With this innovative split version of INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL, ORGANIC, AND BIOCHEMISTRY (and the accompanying access to ThomsonNOW, the online personalized learning tool), you will find the tools you need for success! This text is designed to make challenging information accessible to everyone and will give you a solid foundation in the chemistry of the human body as well as a better understanding of biochemical interactions. Ideal for those entering a health career, the book shows chemistry appied to normal human biochemical pathways and discusses biochemical conditions present in diseases.

Table of Contents

Organic Chemistry
1(17)
What Is Organic Chemistry?
1(2)
Where Do We Obtain Organic Compounds?
3(2)
How Do We Write Structural Formulas of Organic Compounds?
5(2)
What Are Functional Groups?
7(11)
Summary of Key Questions
14(1)
Problems
14
Taxol: A Story of Search and Discovery
4(1)
Combinatorial Chemistry
5(13)
Alkanes
18(28)
How Do We Write Structural Formulas of Alkanes?
18(3)
What Are Constitutional Isomers?
21(2)
How Do We Name Alkanes?
23(4)
What Are Cycloalkanes?
27(1)
What Are the Shapes of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes?
28(4)
What Is Cis-Trans Isomerism in Cycloalkanes?
32(2)
What Are the Physical Properties of Alkanes?
34(3)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Alkanes?
37(1)
What Are Some Important Haloalkanes?
38(1)
Where Do We Obtain Alkanes?
39(7)
Summary of Key Questions
41(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
41(1)
Problems
42
The Poisonous Puffer Fish
31(8)
The Environmental Impact of Freons
39(1)
Octane Rating: What Those Numbers at the Pump Mean
40(6)
Alkenes and Alkynes
46(28)
What Are Alkenes and Alkynes?
46(1)
What Are the Structures of Alkenes and Alkynes?
47(1)
How Do We Name Alkenes and Alkynes?
48(7)
What Are the Physical Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes?
55(1)
What Are Terpenes?
55(1)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Alkenes?
56(8)
What Are the Important Polymerization Reactions of Ethylene and Substituted Ethylenes?
64(10)
Summary of Key Questions
68(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
68(1)
Problems
69
Ethylene: A Plant Growth Regulator
47(4)
The Case of the Iowa and New York Strains of the European Corn Borer
51(3)
Cis-Trans Isomerism in Vision
54(13)
Recycling Plastics
67(7)
Benzene and Its Derivatives
74(16)
What Is the Structure of Benzene?
74(2)
How Do We Name Aromatic Compounds?
76(4)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives?
80(2)
What Are Phenols?
82(8)
Summary of Key Questions
86(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
86(1)
Problems
87
DDT: A Boon and a Curse
78(1)
Carcinogenic Polynuclear Aromatics and Smoking
79(1)
Iodide Ion and Goiter
80(1)
The Nitro Group in Explosives
81(2)
FD & C No. 6 (a.k.a. Sunset Yellow)
83(1)
Capsaicin, for Those Who Like It Hot
84(6)
Alcohols, Ethers, and Thiols
90(22)
What Are the Structures, Names, and Properties of Alcohols?
90(5)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Alcohols?
95(5)
What Are the Structures, Names, and Properties of Ethers?
100(3)
What Are the Structures, Names, and Properties of Thiols?
103(2)
What Are the Most Commercially Important Alcohols?
105(7)
Summary of Key Questions
106(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
107(1)
Problems
108
Nitroglycerin: An Explosive and a Drug
92(6)
Breath-Alcohol Screening
98(3)
Ethylene Oxide: A Chemical Sterilant
101(1)
Ethers and Anesthesia
102(10)
Chirality: The Handedness of Molecules
112(21)
What Is Enantiomerism?
112(6)
How To ... Draw Enantiomers
117(1)
How Do We Specify the Configuration of a Stereocenter?
118(4)
How Many Stereoisomers Are Possible for Molecules with Two or More Stereocenters?
122(4)
What Is Optical Activity, and How Is Chirality Detected in the Laboratory?
126(2)
What Is the Significance of Chirality in the Biological World?
128(5)
Summary of Key Questions
129(1)
Problems
130
Chiral Drugs
126(7)
Acids and Bases
133(34)
What Are Acids and Bases?
133(2)
How Do We Define the Strength of Acids and Bases?
135(2)
What Are Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs?
137(2)
How Can We Tell the Position of Equilibrium in an Acid-Base Reaction?
139(3)
How Do We Use Acid Ionization Constants?
142(1)
What Are the Properties of Acids and Bases?
143(3)
What Are the Acidic and Basic Properties of Pure Water?
146(3)
How To ... Use Logs and Antilogs
148(1)
What Are pH and pOH?
149(2)
How Do We Use Titrations to Calculate Concentration?
151(3)
What Are Buffers?
154(4)
How Do We Calculate the pH of a Buffer?
158(2)
What Are TRIS, HEPES, and These Buffers with the Strange Names?
160(7)
Summary of Key Questions
162(1)
Problems
163
Some Important Acids and Bases
136(4)
Acid and Base Burns of the Cornea
140(5)
Drugstore Antacids
145(14)
Respiratory and Metabolic Acidosis
159(1)
Alkalosis and Sprinter's Trick
160(7)
Amines
167(17)
What Are Amines?
167(3)
How Do We Name Amines?
170(2)
What Are the Physical Properties of Amines?
172(1)
How Do We Describe the Basicity of Amines?
173(2)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Amines?
175(9)
Summary of Key Questions
178(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
179(1)
Problems
179
Amphetamines (Pep Pills)
168(1)
Alkaloids
169(3)
Tranquilizers
172(4)
The Solubility of Drugs in Body Fluids
176(1)
Epinephrine: A Prototype for the Development of New Bronchodilators
177(7)
Aldehydes and Ketones
184(18)
What Are Aldehydes and Ketones?
184(1)
How Do We Name Aldehydes and Ketones?
185(3)
What Are the Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones?
188(1)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones?
189(6)
What Is Keto-Enol Tautomerism?
195(7)
Summary of Key Questions
196(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
196(1)
Problems
197
Some Naturally Occurring Aldehydes and Ketones
187(15)
Carboxylic Acids
202(22)
What Are Carboxylic Acids?
202(1)
How Do We Name Carboxylic Acids?
202(3)
What Are the Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids?
205(1)
What Are Soaps and Detergents?
206(6)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Carboxylic Acids?
212(12)
Summary of Key Questions
219(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
219(1)
Problems
220
Trans Fatty Acids: What Are They and How Do You Avoid Them?
208(8)
Esters as Flavoring Agents
216(2)
Ketone Bodies and Diabetes
218(6)
Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides
224(19)
What Are Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides?
224(3)
How Do We Prepare Esters?
227(1)
How Do We Prepare Amides?
228(1)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters, and Amides?
229(6)
What Are Phosphoric Anhydrides and Phosphoric Esters?
235(1)
What Is Step-Growth Polymerization?
235(8)
Summary of Key Questions
238(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
238(1)
Problems
239
The Pyrethrins: Natural Insecticides of Plant Origin
226(1)
The Penicillins and Cephalosporins: β-Lactam Antibiotics
227(1)
From Willow Bark to Aspirin and Beyond
228(4)
Ultraviolet Sunscreens and Sunblocks
232(2)
Barbiturates
234(2)
Stitches That Dissolve
236(7)
Carbohydrates
243(28)
Carbohydrates: What Are Monosaccharides?
243(5)
What Are the Cyclic Structures of Monosaccharides?
248(5)
What Are the Characteristic Reactions of Monosaccharides?
253(6)
What Are Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides?
259(3)
What Are Polysaccharides?
262(2)
What Are Acidic Polysaccharides?
264(7)
Summary of Key Questions
265(1)
Summary of Key Reactions
266(1)
Problems
267
Galactosemia
248(4)
L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
252(4)
Testing for Glucose
256(2)
A, B, AB, and O Blood Types
258(5)
High-Fructose Corn Syrup
263(8)
Lipids
271(30)
What Are Lipids?
271(1)
What Are the Structures of Triglycerides?
272(1)
What Are Some Properties of Triglycerides?
273(2)
What Are the Structures of Complex Lipids?
275(1)
What Role Do Lipids Play in the Structure of Membranes?
276(1)
What Are Glycerophospholipids?
277(3)
What Are Sphingolipids?
280(1)
What Are Glycolipids?
281(2)
What Are Steroids?
283(5)
What Are Some of the Physiological Roles of Steroid Hormones?
288(5)
What Are Bile Salts?
293(1)
What Are Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotrienes?
293(8)
Summary of Key Questions
296(1)
Problems
297
Rancidity
274(1)
Waxes
275(3)
Transport Across Cell Membranes
278(4)
The Myelin Sheath and Multiple Sclerosis
282(2)
Lipid Storage Diseases
284(6)
Anabolic Steroids
290(2)
Oral Contraception
292(3)
Action of Anti-inflammatory Drugs
295(6)
Proteins
301(33)
What Are the Many Functions of Proteins?
301(1)
What Are Amino Acids?
302(4)
What Are Zwitterions?
306(1)
What Determines the Characteristics of Amino Acids?
307(2)
What Are Uncommon Amino Acids?
309(1)
How Do Amino Acids Combine to Form Proteins?
310(3)
What Are the Properties of Proteins?
313(2)
What Is the Primary Structure of a Protein?
315(3)
What Is the Secondary Structure of a Protein?
318(2)
What Is the Tertiary Structure of a Protein?
320(3)
What Is the Quaternary Structure of a Protein?
323(3)
How Are Proteins Denatured?
326(8)
Summary of Key Questions
329(1)
Problems
330
Glutathione
312(1)
AGE and Aging
313(3)
The Use of Human Insulin
316(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
317(4)
Protein/Peptide Conformation-Dependent Diseases
321(2)
Proteomics, Ahoy!
323(4)
Quaternary Structure and Allosteric Proteins
327(1)
Laser Surgery and Protein Denaturation
328(6)
Enzymes
334(24)
What Are Enzymes?
334(2)
How Are Enzymes Named and Classified?
336(2)
What Is the Terminology Used with Enzymes?
338(1)
What Factors Influence Enzyme Activity?
338(1)
What Are the Mechanisms of Enzyme Action?
339(6)
How Are Enzymes Regulated?
345(3)
How Are Enzymes Used in Medicine?
348(2)
What Are Transition-State Analogs and Designer Enzymes?
350(8)
Summary of Key Questions
353(1)
Problems
353
Muscle Relaxants and Enzyme Specificity
336(5)
Acidic Environment and Helicobacter
341(1)
Active Sites
342(2)
Medical Uses of Inhibitors
344(5)
Glycogen Phosphorylase: A Model of Enzyme Regulation
349(1)
One Enzyme, Two Functions
350(2)
Catalytic Antibodies Against Cocaine
352(6)
Chemical Communications: Neurotransmitters and Hormones
358(24)
What Molecules Are Involved in Chemical Communications?
358(2)
How Are Chemical Messengers Classified as Neurotransmitters and Hormones?
360(2)
How Does Acetylcholine Act as a Messenger?
362(6)
What Amino Acids Act as Neurotransmitters?
368(1)
What Are Adrenergic Messengers?
369(5)
What Is the Role of Peptides in Chemical Communication?
374(2)
How Do Steroid Hormones Act as Messengers?
376(6)
Summary of Key Questions
378(1)
Problems
379
Calcium as a Signaling Agent (Secondary Messenger)
363(2)
Nerve Gases and Antidotes
365(1)
Botulism and Acetylcholine Release
366(1)
Alzheimer's Disease and Acetylcholine Transferase
367(5)
Parkinson's Disease: Depletion of Dopamine
372(1)
Nitric Oxide as a Secondary Messenger
373(3)
Diabetes
376(1)
Tamoxifen and Breast Cancer
377(5)
Nucleotides, Nucleic Acids, and Heredity
382(29)
What Are the Molecules of Heredity?
382(1)
What Are Nucleic Acids Made of?
383(4)
What Is the Structure of DNA and RNA?
387(6)
What Are the Different Classes of RNA?
393(3)
What Are Genes?
396(1)
How Is DNA Replicated?
396(6)
How Is DNA Repaired?
402(3)
How Do We Amplify DNA?
405(6)
Summary of Key Questions
407(1)
Problems
408
Anticancer Drugs
387(11)
Telomeres, Telomerase, and Immortality
398(3)
DNA Fingerprinting
401(3)
Why Does DNA Contain Thymine and Not Uracil?
404(1)
Pharmacogenomics: Tailoring Medication to an Individual's Predisposition
405(6)
Gene Expression and Protein Synthesis
411(31)
How Does DNA Lead to RNA and Protein?
411(2)
How Is DNA Transcribed into RNA?
413(3)
What Is The Role of RNA in Translation?
416(1)
What Is the Genetic Code?
416(2)
How Is Protein Synthesized?
418(6)
How Are Genes Regulated?
424(8)
What Are Mutations?
432(2)
How and Why Do We Manipulate DNA?
434(3)
What Is Gene Therapy?
437(5)
Summary of Key Questions
439(1)
Problems
440
``Antisense'' Makes Sense
415(9)
Breaking the Dogma: The Twenty-First Amino Acid
424(1)
Viruses
425(4)
CREB: The Most Important Protein You Have Never Heard Of?
429(3)
Mutations and Biochemical Evolution
432(1)
Oncogenes
433(1)
p53: A Central Tumor Suppressor Protein
434(8)
Bioenergetics: How the Body Converts Food to Energy
442(22)
What Is Metabolism?
442(2)
What Are Mitochondria, and What Role Do They Play in Metabolism?
444(1)
What Are the Principal Compounds of the Common Metabolic Pathway?
445(4)
What Role Does the Citric Acid Cycle Play in Metabolism?
449(4)
How Do Electron and H+ Transport Take Place?
453(2)
What Is the Role of the Chemiosmotic Pump in ATP Production?
455(2)
What Is the Energy Yield Resulting from Electron and H+ Transport?
457(1)
How Is Chemical Energy Converted to Other Forms of Energy?
458(6)
Summary of Key Questions
459(1)
Problems
460
Uncoupling and Obesity
454(2)
Protection Against Oxidative Damage
456(8)
Specific Catabolic Pathways: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism
464(26)
What Is the General Outline of Catabolic Pathways?
464(1)
What Are the Reactions of Glycolysis?
465(5)
What Is the Energy Yield from Glucose Catabolism?
470(2)
How Does Glycerol Catabolism Take Place?
472(1)
What Are the Reactions of β-Oxidation of Fatty Acids?
472(2)
What Is the Energy Yield from Stearic Acid Catabolism?
474(1)
What Are Ketone Bodies?
475(2)
How Is the Nitrogen of Amino Acids Processed in Catabolism?
477(5)
How Are the Carbon Skeletons of Amino Acids Processed in Catabolism?
482(2)
What Are the Reactions of Catabolism of Heme?
484(6)
Summary of Key Questions
485(1)
Problems
486
Lactate Accumulation
469(5)
Effects of Signal Transduction on Metabolism
474(3)
Ketoacidosis in Diabetes
477(4)
Ubiquitin and Protein Targeting
481(1)
Hereditary Defects in Amino Acid Catabolism: PKU
482(2)
Jaundice
484(6)
Biosynthetic Pathways
490(15)
What Is the General Outline of Biosynthetic Pathways?
490(1)
How Does the Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates Take Place?
491(4)
How Does the Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids Take Place?
495(2)
How Does the Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids Take Place?
497(2)
How Does the Biosynthesis of Amino Acids Take Place?
499(6)
Summary of Key Questions
502(1)
Problems
502
Photosynthesis
494(5)
Prenylation of Ras Protein and Cancer
499(1)
Amino Acid Transport and Blue Diaper Syndrome
500(1)
Essential Amino Acids
501(4)
Nutrition
505(20)
How Do We Measure Nutrition?
505(4)
Why Do We Count Calories?
509(1)
How Does the Body Process Dietary Carbohydrates?
510(1)
How Does the Body Process Dietary Fats?
511(1)
How Does the Body Process Dietary Protein?
512(1)
What Is the Importance of Vitamins, Minerals, and Water?
513(12)
Summary of Key Questions
521(1)
Problems
522
The New Food Guide Pyramid
508(3)
Why Is It So Hard to Lose Weight?
511(3)
Dieting and Artificial Sweeteners
514(6)
Food for Performance Enhancement
520(5)
Immunochemistry
525
How Does the Body Defend Itself from Invasion?
525(3)
What Organs and Cells Make Up the Immune System?
528(3)
How Do Antigens Stimulate the Immune System?
531(1)
What Are Immunoglobulins?
532(6)
What Are T Cells and T-Cell Receptors?
538(3)
How Is the Immune Response Controlled?
541(1)
How Does the Body Distinguish ``Self'' from ``Nonself''?
542(3)
How Does the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cause AIDS?
545
Summary of Key Questions
551(2)
Problems
553
The Mayapple and Chemotherapy Agents
533(4)
Antibodies and Cancer Therapy
537(3)
Immunization
540(4)
Antibiotics: A Double-Edged Sword
544(6)
Why Are Stem Cells Special?
550
Blood Chemistry and Body Fluids
Appendix I Exponential Notation 1(4)
Appendix II Significant Figures 5(3)
Answers 8
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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