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Labor Relations

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780072987133

ISBN10:
0072987138
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/13/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Summary

Labor Relations: Development, Structure, Processes discusses the history and development of labor relations, the structure of union organizations, union organizing and union avoidance, bargaining issues, and the process of negotiations and contract administration. As a result of decreasing union membership over the last twenty years, more material in the book addresses employee relations in nonunion organizations including examples of both cooperative and adversarial relationships.

Table of Contents

About the Author v
Preface vii
Introduction
1(23)
The Parties Involved
3(1)
Contemporary Labor Relations
3(1)
What Unions Do
4(1)
Collective Behavior
5(2)
Group Cohesiveness
6(1)
Class Consciousness
6(1)
External Threat
7(1)
Why Workers Unionize
7(5)
Catalyst for Organization
8(1)
Individuals and Union Organizing
8(4)
Beliefs about Unions
12(2)
Willingness to Vote for Union Representation
12(2)
The Local Community
14(1)
Union Member Beliefs
14(1)
Unions, Their Members, and Decision-Making
14(1)
Labor Unions in the 2000s
15(5)
Transformation in Industrial Relations Systems
17(1)
What Should Unions Do?
18(2)
Summary and Preview
20(3)
Plan of the Book
20(3)
Key Terms
23(1)
Web Sites
23(1)
The Evolution of American Labor
24(31)
Union Philosophies and Types in the United States
24(1)
Early Unions and the Conspiracy Doctrine
25(3)
Philadelphia Cordwainers
26(1)
Commonwealth v. Hunt
27(1)
Pre-Civil War Unions
27(1)
The Birth of National Unions
28(3)
The National Labor Union
28(1)
The Knights of Labor
28(2)
The American Federation of Labor
30(1)
Labor Unrest
31(5)
The IWW and the Western Federation of Miners
32(3)
The Boycott Cases
35(1)
Early Legislation
35(1)
Trade Union Success and Apathy
36(2)
World War I
36(1)
The American Plan
36(1)
The End of an Era
37(1)
Industrial Unions
38(2)
The Industrial Union Leadership
38(1)
Organizing the Industrial Workforce
39(1)
Legislation
40(1)
Norris-LaGuardia Act (1932)
40(1)
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
40(1)
Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act, 1935)
41(1)
Employer Intransigence
41(2)
Constitutionality of the Wagner Act
42(1)
Labor Power
43(3)
World War II
45(1)
Reconversion
46(1)
Changing the Balance
46(2)
Taft-Hartley Act
46(1)
The New Production Paradigm
47(1)
Retrenchment and Merger
48(2)
Merger
48(1)
Corruption
49(1)
Landrum-Griffin Act
49(1)
Public-Sector Union Growth
50(1)
Federal Executive Orders
50(1)
Civil Service Reform Act
50(1)
Labor in Crisis and Transition
50(2)
Rising Employer Militancy
51(1)
Striker Replacements
52(1)
New Union Leadership
52(1)
Summary
52(2)
Discussion Questions
54(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
Selected Web Sites with Labor History Information
54(1)
Labor Law and Federal Agencies
55(23)
Overview
55(2)
Railway Labor Act (1926)
57(2)
Norris-LaGuardia Act (1932)
59(1)
Wagner Act (1935) and Taft-Hartley Act (1947) (as Amended)
60(6)
Definitions
61(1)
National Labor Relations Board
62(1)
Unfair Labor Practices
62(2)
Representation Elections
64(1)
Unfair Labor Practices Charges and NLRB Procedures
65(1)
Right-to-Work Laws
65(1)
Religious Objections to Union Membership in Health Care Organizations
65(1)
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
65(1)
National Emergency Disputes
65(1)
Suits, Political Action, and Financial Relationships
66(1)
Summary and Overview
66(1)
Landrum-Griffin Act (1959)
66(1)
Bill of Rights for Union Members
66(1)
Reports Required of Unions and Employers
67(1)
Trusteeships
67(1)
Other Federal Laws and Regulations
67(2)
Byrnes Act (1936)
67(1)
Copeland Anti-Kickback Act (1934)
68(1)
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (1970)
68(1)
Effects of Implementation of Laws
69(1)
Federal Departments and Agencies
69(6)
Department of Labor
69(3)
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
72(1)
National Mediation Board
72(1)
National Labor Relations Board
73(2)
Labor Law Reform: a Continuing Controversy
75(1)
Trade Treaties
76(1)
Summary
76(1)
Discussion Questions
77(1)
Key Terms
77(1)
Selected Web Sites of Federal Agencies
77(1)
Union Structure and Government
78(34)
The Local Union
78(6)
Local Union Democracy
81(1)
Functional Democracy
81(2)
Independent Local Unions
83(1)
National Unions
84(17)
National Union Goals
84(5)
National Union Jurisdictions
89(1)
National Structure
90(7)
National-Local Union Relationship
97(1)
National Union Headquarters Operations
98(1)
National Union Governance and Politics
99(1)
National Unions and Public Policy
100(1)
The AFL-CIO
101(3)
State and Local Central Bodies
104(1)
Overview of the Union Hierarchy
104(1)
National Union Mergers
105(1)
Union Finances
106(4)
Organization Receipts and Disbursements
108(1)
Financial Malfeasance
109(1)
Pension Administration
110(1)
Summary
110(1)
Discussion Questions
111(1)
Key Terms
111(1)
Selected Union Web Sites
111(1)
Websites with Links to Large Numbers of National and Local Unions
111(1)
Unions: Member and Leader Attitudes, Behaviors, and Political Activities
112(25)
The Individual and the Local Union
113(9)
Joining and Socialization
113(1)
Member Participation
114(5)
Commitment to the Union
119(3)
Local Union Effectiveness and Member Behavior
122(1)
The Individual as a Union Officer
122(4)
Stewards
122(2)
Local Officers
124(2)
National Unions and Their Environment
126(9)
Employment Law and Administration
126(1)
The Economy
127(1)
Globalization and Organized Labor
128(3)
Political Action
131(3)
Lobbying
134(1)
Use of Union Dues for Political Activity
135(1)
Summary
135(1)
Discussion Questions
136(1)
Key Terms
136(1)
Selected Web Sites of Ongoing Political Action Groups
136(1)
Union Organizing Campaigns
137(35)
Organizing and Union Effectiveness
138(1)
How Organizing Begins
138(5)
The Framework for Organizing
139(1)
Representation Elections
140(3)
Bargaining Unit Determination
143(7)
Legal Constraints
143(2)
Jurisdiction of the Organizing Union
145(1)
The Union's Desired Unit
146(1)
The Employer's Desired Unit
146(1)
NLRB Policy
147(2)
Other Issues in Unit Determination
149(1)
The Organizing Campaign
150(12)
Employer Size and Elections
152(1)
General Organizing Campaign Rules
153(2)
Union Strategy and Tactics
155(5)
Management Strategy and Tactics
160(2)
The Role of the NLRB
162(5)
Election Certifications
163(1)
Setting Aside Elections
163(1)
The Impact of Board Remedies
163(1)
Election Outcomes
164(1)
Other Types of Representation Changes
164(1)
Contextual Characteristics Related to Election Results
165(2)
First Contracts
167(1)
Summary
168(1)
Discussion Questions
169(1)
Key Terms
169(1)
Selected Web Sites
169(1)
Case: GMFC Custom Conveyer Division
170(2)
Union Organizing
170(1)
Management
171(1)
Problem
171(1)
Union Avoidance: Rationale, Strategies, and Practices
172(22)
Historical Overview
172(3)
Capitalistic and Trade Union Philosophies
173(1)
Employer Resistance before World War II
173(1)
The Corporatist Period
174(1)
Union-Free Employment
174(1)
The Economic Rationale
175(2)
Inflexible Rules
175(1)
Profitability
175(1)
Shareholder Value
176(1)
Company Investment Decisions
176(1)
Industrial Structure
177(1)
Union-Free Approaches
177(10)
Environmental Factors Associated with Union Avoidance
177(1)
A Philosophy-Laden Approach to Employee Relations
178(1)
Wage Policies
179(1)
Nonwage Policies
179(2)
Employment Security
181(1)
Employee ``Voice'' Systems
182(3)
Other Innovative Techniques
185(1)
Developing Practices in Nonunion Employee Relations
186(1)
Preventive Programs
187(1)
Management Campaign Tactics in Representation Elections
188(2)
Decertifications
190(1)
Job Structuring
191(1)
Summary
191(1)
Discussion Questions
192(1)
Key Terms
192(1)
Case: Locating the New Recreational Vehicle Plant
193(1)
The Environment for Bargaining
194(33)
The Legal and Political Structure
195(4)
Regulation of Employment
196(1)
Waxing and Waning of Corporatist Approaches in U.S. Labor Relations
197(2)
Public Policy and Industrial Organization
199(1)
Competition and Concentration in Markets
199(1)
Regulation and Deregulation
200(1)
Global Competition
201(2)
Changes in Consumer Demand
203(1)
Employer Interests
203(6)
Labor as a Derived Demand
204(1)
Labor-Capital Substitution
205(3)
Labor Markets
208(1)
Employee Interests
209(1)
Union Interests
209(1)
Bargaining Power
210(3)
Ability to Continue Operations (or Take a Strike)
211(1)
Union Bargaining Power
212(1)
Bargaining Structures
213(12)
Multiemployer Bargaining
214(2)
Industrywide Bargaining
216(1)
National/Local Bargaining
216(1)
Wide-Area and Multicraft Bargaining
217(1)
Pattern Bargaining
217(1)
Conglomerates and Multinationals
218(1)
Coordinated Bargaining
219(1)
Craft Units within an Employer
219(1)
Centralization and Decentralization in Bargaining
219(1)
Changes in Industrial Bargaining Structures and Outcomes
220(2)
Public Policy and Court Decisions
222(1)
Influence of Bargaining Power and Structure
223(2)
Summary
225(1)
Discussion Questions
226(1)
Key Terms
226(1)
Case: Material Handling Equipment Association Bargaining Group
226(1)
Wage and Benefit Issues in Bargaining
227(35)
Union and Employer Interests
227(1)
Components of Wage Demands
228(2)
Equity
228(1)
Ability to Pay
229(1)
Standard of Living
229(1)
Pay Programs
230(19)
Pay Level
231(3)
Pay Structure
234(5)
Pay Form
239(3)
Pay System
242(7)
Union Effects on Pay
249(7)
Union Effects on Pay Levels
250(4)
Union Effects on Pay Structures and Inequality
254(1)
Union Effects on Pay Form
255(1)
Union Effects on Pay Systems
256(1)
Union Effects on Firm Performance
256(2)
Productivity
256(1)
Organizational Investment and Growth Decisions
257(1)
Profitability and Returns to Shareholders
258(1)
Wage Clauses Found in Contracts
258(2)
Summary
260(1)
Discussion Questions
260(1)
Key Terms
260(1)
Selected Web Sites
260(1)
Case: Health Care Costs and Employment Levels
261(1)
Nonwage Issues in Bargaining
262(23)
Nonwage Provisions of Current Contracts
262(2)
Union and Management Goals for Nonwage Issues
264(1)
Design of Work
264(4)
Work Design History
264(4)
Hours of Work
268(3)
Federal Wage and Hour Laws
268(1)
Collective Bargaining and Work Schedules
269(1)
Entitlements to and Restrictions on Overtime
270(1)
Shift Assignments and Differentials
270(1)
Alternative Work Schedules
270(1)
Paid Time Off
270(1)
Length of Contracts
271(1)
Union and Management Rights
271(1)
Discipline and Discharge
272(1)
Grievance and Arbitration
272(1)
Strikes and Lockouts
273(1)
Union Security
274(1)
Working Conditions and Safety
275(1)
Seniority and Job Security
276(2)
Layoff Procedures
277(1)
Promotions and Transfers
277(1)
Time Away from Work
278(1)
No Discrimination
278(1)
Effects of Unions on Nonwage Outcomes
278(5)
Union Influences on Hiring
278(1)
Promotions, Transfers, and Turnover
279(2)
Retirement Programs
281(1)
Job Satisfaction
282(1)
Summary
283(1)
Discussion Questions
284(1)
Key Terms
284(1)
Case: GMFC Attitude Survey
284(1)
Contract Negotiations
285(67)
Management Preparation
287(6)
Negotiation Objectives and the Bargaining Team
287(1)
Reviewing the Expiring Contract
287(1)
Preparing Data for Negotiations
287(1)
Identification of Probable Union Demands
288(1)
Costing the Contract
288(4)
Bargaining Books
292(1)
Strike Preparation
292(1)
Strategy and Logistics
292(1)
Union Preparation
293(4)
National-Level Activities
293(3)
Local-Level Preparations
296(1)
Negotiation Requests
297(1)
What Is Bargaining?
297(2)
Behavioral Theories of Labor Negotiations
299(5)
Distributive Bargaining
299(3)
Integrative Bargaining
302(1)
Attitudinal Structuring
302(2)
Intraorganizational Bargaining
304(1)
Bargainers and the Bargaining Environment
304(6)
Attributes of the Parties
304(2)
The Process of Negotiation
306(2)
Perceptions of Bargainers
308(1)
The Roles of the Actors in Negotiations
309(1)
Contract Negotiations
310(4)
Initial Presentations
310(1)
Bargaining on Specific Issues
310(1)
Tactics in Distributive Bargaining
311(1)
Committing to a Position
311(1)
Deadlines
312(1)
Settlements and Ratifications
312(2)
Nonagreement
314(1)
Bargaining Outcomes
314(2)
Summary
316(1)
Discussion Questions
317(1)
Key Terms
317(1)
Mock Negotiating Exercise
317(14)
Contract Costing
318(6)
Approach
324(1)
Demands
324(1)
Organization for Negotiations
325(1)
Negotiations
326(1)
Additional Information
326(5)
Agreement between General Manufacturing & Fabrication Company, Central City, Indiana, and Local 384, United Steelworkers of America AFL-CIO
331(21)
Impasses and Their Resolution
352(29)
Impasse Definition
352(1)
Third-Party Involvement
353(1)
Mediation
353(5)
Mediator Behavior and Outcomes
354(2)
Mediator Backgrounds and Training
356(1)
Mediator Activity
357(1)
Fact-Finding
358(1)
Fact-Finding and the Issues
359(1)
Interest Arbitration
359(1)
Review of Third-Party Involvements
360(1)
Strikes
361(15)
Strike Votes and Going Out
361(1)
Picketing
362(2)
Slowdowns
364(1)
Corporate Campaigns
365(1)
Coordinated Campaigns
366(1)
Employer Responses to Strikes
367(3)
Rights of Economic Strikers
370(1)
Evidence on the Incidence, Duration, and Effects of Strikes
370(6)
Boycotts
376(1)
Lockouts
377(1)
Perishable Goods
377(1)
Multiemployer Lockouts
378(1)
Single-Employer Lockouts
378(1)
Bankruptcies
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Discussion Questions
380(1)
Key Terms
380(1)
Selected Web Sites
380(1)
Case: GMFC Impasse
380(1)
Union-Management Cooperation
381(30)
Labor and Management Roles and the Changing Environment
381(3)
Organizing and the Evolving Bargaining Relationship
382(1)
Preferences of Management and Labor
382(1)
Levels of Cooperation and Control
383(1)
Integrative Bargaining
384(5)
Mutual Gains Bargaining
385(1)
FMCS Innovations
386(3)
The Use and Effects of Interest-Based Bargaining
389(1)
Creating and Sustaining Cooperation
389(2)
Methods of Cooperation
391(2)
Areawide Labor-Management Committees
392(1)
Joint Labor-Management Committees
392(1)
Workplace Interventions
393(12)
Employee Involvement and Quality-of-Work Life Programs
395(2)
Team-Based Approaches
397(1)
Alternative Governance Forms
398(1)
Union Political Processes and the Diffusion of Change
398(2)
Management Strategy
400(1)
Research on the Effects of Cooperation across Organizations
401(2)
Research on the Long-Term Effects of Cooperation
403(2)
High Performance Work Organizations
405(1)
Workplace Restructuring
405(1)
The Legality of Cooperation Plans
406(1)
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
407(1)
The Diffusion and Institutionalization of Change
407(1)
Summary
408(1)
Discussion Questions
409(1)
Key Terms
409(1)
Case: Continuing or Abandoning the Special-Order Fabrication Business
409(2)
Directions
410(1)
Contract Administration
411(26)
The Duty to Bargain
411(1)
Conventional Contract Administration
412(1)
Empowered Work Environments
412(1)
Issues in Contract Administration
412(4)
Discipline
412(1)
Incentives
413(1)
Work Assignments
414(1)
Individual Personnel Assignments
414(1)
Hours of Work
414(1)
Supervisors Doing Production Work
414(1)
Production Standards
414(1)
Working Conditions
414(1)
Subcontracting
415(1)
Past Practice
415(1)
Rules
415(1)
Prevalence of Issues
416(1)
Grievance Procedures
416(6)
Steps in the Grievance Procedure
416(5)
Time Involved
421(1)
Methods of Dispute Resolution
422(3)
Project Labor Agreements
423(1)
Wildcat Strikes
423(1)
Discipline for Wildcat Strikes
423(1)
Grievance Mediation
424(1)
Employee and Union Rights in Grievance Processing
425(3)
To What Is the Employee Entitled?
425(1)
Fair Representation
425(3)
Grievances and Bargaining
428(5)
Union Responses to Management Action
428(1)
Fractional Bargaining
428(1)
Union Initiatives in Grievances
429(2)
Individual Union Members and Grievances
431(2)
Effects of Grievances on Employers and Employees
433(2)
Summary
435(1)
Discussion Questions
435(1)
Key Terms
435(1)
Case: New Production Equipment: Greater Efficiency with Less Effort or a Speedup?
436(1)
Directions
436(1)
Grievance Arbitration
437(28)
What Is Arbitration?
437(1)
Development of Arbitration
438(5)
Steelworkers' Trilogy
438(1)
The 1962 Trilogy
439(1)
Additional Supreme Court Decisions on Arbitration in Unionized Firms
440(1)
NLRB Deferral to Arbitration
440(1)
Exceptions to Deferral
441(2)
Arbitration Procedures
443(9)
Prearbitration Matters
443(1)
Selection of an Arbitrator
443(1)
Sources and Qualifications of Arbitrators
444(4)
Prehearing
448(1)
Hearing Processes
449(1)
Representatives of the Parties
449(1)
Presentation of the Case
449(1)
Posthearing
450(1)
Evidentiary Rules
450(1)
Arbitral Remedies
451(1)
Preparation of the Award
452(1)
Procedural Difficulties and Their Resolutions
452(3)
Expedited Arbitration
454(1)
Inadequate Representation
454(1)
Arbitration of Discipline Cases
455(3)
Role of Discipline
455(1)
Evidence
455(1)
Uses of Punishment
456(1)
Substance Abuse Cases
457(1)
Sexual Harassment Violations
458(1)
Fighting
458(1)
Arbitration of Past Practice Disputes
458(1)
Arbitral Decisions and the Role of Arbitration
459(2)
Summary
461(1)
Discussion Questions
461(1)
Key Terms
461(1)
Cases
461(4)
Case 1
461(1)
Case 2
462(1)
Case 3
463(1)
Case 4
463(2)
Public-Sector Labor Relations
465(30)
Public-Sector Labor Law
465(10)
Federal Labor Relations Law
466(1)
State Labor Laws
467(8)
Public Employee Unions
475(2)
Bargaining Rights and Organizing
477(1)
Public-Sector Bargaining Processes
477(6)
Bargaining Structures
477(1)
Management Organization for Bargaining
478(1)
Multilateral Bargaining
478(1)
Bargaining Outcomes
479(4)
Union-Management Cooperation
483(1)
Impasse Procedures
483(10)
Fact-Finding
484(1)
Arbitration
485(6)
Strikes
491(2)
Summary
493(1)
Discussion Questions
493(1)
Case: Teacher Bargaining at Pleasant Ridge
493(2)
Questions
494(1)
A Survey of Labor Relations in Market Economies
495(26)
The Development of Labor Movements
496(2)
The Structure of Labor Movements
498(6)
Works Councils
499(1)
Globalization
500(4)
Organizing and Representation
504(4)
Bargaining Issues
508(1)
Bargaining Structures
509(3)
Impasses
512(1)
Union-Management Cooperation
513(2)
Contract Administration
515(1)
Public-Sector Unionization
515(3)
Comparative Effects of Unionization
518(1)
Summary
519(1)
Discussion Questions
520(1)
Key Term
520(1)
Glossary 521(11)
Author Index 532(12)
Subject Index 544


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