Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 1/8/2013
  • Publisher: Pearson

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The Laboratory Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry , third edition, by Karen C. Timberlake contains 35  experiments related to the content of general, organic, and biological chemistry courses, as well as basic/preparatory chemistry courses. The labs included give students an opportunity to go beyond the lectures and words in the textbook to experience the scientific process from which conclusions and theories are drawn.

Author Biography

Karen Timberlake is professor emeritus of chemistry at Los Angeles Valley College, where she taught chemistry for allied health and preparatory chemistry for 36 years. She received her bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of Washington and her Master’s degree in biochemistry from the University of California at Los Angeles.

Professor Timberlake has been writing chemistry textbooks for 30 years. During that time, her name has become associated with the strategic use of pedagogical tools that promote student success in chemistry and the application of chemistry to real-life situations. More than one million students have learned chemistry using texts, laboratory manuals, and study guides written by Karen Timberlake. In addition to Basic Chemistry, she is also the author of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Structures of Life, Second Edition and Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Ninth Edition with the accompanying Study Guide with Solutions for Selected Problems, Laboratory Manual, and Essentials Laboratory Manual.

Professor Timberlake belongs to numerous science and educational organizations including the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). In 1987, she was the Western Regional Winner of Excellence in College Chemistry Teaching Award given by the Chemical Manufacturers Association. In 2004, she received the McGuffey Award in Physical Sciences by the Textbook Author Association, awarded for textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time. In 2006, she also received the Texty “Textbook” Excellence Award from the Textbook Authors Association for the first edition of Basic Chemistry. She has participated in education grants for science teaching including the Los Angeles Collaborative for Teaching Excellence (LACTE) and a Title III grant at her college. She often speaks at conferences and educational meetings on the use of student-centered teaching methods in chemistry to promote the learning success of students.




Table of Contents


To the Student

Using This Laboratory Manual

Working Safely in the Laboratory

Commitment to Safety in the Laboratory

A Visual Guide to Laboratory Equipment

Graphing Experimental Data

Using the Laboratory Burner

Using a Pipet


1 Measurement and Significant Figures

A. Measuring Length

B. Measuring Volume

C. Measuring Mass


2 Conversion Factors and Problem Solving

A. Rounding Off

B. Significant Figures in Calculations

C. Equalities and Conversion Factors

D. Problem Solving Using Conversion Factors


3 Density and Specific Gravity

A. Density of a Liquid

B. Specific Gravity

C. Density of a Solid

D. Graphing Mass and Volume


4 Temperature and Specific Heat

A. Temperature

B. Specific Heat of a Metal

C. Energy and Nutrition

D. Energy Values for Foods


5 Energy and Matter

A. A Heating Curve for Water

B. Graphing a Cooling Curve for Salol

C. Energy in Changes of State: Heat of Fusion


6 Atoms and Elements

A. Elements and Symbols

B. The Periodic Table

C. The Atoms

D. Isotopes and Atomic Mass


7 Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties

A. Flame Tests

B. Electron Configurations

C. Atomic Radius


8 Nuclear Chemistry

A. Nuclear Equations

B. Radiation Measurement

C. Radiation Levels from Radioactive Sources

D. Effect of Shielding on Radiation Level

E. Effect of Time on Radiation Level

F. Effect of Distance on Radiation Level


9 Compounds and Their Bonds

A. Ions: Transfer of Electrons

B. Ionic Compounds and Formulas

C. Metals in Ionic Compounds with Variable Charge

D. Polyatomic Ions

E. Molecular Compounds

F. Electron-Dot Formulas and Molecular Shape


10 Chemical Reactions and Equations

A. Magnesium and Oxygen

B. Zinc and Copper (II) Sulfate

C. Reactions of Metals and HCl

D. Reactions of Ionic Compounds

E. Sodium Carbonate and HCl

F. Hydrogen Perioxide


11 Moles and Chemical Formulas

A. Finding the Simplest Formula

B. Formula of a Hydrate 114


12 Gas Laws

A. Boyle’s Law

B. Charles’s Law


13 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

A. Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Air

B. Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

C. Carbon Dioxide in the Expired Air


14 Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration

A. Polarity of Solutes and Solvents

B. Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

C. Electrolytes in Body Fluids

D. Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution


15 Soluble and Insoluble Salts

A. Soluble and Insoluble Salts

B. Solubility of KNO3

C. Testing the hardness of Water

D. Purification of Water


16 Testing for Cations and Anions

A. Flames Tests for K+ , Ca2+ , and Na+ Ions

B. Tests for Ammonium Ion, NH4+ , and Iron(III) Ion, Fe3+

C. Tests for Negative Ions (Anions)

D. Writing the Formula of Your Unknown Salt

E. Testing Consumer Products for Some Cations and Anions


17 Properties of Solutions

A. Identification Tests

B. Osmosis and Dialysis

C. Filtration


18 Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium

A. Factors That Affect the Rate of a Reaction

B. Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible Reactions

C. Changing Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle


19 Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers

A. Reference Colors for pH Using Red Cabbage Indicator

B. Measuring pH

C. Effect of Buffers on pH


20 Acid-Base Titration

A. Acetic Acid in Vinegar

B. Titration of an Antacid


21 Organic Compounds: Alkanes

A. Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Compounds

B. Alkanes

C. Functional Groups


22 Reactions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

A. Types of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

B. Addition Reaction: Bromine Test

C. Oxidation: Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4 ) Test

D. Identification of Unknown


23 Alcohols and Phenols

A. Structures of Alcohols and Phenol

B. Properties of Alcohols and Phenol

C. Oxidation of Alcohols

D. Ferric Chloride Test

E. Identification of Unknown


24 Aldehydes and Ketones

A. Structures of Some Aldehydes and Ketones

B. Odor of Aldehydes and Ketones

C. Solubility, Iodoform Test, and Benedict’s


25 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

A. Carboxylic Acids and Their Salts

B. Esters

C. Saponificiation


26 Aspirin and Other Analgesics

A. Preparation of Aspirin

B. Testing Aspirin Products

C. Analysis of Analgesics


27 Amines and Amides

A. Structure, Classification, and Solubility of Amines

B. Neutralization of Amines with Acid

C. Amides

D. Hydrolysis of an Amide


28 Synthesis of Acetaminophen

Synthesis of Acetaminophen


29 Types of Carbohydrates

A. Monosaccharides

B. Disaccharides

C. Polysaccharides


30 Tests for Carbohydrates

A. Benedict’s Test for Reducing Sugars

B. Seliwanoff’s Test for Ketoses

C. Fermentation Test

D. Iodine Test for Polysaccharides

E. Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

F. Testing Foods for Carbohydrates


31 Lipids

A. Physical Properties of Lipids and Fatty Acids

B. Triacylglycerols

C. Bromine Test for Unsaturation

D. Preparation of Hand Lotion


32 Saponification and Soaps

A. Saponification: Preparation of Soap

B. Properties of Soap and Detergents


33 Amino Acids

A. Amino Acids

B. Chromatography of Amino Acids


34 Peptides and Proteins

A. Peptides

B. Proteins

C. Denaturation of Proteins

D. Isolation of Casein (Milk Protein)

E. Color Tests for Proteins


35 Enzymes

A. Effect of Enzyme Concentration

B. Effect of Temperature

C. Effect of pH

D. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity

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