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Latin America and Its People, Combined Volume,9780321061638
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Latin America and Its People, Combined Volume

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780321061638

ISBN10:
0321061632
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

Offering a balance of social, political, environmental and cultural history, this exciting new textbook looks at the whole of Latin America in a thematic rather than country-by-country approach, while emphasizing the story of the diverse people of Latin America, their everyday lives, and the issues and forces that affect them. Written by two of the leading scholars in the field, Cheryl Martin and Mark Wasserman, Latin America and Its People presents a fresh interpretative survey of Latin American history from pre-Columbian times to the beginning of the Twenty-First Century, where the lives of Latin Americans are given center stage. It examines the many institutions that Latin Americans have built and rebuilt families governments from the village level to the nation-state, churches, political parties, labor unions, schools, and armies, and it does so through the lives of the people who forged these institutions and tried to alter them to meet the changing circumstances.

Table of Contents

List of Features
xx
List of Maps and Color Plates
xxii
Preface xxv
About the Authors xxxii
The First Peoples of the Americas
1(33)
The First Americans
2(5)
Coming to America
2(1)
Subsistence Strategies and the Development of Agriculture
3(1)
Sedentary Communities and Ceremonial Centers
4(3)
Ceremonial Centers in Mexico and Peru
7(4)
The Olmec: ``Mother Culture'' of Mexico?
7(2)
Chavin de Huantar in Peru
9(2)
The Cities of Classic Mesoamerica
11(8)
Monte Alban
11(2)
Teotihuacan
13(2)
Maya Civilization in the Classic Era
15(4)
Peru After Chavin
19(5)
The Moche
19(2)
The Nazca
21(1)
Tiwanaku
21(2)
The Wari Empire
23(1)
Mesoamerica and Peru, 900--1400 C.E.
24(5)
The Toltecs
24(1)
The Mixtecs of Oaxaca
25(1)
The Post-Classic Maya
26(1)
Peru after Tiwanaku and Wari
27(2)
The World of Early Americans
29(3)
People and Their Environment
29(1)
Early Americans and Their Beliefs
30(1)
Communities, States, and War
31(1)
Conclusion
32(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
33(1)
Americans and Iberians on the Eve of Contact
34(34)
Mesoamerica in the Fifteenth Century
35(8)
The Rise of the Mexica
36(1)
Mexica Statecraft
37(2)
Mexica Religion
39(1)
Everyday Life in the Time of the Mexica
40(1)
Mesoamerica on the Eve of the Spanish Invasion
41(2)
The Andes in the Fifteenth Century
43(11)
The Rise of the Incas
43(2)
Inca Statecraft
45(1)
Andean Religion in the Time of the Incas
46(2)
Everyday Life in the Time of the Incas
48(3)
The Aztecs and Incas Compared
51(3)
The Diversity of American Peoples
54(4)
The Tainos and Caribs
54(2)
The Tupi of Coastal Brazil
56(1)
The ``Pueblo'' Peoples of New Mexico
57(1)
The Spanish and the Portuguese
58(8)
Centuries of Conquest
58(1)
Medieval Iberia and the Reconquista
59(2)
Iberian Monarchies in the Fifteenth Century
61(1)
The Breakdown of Iberian ``Convivencia''
62(1)
Iberian Society in the Fifteenth Century
63(2)
Iberia and the Beginnings of Overseas Expansion
65(1)
Conclusion
66(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
67(1)
The European Conquest of America
68(36)
The Europeans Arrive
70(6)
Columbus and the First Encounters
70(1)
The Caribbean Colonies
71(1)
The Portuguese in Brazil
72(4)
The Spanish in Mesoamerica and the Andes
76(9)
Cortes and the Aztecs
76(4)
The Search for ``Otro Mexico''
80(1)
The Pizarros and the Incas
81(3)
Military Conquest or Strategic Alliance?
84(1)
Building a Colonial Society
85(6)
The Ecological Conquest
85(1)
Conquistadors, Encomenderos, and Native Peoples
86(2)
A Multiracial Society in Formation
88(3)
The ``Spiritual Conquest'' of Latin America
91(4)
Early Evangelization
91(2)
The Impact of Evangelization
93(1)
Resistance to Christianity
94(1)
The Consolidation of Colonial Empires
95(7)
The Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru
96(1)
The Spanish Colonial Bureaucracy
97(1)
Royal Government in Brazil
98(1)
The Church in Spanish America and Brazil
99(1)
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires
100(2)
Conclusion
102(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
103(1)
The Iberians' New World
104(33)
The Lure of Precious Metals
105(8)
The Silver Boom
106(1)
Labor and Technology in Silver Mining
106(1)
Recruiting a Labor Supply
107(5)
Gold Mining in Brazil
112(1)
Agriculture
113(13)
Sugar Plantations
113(4)
Haciendas and Ranches
117(2)
Landownership
119(2)
Landed Elites
121(1)
Rural Society
122(4)
Trade and Transportation
126(4)
International Commerce
126(1)
Overland Transport
127(1)
Merchants
128(1)
Mercantile Restrictions
129(1)
Cities and Towns in the Iberians' New World
130(5)
Capital Cities
131(1)
Provincial Capitals and Other Towns
132(1)
Urban Amenities
133(1)
Urban Working Classes
133(2)
Conclusion
135(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
136(1)
The Amerindians' Changing World
137(32)
Native Communities in Mesoamerica and the Andes
138(8)
Shifting Populations in the Republica de Indios
139(2)
Local Government in the Republica de Indios
141(1)
Subsistence and Survival in the Republica de Indios
142(2)
Native Communities and the Cash Economy
144(1)
Families and Households in the Republica de Indios
145(1)
Religion and Community Life in the Republica de Indios
146(6)
Natives as Catholics
147(1)
Belief and Practice in the Republica de Indios
148(3)
Religion and Community Identity
151(1)
Mission Indians
152(6)
Jesuit and Franciscan Missions
153(3)
Native Peoples in the Jesuit and Franciscan Missions
156(1)
Mission Indians and Colonial Society
157(1)
Native Peoples and the Colonial Order
158(9)
Indians in the Republica de Espanoles
158(4)
``Indios Barbaros''
162(1)
Regional Revolts
163(1)
Native Historical Memory and the Colonial Order
164(3)
Conclusion
167(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
168(1)
A New People and Their World
169(34)
The Making of Multi-Ethnic Societies
170(7)
Spanish and Portuguese Immigrants
171(1)
Creoles
172(1)
Mestizos and Mamelucos
172(1)
African Slaves
173(1)
Slave Resistance
174(2)
Free Blacks and Mulattos
176(1)
Race and Class in Colonial Latin America
177(5)
Social and Cultural Definitions of Race
178(3)
Class and Ethnicity
181(1)
Honor, Gender, and Patriarchy
182(12)
Honor and the Patriarchal Family
183(1)
Marriage and the Family
183(1)
Honor and Sexuality
184(2)
Honor and Homosexuality
186(1)
The Limits of Patriarchy
187(3)
Convents: ``Islands of Women''
190(2)
Convents and Colonial Society
192(2)
Conformity and Defiance in Colonial Society
194(7)
The Social Etiquette of Everyday Life
194(1)
The Administration of Justice
195(2)
The Inquisition and Deviant Behavior
197(1)
Rituals of Rule
197(1)
Scatological Songs and Dances of Defiance
198(3)
Conclusion
201(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
201(2)
The Shifting Fortunes of Colonial Empires
203(33)
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in Eighteenth-Century Politics
204(7)
Great Britain and Latin America
204(2)
The Seven Years' War
206(2)
The American Revolution and Latin America
208(1)
The French Revolution and Latin America
209(1)
The Haitian Revolution
210(1)
The Bourbon and Pombaline Reforms
211(11)
Defending the Spanish Empire
212(2)
Administrative Restructuring and New Viceroyalties
214(1)
The Power of the Church
214(4)
Economic Development
218(4)
Latin American Peoples in the Age of Revolution
222(5)
Social Change in the Late Colonial Period
222(2)
The Changing Face of Colonial Cities
224(1)
The Enlightenment in Latin America
225(2)
Resistance and Rebellion in the Late Colonial Period
227(6)
Developing Creole Consciousness
227(1)
Resistance to the Bourbon Reforms
228(1)
Conspiracies in Brazil
229(1)
The Great Rebellion in Peru
230(3)
Conclusion
233(2)
Learning More About Latin Americans
235(1)
The New Nations of Latin America
236(26)
Spanish America and the Crisis of 1808
237(5)
Spain and the Napoleonic Invasion
238(2)
Representative Government in Spain and America, 1808--1814
240(1)
The ``American Question''
241(1)
Spanish American Grievances and the Crisis of 1808
242(4)
Mexico
243(2)
Venezuela
245(1)
Argentina
245(1)
Spanish American Independence
246(7)
The Final Campaigns
246(6)
Regional Conflicts in the Spanish American Struggle for Independence
252(1)
The Independence of Brazil
253(7)
The Portuguese Monarchy in Brazil
253(1)
Popular Unrest in Brazil
254(1)
The Culmination of Brazilian Independence
255(1)
The Meaning of Independence
256(4)
Conclusion
260(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
261(1)
Regionalism, War, and Reconstruction: Politics and Economics, 1821--1880
262(36)
Dilemmas of Nationhood
263(4)
Who Governs and What Form of Government?
264(1)
Federalism/Centralism and Liberalism/Conservatism
265(2)
The Challenge of Regionalism
267(5)
Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, and Central America
269(2)
Brazil and Chile
271(1)
A Century of War
272(11)
Wars of Political Consolidation
274(1)
Intra-regional Wars
274(1)
Foreign Wars
275(2)
Civil Wars
277(2)
The Impact of War
279(4)
Popular Participation
283(3)
Caudillos
286(5)
The Challenge of Economic Recovery
291(4)
Obstacles to Development
292(1)
Export Economies
293(2)
Conclusion
295(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
296(2)
Everyday Life in an Uncertain Age, 1821--1880
298(30)
The People
299(2)
The Large Estates: Haciendas, Estancias, Plantations, Fazendas
301(11)
Work Life
301(3)
Domestic Life
304(3)
Plantations and Slavery
307(5)
Villages and Small Holders
312(3)
Religion
315(1)
Urban Life and Societal Transformation
315(5)
The Cities
315(2)
Transformations
317(3)
Food, Clothes, Shelter, and Entertainment
320(6)
Conclusion
326(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
326(2)
Economic Modernization, Society, and Politics, 1880--1920
328(29)
Economic Modernization
330(5)
Exports
330(2)
The Downside of Export-Led Modernization
332(2)
Railroads
334(1)
Modernization and Social Change
335(7)
Population Increase
335(1)
New Classes, New Voices
336(4)
Rural Discontent
340(1)
Mass Movements of People
341(1)
Politics in the Age of Modernization
342(9)
A Modernized Military
343(1)
The Rule of the Ranchers and Planters: Argentina and Brazil
344(2)
Democracy in Chile
346(1)
The Aristocratic Republic: Peru
347(1)
Dictatorship: Mexico
348(3)
Modernization and Resistance
351(4)
Indigenous Peoples
351(1)
Resistance in the Countryside
352(1)
The Mexican Revolution
353(2)
Conclusion
355(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
356(1)
Between Revolutions: The New Politics of Class and the Economics of Import Substitution Industrialization, 1920--1959
357(28)
Three Crises and the Beginnings of Intensified Government Involvement in the Economy, 1920--1945
359(5)
The Aftermath of World War I
359(1)
The Great Depression
360(4)
World War II
364(1)
Peacetime Economies
364(1)
Dictators and Populists
365(15)
The 1920s
367(5)
Depression and War
372(6)
Peacetime Politics
378(2)
Failure of the Left and Right
380(3)
Women's Suffrage
382(1)
Conclusion
383(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
384(1)
People and Progress, 1910--1959
385(24)
Socialization in the Factory and the Mine: Proletarianization and Patriarchy
387(8)
A Miner's Day at El Teniente
393(2)
Urbanization and Social Change
395(6)
The Cities
395(3)
Life on the Edge: The Middle Class
398(2)
La Chica Moderna
400(1)
Popular and High Culture
401(6)
Conclusion
407(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
407(2)
Revolution, Reaction, Democracy, and the New Global Economy, 1959 to the Present
409(30)
The Revolutions: Cuba, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, and Colombia
410(9)
Cuba
411(2)
Nicaragua
413(2)
El Salvador
415(1)
Guatemala
416(1)
Peru
416(3)
Colombia
419(1)
The Tyrannies: Brazil, Argentina, and Chile
419(12)
Brazil
421(4)
Argentina
425(2)
Chile
427(4)
The Exception: Mexico
431(1)
The Struggle for Control of Everyday Life
432(1)
The New Global Economy
433(4)
Conclusion
437(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
437(2)
Everyday Life, 1959 to the Present
439(26)
The Reign of Terror
440(2)
The Quality of Life
442(14)
What Does It Mean To Be Poor?
445(4)
Informal Economy
449(4)
Privatizing Social Security
453(3)
The Cities
456(2)
To Be Poor in the Cities
457(1)
An Urban Migrant's Story
458(1)
The Environment
458(2)
The Globalization of Culture
460(3)
Art
462(1)
Conclusion
463(1)
Learning More About Latin Americans
464(1)
Glossary 465(4)
Credits 469(1)
Index 470


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