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The Law of Higher Education, 5th Edition Student Version,9781118036624
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The Law of Higher Education, 5th Edition Student Version

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9781118036624

ISBN10:
111803662X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/28/2014
Publisher(s):
Jossey-Bass
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Summary

Based on the fifth edition of the indispensable guide to the laws that bear on the conduct of higher education, this student edition provides an up-to-date textbook, reference, and guide for coursework in higher education law and programs preparing higher education administrators for leadership roles. This student edition contains a glossary of key terms and an appendix on how to read legal material for the non-law student. Each chapter is introduced by a discussion of key terms and ideas the students will encounter.

Author Biography

William A. Kaplan is professor of law emeritus at The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, where he also served as special counsel to the Office of General Counsel. He is now senior fellow at the Center for Excellence in Higher Education Law and Policy, Stetson University College of Law.

Barbara A. Lee is professor of human resource management at Rutgers University’s School of Management and Labor Relations and of counsel to the law firm of Edwards Wildman Palmer. An attorney, she teaches employment law and higher education law.

Together they are the authors of The Law of Higher Education, now in its fifth edition, and A Legal guide for Student Affairs Professionals.

Table of Contents

Notice to Instructors vii

Notice of Web Site and Periodic Supplements for the Student Version ix

Crosswalk for the Student Version xix

Preface xxix

Acknowledgments xxxvii

The Authors xxxix

General Introduction: The Study of Higher Education Law 1

A. The Universe of Education Law 1

B. The Governance of Higher Education 3

C. Sources of Higher Education Law 3

D. The Legal Relationships Within Institutions of Higher Education 4

E. The Law/Policy Distinction 7

F. The U.S. Legal System as It Relates to Higher Education Law 7

PART ONE PERSPECTIVES AND FOUNDATIONS 9

1 Overview of Higher Education Law 11

Section 1.1 How Far the Law Reaches and How Loudly It Speaks 11

Section 1.2 Evolution of Higher Education Law 16

Section 1.3 The Governance of Higher Education 18

1.3.1 Basic concepts and distinctions 18

1.3.2 Internal governance 20

1.3.3 External governance 21

Section 1.4 Sources of Higher Education Law 24

1.4.1 Overview 24

1.4.2 External sources of law 25

1.4.2.1 Federal and state constitutions 25

1.4.2.2 Statutes 25

1.4.2.3 Administrative rules and regulations 26

1.4.2.4 State common law 27

1.4.2.5 Foreign and international law 27

1.4.3 Internal sources of law 28

1.4.3.1 Institutional rules and regulations 28

1.4.3.2 Institutional contracts 28

1.4.3.3 Academic custom and usage 29

1.4.4 The role of case law 31

1.4.5 Researching case law 32

Section 1.5 The Public-Private Dichotomy 33

1.5.1 Overview 33

1.5.2 The state action doctrine 34

1.5.2.1 When private postsecondary institutions may be engaged in state action 34

1.5.2.2 When students, employees, and others may be engaged in state action 41

1.5.3 Other bases for legal rights in private institutions 44

Section 1.6 Religion and the Public-Private Dichotomy 46

1.6.1 Overview 46

1.6.2 Religious autonomy rights of religious institutions and their personnel 47

1.6.3 Government support for religious institutions 50

1.6.4 Religious autonomy rights of individuals in public postsecondary institutions 58

Section 1.7 The Relationship Between Law and Policy 62

2 Legal Planning and Dispute Resolution 66

Section 2.1 Legal Liability 66

2.1.1 Overview 66

2.1.2 Types of liability 67

2.1.3 Agency law 67

2.1.4 Enforcement mechanisms 68

2.1.5 Remedies for legal violations 69

2.1.6 Avoiding legal liability 69

2.1.7 Treatment law and preventive law 69

Section 2.2 Litigation in the Courts 71

2.2.1 Overview 71

2.2.2 Judicial (academic) deference 72

2.2.3 Managing litigation and the threat of litigation 78

Section 2.3 Alternative Dispute Resolution 80

2.3.1 Overview 80

2.3.2 Types of ADR 81

2.3.3 Applications to colleges and universities 84

Section 2.4 Institutional Management of Liability Risk 86

2.4.1 Overview and suggestions 86

2.4.2 Risk management strategies 86

2.4.3 Enterprise risk management 89

PART TWO THE COLLEGE AND ITS GOVERNING BOARD AND STAFF 91

3 The College’s Authority and Liability 93

Section 3.1 The Question of Authority 93

3.1.1 Overview 93

3.1.2 Trustee authority 97

Section 3.2 Institutional Tort Liability 97

3.2.1 Overview 97

3.2.2 Negligence 101

3.2.2.1 Overview 101

3.2.2.2 Premises liability 104

3.2.2.3 Liability for injuries related to on-campus instruction 107

3.2.2.4 Liability for injuries in off-campus instruction 109

3.2.2.5 Liability for cocurricular and social activities 112

3.2.2.6 Student suicide 115

3.2.2.7 Liability for injuries related to outreach programs 118

3.2.3 Educational malpractice and related claims 119

3.2.4 Defamation 122

Section 3.3 Institutional Contract Liability 125

Section 3.4 Institutional Liability for Violating Federal Constitutional Rights (Section 1983 Liability) 129

3.4.1 Overview 129

3.4.2 Eleventh Amendment immunity 131

4 The College and Its Employees 136

Section 4.1 Overview of Employment Relationships 136

Section 4.2 Employment Contracts 138

4.2.1 Defining the contract 138

4.2.2 The at-will doctrine 139

Section 4.3 Collective Bargaining 140

4.3.1 Overview 140

4.3.2 The public-private dichotomy in collective bargaining 141

4.3.3 Collective bargaining and antidiscrimination laws 141

Section 4.4 Personal Liability of Employees 144

4.4.1 Overview 144

4.4.2 Tort liability 145

4.4.2.1 Overview 145

4.4.2.2 Negligence 146

4.4.2.3 Defamation 148

4.4.3 Contract liability 151

4.4.4 Constitutional liability (personal liability under Section 1983) 153

4.4.4.1 Qualified immunity 153

4.4.4.2 Issues on the merits: State-created dangers 155

Section 4.5 Employment Discrimination 159

4.5.1 Overview: The interplay of statutes, regulations, and constitutional protections 159

4.5.2 Sources of law 161

4.5.2.1 Title VII 161

4.5.2.2 Equal Pay Act 170

4.5.2.3 Title IX 172

4.5.2.4 Section 1981 173

4.5.2.5 Americans with Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act of 1973 175

4.5.2.6 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 180

4.5.2.7 Constitutional prohibitions against employment discrimination 183

4.5.2.8 Executive Orders 11246 and 11375 185

4.5.2.9 Laws prohibiting sexual orientation discrimination 186

4.5.2.10 Laws prohibiting transgender discrimination 190

Section 4.6 Affirmative Action 192

4.6.1 Overview 192

4.6.2 Affirmative action Under Title VII 194

4.6.3 Affirmative action Under the Equal Protection Clause 198

4.6.4 State regulation of affi rmative action 202

4.6.5 Conclusions 203

Section 4.7 Application of Nondiscrimination Laws to Religious Institutions 203

PART THREE THE COLLEGE AND ITS FACULTY 211

5 Special Issues in Faculty Employment 213

Section 5.1 Overview 213

Section 5.2 Faculty Contracts 214

5.2.1 Overview 214

5.2.2 Academic custom and usage 218

5.2.3 Part-time faculty 220

5.2.4 Contracts in religious institutions 222

Section 5.3 Faculty Collective Bargaining 226

Section 5.4 Application of Nondiscrimination Laws to Faculty Employment Decisions 231

5.4.1 Overview 231

5.4.2 Judicial deference and remedies for tenure denial 231

Section 5.5 Affirmative Action in Faculty Employment Decisions 239

Section 5.6 Standards and Criteria for Faculty Employment Decisions 243

5.6.1 General principles 243

5.6.2 Terminations of tenure for cause 245

5.6.3 Denial of tenure 249

Section 5.7 Procedures for Faculty Employment Decisions 253

5.7.1 General principles 253

5.7.2 The public faculty member’s right to constitutional due process 256

5.7.2.1 Nonrenewal of contracts 256

5.7.2.2 Denial of tenure 260

5.7.2.3 Termination of tenure 264

5.7.3 The private faculty member’s procedural rights 270

6 Faculty Academic Freedom and Freedom of Expression 275

Section 6.1 General Concepts and Principles 275

6.1.1 Faculty freedom of expression in general 275

6.1.2 Other constitutional rights supporting faculty freedom of expression 283

6.1.3 Academic freedom: Basic concepts and distinctions 286

6.1.4 Professional versus legal concepts of academic freedom 288

6.1.5 The foundational constitutional law cases 290

6.1.6 External versus internal restraints on academic freedom 294

6.1.7 “Institutional” academic freedom 296

6.1.8 “International” academic freedom 298

Section 6.2 Academic Freedom in Teaching 307

6.2.1 In general 307

6.2.2 The classroom 309

6.2.3 Grading 323

6.2.4 Private institutions 326

Section 6.3 Academic Freedom in Research and Publication 327

Section 6.4 Academic Freedom in Religious Colleges and Universities 338

PART FOUR THE COLLEGE AND ITS STUDENTS 341

7 The Student-Institution Relationship 343

Section 7.1 The Legal Status of Students 343

7.1.1 Overview 343

7.1.2 The age of majority 344

7.1.3 The contractual rights of students 345

7.1.4 Student academic freedom 353

7.1.5 Students’ legal relationships with other students 368

Section 7.2 Admissions 376

7.2.1 Basic legal requirements 376

7.2.2 Arbitrariness 377

7.2.3 The contract theory 379

7.2.4 The principle of nondiscrimination 380

7.2.4.1 Race 380

7.2.4.2 Sex 384

7.2.4.3 Disability 389

7.2.4.4 Immigration status 395

7.2.5 Affirmative action programs 398

7.2.6 Readmission 421

Section 7.3 Financial Aid 424

7.3.1 General principles 424

7.3.2 Federal programs 428

7.3.3 Nondiscrimination 431

7.3.4 Affirmative action in financial aid programs 433

7.3.5 Discrimination against aliens 438

7.3.5.1 Documented (immigrant and nonimmigrant) aliens 438

7.3.5.2 Undocumented aliens 442

Section 7.4 Student Housing 446

7.4.1 Overview 446

7.4.2 Discrimination claims 448

7.4.3 Searches and seizures 455

Section 7.5 Campus Computer Networks 461

7.5.1 Freedom of speech 461

7.5.2 Right to privacy 470

7.5.3 Liability issues 473

Section 7.6 Campus Security 476

7.6.1 Security offi cers 476

7.6.2 Protecting students against violent crime 481

7.6.3 Federal statutes and campus security 486

Section 7.7 Other Support Services 490

7.7.1 Overview 490

7.7.2 Services for students with disabilities 491

7.7.3 Services for international students 492

Section 7.8 Student Records 495

7.8.1 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 495

7.8.2 State law 500

8 Student Academic Issues 507

Section 8.1 Overview 507

Section 8.2 Grading and Academic Standards 508

Section 8.3 Online Programs 516

8.3.1 Overview 516

8.3.2 Student legal claims about online programs 517

Section 8.4 Academic Accommodations for Students with Disabilities 519

8.4.1 Overview 519

8.4.2 Requests for programmatic or other accommodations 522

8.4.2.1 Domestic programs 522

8.4.2.2 Study abroad programs 531

8.4.2.3 Online programs 532

Section 8.5 Sexual Harassment of Students by Faculty Members 533

Section 8.6 Academic Dismissals and Other Academic Sanctions 553

8.6.1 Overview 553

8.6.2 Contract issues and fiduciary duty issues 554

8.6.3 Constitutional issues 556

8.6.4 Discrimination issues 560

8.6.5 Procedures for academic sanctions 563

8.6.5.1 Public institutions 563

8.6.5.2 Private institutions 567

9 Student Disciplinary Issues 569

Section 9.1 Disciplinary and Grievance Systems 569

9.1.1 Overview 569

9.1.2 Establishment of systems 569

9.1.3 Codes of student conduct 571

9.1.4 Judicial systems 576

Section 9.2 Disciplinary Rules and Regulations 580

9.2.1 Overview 580

9.2.2 Public institutions 581

9.2.3 Private institutions 583

9.2.4 Disciplining students with mental disorders 584

Section 9.3 Procedures for Suspension, Dismissal, and Other Sanctions 587

9.3.1 Overview 587

9.3.2 Public institutions 588

9.3.2.1 Overview 588

9.3.2.2 Notice 593

9.3.2.3 Hearing 594

9.3.3 Private institutions 598

Section 9.4 Student Protests and Freedom of Speech 602

9.4.1 Student free speech in general 602

9.4.2 The “public forum” concept 605

9.4.3 Regulation of student protest 610

9.4.4 Prior approval of protest activities 617

9.4.5 Posters and leaflets 619

9.4.6 Protests in the classroom 622

Section 9.5 Speech Codes and the Problem of Hate Speech 624

9.5.1 Hate speech and the campus 624

9.5.2 The case law on hate speech and speech codes 625

9.5.3 Guidelines for dealing with hate speech on campus 633

10 Rights and Responsibilities of Student Organizations and Their Members 637

Section 10.1 Student Organizations 637

10.1.1 The right to organize 637

10.1.2 The right not to join, or associate, or subsidize 644

10.1.3 Mandatory student activities fees 645

10.1.4 Principle of nondiscrimination 652

10.1.5 Religious activities 664

Section 10.2 Fraternities and Sororities 672

10.2.1 Overview 672

10.2.2 Institutional recognition and regulation of fraternal organizations 673

10.2.3 Institutional liability for the acts of fraternal organizations 681

Section 10.3 The Student Press 685

10.3.1 General principles 685

10.3.2 Mandatory student fee allocations to student publications 687

10.3.3 Permissible scope of institutional regulation 688

10.3.4 Advertising in student publications 696

10.3.5 Obscenity 699

10.3.6 Libel 700

10.3.7 Obscenity and libel in private institutions 704

Section 10.4 Athletics Teams and Clubs 704

10.4.1 General principles 704

10.4.2 Athletes’ due process rights 705

10.4.3 Athletes’ freedom of speech 707

10.4.4 Pertinent statutory law 710

10.4.5 Athletic scholarships 712

10.4.6 Sex discrimination 716

10.4.7 Discrimination on the basis of disability 731

10.4.8 Drug testing 733

10.4.9 Tort liability for athletic injuries 739

PART FIVE THE COLLEGE AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD 747

11 The College and Government 749

Section 11.1 Local Government Regulation 749

11.1.1 Overview of local government regulation 749

11.1.2 Trespass statutes and ordinances, and related campus regulations 754

11.1.3 Relations with local police 763

Section 11.2 State Government Regulation 766

11.2.1 Overview 766

11.2.2 State provision of public postsecondary education 769

11.2.3 State chartering and licensure of private postsecondary institutions 771

11.2.4 Other state regulatory laws affecting postsecondary education programs 775

11.2.4.1 Laws on gun possession on campus 775

Section 11.3 Federal Government Regulation 779

11.3.1 Overview of federal constitutional powers over education 779

11.3.2 Federal regulation of postsecondary education 780

11.3.2.1 Overview 780

11.3.2.2 Regulation of research 782

11.3.2.3 Regulation of intellectual property 783

Section 11.4 Federal Aid-to-Education Programs 794

11.4.1 Functions and history 794

11.4.2 Legal structure of federal aid programs 795

Section 11.5 Civil Rights Compliance 797

11.5.1 General considerations 797

11.5.2 Title VI 799

11.5.3 Title IX 805

11.5.4 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 808

11.5.5 Coverage of unintentional discrimination 812

12 The College and External Private Entities 816

Section 12.1 The Education Associations 816

12.1.1 Overview of the education associations 816

12.1.2 Accrediting agencies 819

12.1.3 Athletic associations and conferences 822

Section 12.2 Business Partners 823

12.2.1 Research collaboration 823

12.2.2 The research agreement 826

APPENDICES

A. Constitution of the United States of America: Provisions of Particular Interest to Postsecondary Education 833

B. The American Court System 839

C. Reading and Analyzing Court Opinions 843

D. Glossary of Legal Terms 847

Bibliography 855

Statute Index 865

Case Index 871

Subject Index 885



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