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Learners With Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach,9780205200641
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Learners With Mild Disabilities: A Characteristics Approach

by
ISBN13:

9780205200641

ISBN10:
0205200648
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $83.20
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Summary

This text focuses on four high-prevalence disabilities: mild mental retardation, learning disabilities, ADHD, and behavioral disorders. It begins with the conventional categorical perspective, and then moves to the perspective of alternative, non-categorical frameworks. Learners with Mild Disabilities focuses on students with disabilities with respect to their individual strengths and needs, considering their cognitive, perceptual, language, academic learning, and social/emotional characteristics. The reader is encouraged to apply these conceptual frameworks through analysis of the numerous vignettes and extended case studies stories which are drawn from the experiences of real children and teachers. The approach of this book emphasizes the complex nature of mild disabilities and provides an alternative to the notion that these are discrete disabilities.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
UNIT ONE: Setting the Stage 1(50)
Perspectives on Disability
3(23)
Meet Clarence
3(3)
Studying High-Prevalence Disabilities
6(1)
Mild Does Not Mean ``Not Serious''
7(1)
The Power of Language
8(2)
Labeling and Classifying
10(1)
To Classify or Not to Classify
11(4)
Current Thinking on Labeling
15(1)
Prevention of Disabilities
16(1)
Overview of the Principles of the IDEA
17(4)
Amendments to P.L. 94--142
21(1)
Summary
21(1)
Ed Murphy: A Case Study
22(4)
Historical Perspectives and Contexts
26(25)
Meet Victor
26(1)
The Historical Context of Disability
27(1)
Early History
28(1)
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
29(1)
The Englightenment
30(1)
Disabilities in the United States: 1800--1900
31(3)
Residential Services
31(2)
Public Special Education
33(1)
Disabilities in the United States: The Early Twentieth Century
34(6)
Eugenics in Europe and America
34(2)
The Testing Movement in Europe and America
36(2)
Serving Children Identified as Having Disabilities
38(1)
Special Education as a Profession
39(1)
Disabilities in the United States from 1950 to the Present
40(6)
General Education Initiative and Inclusion
40(2)
Legislative and Governmental Initiatives
42(2)
History of Rights Won in United States Courts
44(2)
Trends in History
46(1)
Summary
47(1)
Patty: A Case Study
48(3)
UNIT TWO: Who Are the Learners with Mild Disabilities? 51(116)
Learners with Mental Retardation
53(35)
Meet Caroline
53(2)
Historical Foundations of Mental Retardation
55(1)
Historical Definitions of Mental Retardation in the United States
56(2)
Current Definition of Mental Retardation
58(3)
Alternatives to the Current IDEA Definition
61(7)
1992 AAMR Definition
61(4)
Assumptions on Which the 1992 AAMR Definition Is Based
65(1)
Criticism of the 1992 AAMR Definition
65(1)
Developmental Disabilities and Delay
66(1)
An Alternative Definition with an Instructional Perspective
67(1)
Levels of Severity
68(2)
Educational Terminology
68(1)
1992 AAMR Diagnostic Process
69(1)
Prevalence of Mental Retardation
70(1)
Typical Characteristics of Persons with Mental Retardation
71(1)
Causes of Mental Retardation
72(9)
Biological/Physiological Causes
73(5)
Environmental Causes
78(3)
Summary
81(1)
Jennie: A Case Study
82(6)
Learners with Learning Disabilities
88(28)
Meet Peter
88(1)
Historical Development of the Learning Disabilities Concept
89(6)
Medical Phase
90(1)
Learning Disability Phase
91(2)
IDEA Phase
93(2)
Current IDEA Definition
95(2)
Assessment and Identification Issues
97(2)
Multiple Perspectives on Severe Discrepancy
98(1)
Alternative Definitions of Learning Disabilities Prior to 1975
99(1)
Kirk Definition
100(1)
Bateman Definition
100(1)
National Advisory Committee on Handicapped Children (NACHC) Definition
100(1)
Alternative Definitions of Learning Disabilities Developed after 1975
100(2)
Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD/LDA) Definition
100(1)
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities Definition
101(1)
Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities (ICLD) Definition
102(1)
Issues Raised by the Alternative Definitions
102(1)
Causes of Learning Disabilities
103(1)
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities
104(3)
Types of Learning Disabilities
107(1)
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities
108(1)
Summary
109(2)
Bobby: A Case Study
111(5)
Learners with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders
116(22)
Meet Nancy
116(2)
Children and Youth with Attention Problems
118(1)
Historical Development of the Concept of ADHD
118(2)
Current Definition in the DSM-IV
120(2)
Types of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
122(1)
Levels of Severity
123(1)
Identification of Learners with ADHD
123(1)
Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
124(2)
Causes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivityy Disorder
126(1)
Characteristics of Individuals with ADHD
127(2)
Poor Delay of Response
128(1)
Characteristics at Different Ages
128(1)
Should ADHD Be a Separate Category in the IDEA?
129(3)
ADHD and Other Health Impairments
130(1)
ADHD and Learning Disabilities
130(1)
ADHD and Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
131(1)
ADHD as a Social Construction
131(1)
Summary
132(2)
Frank: A Case Study
134(4)
Learners with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
138(29)
Meet Nicki
138(1)
Terms to Refer to This Group of Learners
139(2)
Historical Foundations
141(2)
Current Federal IDEA Definition
143(3)
Social Maladjustment: Definition and Exclusion
145(1)
An Alternative Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
146(4)
Assessment and Identification Issues
150(2)
Effect of Culture on Assessment and Identification
151(1)
Prevalence of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
152(4)
Levels of Severity
156(1)
Causes of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
157(4)
Biological Causes
157(1)
Family Factors
158(2)
Environmental, Social, and School Factors
160(1)
Types of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
161(2)
Summary
163(1)
Carter: A Case Study
164(3)
Unit Three: What Are Learners with Mild Disabilities Like? 167(144)
Cognitive Characteristics
169(33)
Meet Robert
169(1)
Cognitive Theory and Approaches to Mild Disabilities
170(1)
Theoretical Approaches to Cognitive Functioning
171(1)
Constructivist Perspectives
172(4)
Piaget
172(4)
Vygotsky
176(1)
Cognitive Styles Research
176(4)
Field Dependence and Field Independence
177(2)
Impulsivity and Reflectivity
179(1)
Information-Processing Approaches
180(19)
Structural Storage Components
182(6)
Strategic Control Components
188(8)
Executive Control Functions
196(3)
Summary
199(1)
Charlene: A Case Study
200(2)
Perceptual Characteristics
202(17)
Meet Fred
202(1)
What Is Perception?
203(1)
Perception and Special Education History
203(3)
Theoretical Foundations of Perception
206(2)
Frameworks for Conceptualizing Perception
206(1)
Perceptual Processing
207(1)
Assessment of Perceptual Functioning
208(2)
Specific Perceptual Functions and Abilities
210(4)
Issues in Perceptual Assessment and Training
214(1)
Other Perspectives on Perceptual Functioning and Instruction
215(1)
Summary
215(1)
Jeanne: A Case Study
216(3)
Language Characteristics
219(31)
Meet Tom
219(1)
Definition of Language
220(1)
Language Components and Skills
221(9)
Phonology
222(1)
Morphology
223(1)
Syntax
224(1)
Semantics
225(1)
Pragmatics
226(4)
Language Channels: Comprehension and Production
230(2)
Language Functions
232(6)
Listening
232(1)
Speaking
232(1)
Reading
233(1)
Writing
234(4)
Common Language Characteristics of Learners with Mild Disabilities
238(2)
Language Difference or Disability?
240(4)
Implications of Language Characteristics for Thinking and Learning
244(1)
Summary
245(1)
Clark: A Case Study
246(4)
Academic Learning Characteristics
250(29)
Meet Barbara
250(1)
What Is Learning?
251(1)
Stages of Learning
252(4)
Acquisition and Reversion
252(1)
Proficiency and Automaticity
253(1)
Maintenance
254(1)
Generalization
254(1)
Adaptation
254(2)
Cognitive Processing Deficits and Academic Performance
256(2)
The Role of Motivation
258(4)
Extrinsic Motivation
258(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
259(3)
Locus of Control and Attribution of Success or Failure
262(5)
External Attributions and Locus of Control
262(1)
Internal Attributions and Locus of Control
263(1)
Spiral of Failure or Success
264(2)
Learned Helplessness
266(1)
Adolescents with Disabilities in Behavior and Learning
267(3)
Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
270(4)
Learning Styles
271(1)
Multiple Intelligences
272(1)
Conclusion
273(1)
Instructional Needs of Learners with Disabilities
274(2)
Time Allowed for Instruction
274(1)
Persistence or Motivation
274(1)
Pupils' Aptitude for Instruction
275(1)
Ability to Understand Instruction
275(1)
Quality of Instruction
275(1)
Summary
276(1)
Allison: A Case Study
277(2)
Social-Emotional Characteristics
279(32)
Meet Eddie
279(1)
Perspectives on Social-Emotional Characteristics
280(1)
Developmental Perspectives
281(6)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
281(2)
Emotional Development
283(2)
Development of Social Perspective Taking
285(2)
Social Competence and Cognitive Development
287(7)
Social Intelligence
289(2)
Emotional Competence
291(1)
Social Cognitive Delay
292(2)
Behavior from an Ecological Perspective
294(3)
Risk and Resilience
296(1)
The Relationship of Problems in Behavior and Problems in Learning
297(1)
Maladaptive Behavior
298(1)
Patterns of Maladaptive Behavior
299(6)
Conduct Disorders
300(2)
Anxiety-Withdrawal-Dysphoria Disorders
302(3)
Summary
305(1)
Sammy: A Case Study
306(5)
UNIT FOUR: How Do We Serve Learners with Mild Disabilities? 311(63)
Issues in Assessment and Identification
313(19)
Meet Jeffrey
313(1)
IDEA 1997: Assessment and Evaluation Requirements
314(2)
Purposes of Assessment of Students with Special Educational Needs
316(1)
Types of Assessment Instruments and Techniques
316(3)
Norm-Referenced Assessment
316(1)
Criterion-Referenced and Curriculum-Based Assessment
317(1)
Performance Assessment
318(1)
Portfolio Assessment
318(1)
State and District Assessment and IDEA 1997
319(1)
Best Practices in Assessment of Children and Youth with Disabilities
320(1)
Issues in Identification
321(7)
General Concerns
321(1)
Mental Retardation
322(2)
Learning Disabilities
324(1)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
325(1)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
325(1)
Categories as Social Constructions
326(1)
Noncategorical Models of Service: An Alternative?
327(1)
Summary
328(1)
Sharon: A Case Study
329(3)
Issues in Curriculum and Instruction
332(22)
Meet Aaron
332(1)
IDEA 1997: Curriculum and Instruction Requirements
333(3)
Curriculum and Students with Disabilities
336(2)
Alternatives to the General Education Curriculum
338(2)
Modified Curriculum
339(1)
Alternative Curricula
340(1)
Instruction and Individualized Education Programming
340(1)
Instructional Strategies to Enhance Curriculum Access
341(4)
Direct Instruction
342(1)
Peer Tutoring
343(1)
Cooperative Learning
343(1)
Cognitive Strategies
344(1)
Conclusions
344(1)
Programming Models: Enhancements to General Education Pedagogies
345(2)
Remediation in Basic Academic Skills
345(1)
Tutorial Services
345(1)
Cognitive Strategies or Skills Instruction
346(1)
Life Skills or Functional Curricular Approaches
346(1)
Instructional Modifications and Curricular Access
347(2)
Reporting on Student Progress: Grading
349(1)
Summary
350(1)
Angie: A Case Study
351(3)
Issues in Placement
354(20)
Meet Tamika
354(1)
IDEA 1997: Location of Services
355(2)
Concept of the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
357(2)
Models of Service Commonly Used for Students with Mild Disabilities
359(2)
Inclusion: A Continuing Issue in Special Education
361(6)
Learning from the Research on Inclusion
364(3)
IDEA 1997, Placement, and Serious Discipline Problems
367(2)
Summary
369(1)
Benny: A Case Study
370(4)
Appendix A Policy Statements 374(6)
Appendix B Protocols for Diagnosis of Mental Retardation 380(8)
Glossary 388(13)
References 401(21)
Major Legislation Affecting Students with Disabilities 422(1)
Court Cases 422(1)
Index 423


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