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Learning and Behavior,9780534598686
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Learning and Behavior

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534598686

ISBN10:
0534598684
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/15/2002
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

1. Introduction: Learning To Change. 2. The Study Of Learning And Behavior. 3. Pavlovian Procedures. 4. Pavlovian Applications. 5. Operant Reinforcement. 6. Operant Punishment. 7. Operant Applications. 8. Vicarious Learning. 9. Generalization, Discrimination, And Stimulus Control. 10. Schedules Of Reinforcement. 11. Forgetting. 12. The Limits Of Learning. Glossary. References. Author Index. Subject Index.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Learning to Change
1(33)
Natural Selection
2(22)
BOX: The Face of Change
3(5)
Reflexes
8(4)
Fixed Action Patterns
12(5)
General Behavior Traits
17(5)
The Limits of Natural Selection
22(2)
Learning: Evolved Modifiability
24(2)
Nature and Nurture
26(4)
BOX: The Superior Animal
27(3)
Recommended Reading
30(1)
Review Questions
31(1)
Practice Quiz
32(1)
Query Answers
33(1)
The Study of Learning and Behavior
34(32)
Learning Defined
36(5)
Learning Means Change
36(1)
What Changes Is Behavior
37(1)
BOX: Defining Operations
38(2)
What Changes Behavior Is Experience
40(1)
Measuring Learning
41(6)
Research Designs
47(9)
Anecdotal Evidence
47(1)
Case Studies
48(1)
Descriptive Studies
49(1)
Experimental Studies
50(4)
Limitations of Experimental Research
54(2)
Animal Research and Human Learning
56(5)
Reasons for Animal Research
56(1)
Objections to Animal Research
56(5)
Questions About Learning
61(1)
Recommended Reading
62(1)
Review Questions
62(2)
Practice Quiz
64(1)
Query Answers
65(1)
Pavlovian Conditioning
66(39)
BOX: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Foot
69(1)
Basic Procedures
70(4)
BOX: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning!
73(1)
Higher-Order Conditioning
74(2)
Measuring Pavlovian Learning
76(2)
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning
78(13)
Pairing CS and US
78(3)
BOX: Pavlovian Flowchart
81(1)
CS-US Contingency
81(1)
CS-US Contiguity
82(1)
Stimulus Features
83(3)
Prior Experience with CS and US
86(2)
Number of CS-US Pairings
88(1)
Intertrial Interval
89(1)
Other Variables
89(2)
Extinction of Conditional Responses
91(4)
BOX: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Been
94(1)
Theories of Conditioning
95(6)
Stimulus Substitution Theory
96(1)
Preparatory Response Theory
97(1)
BOX: Conditioning and Awareness
98(3)
Recommended Reading
101(1)
Review Questions
101(2)
Practice Quiz
103(1)
Query Answers
104(1)
Pavlovian Applications
105(28)
Fear
106(6)
BOX: Thank You, Albert
108(3)
BOX: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fear
111(1)
Prejudice
112(2)
Advertising
114(4)
BOX: Bite Your Tongue!
117(1)
The Paraphilias
118(4)
Taste Aversions
122(4)
BOX: Changing the Coyote's Menu
125(1)
Immune Function
126(3)
Recommended Reading
129(1)
Review Questions
130(1)
Practice Quiz
131(1)
Query Answers
132(1)
Operant Reinforcement
133(55)
BOX: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demanded
140(1)
Basic Procedures
141(3)
BOX: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Science
144(1)
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures
144(3)
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Compared
147(2)
Primary and Secondary reinforcers
149(2)
Shaping and Chaining
151(8)
BOX: Tips for Shapers
154(5)
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
159(8)
Contingency
159(1)
Contiguity
160(3)
Reinforcer Characteristics
163(1)
Task Characteristics
164(1)
Deprivation Level
165(1)
BOX: Octopi Individuality
166(1)
Other Variables
166(1)
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior
167(5)
Theories of Reinforcement
172(6)
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theory
172(2)
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principle
174(2)
Response Deprivation Theory
176(2)
Theories of Avoidance
178(5)
Two-Process Theory
179(3)
One-Process Theory
182(1)
Recommended Reading
183(1)
Review Questions
184(2)
Practice Quiz
186(1)
Query Answers
186(2)
Operant Punishment
188(30)
Basic Procedures
190(3)
BOX: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Compared
192(1)
Variables Affecting Punishment
193(9)
Contigency
193(2)
Contiguity
195(2)
Punisher Intensity
197(1)
Introductory Level of Punishment
198(1)
Reinforcement of the Punished Behavior
199(1)
Alternative Sources of Reinforcement
200(1)
Deprivation Level
200(2)
Other Variables
202(1)
Theories of Punishment
202(3)
Two-Process Theory
203(1)
One-Process Theory
204(1)
Problems with Punishment
205(4)
Escape
206(1)
Aggression
206(1)
Apathy
207(1)
Abuse
208(1)
Imitation of the Punisher
208(1)
Alternatives to Punishment
209(5)
Response Prevention
209(1)
Extinction
210(1)
Differential Reinforcement
211(2)
Noncontingent Reinforcement
213(1)
Recommended Reading
214(1)
Review Questions
215(1)
Practice Quiz
216(1)
Query Answers
217(1)
Operant Applications
218(46)
Animal Care and Training
219(3)
BOX: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogs
221(1)
Self-Awareness
222(4)
BOX: The Shaping of Awareness
225(1)
Self-Control
226(3)
Verbal Behavior
229(6)
BOX: Rewarding Lies
234(1)
Insightful Problem Solving
235(5)
Creativity
240(4)
Superstition
244(5)
BOX: Quick! Get Some Mud!
248(1)
Learned Helplessness
249(3)
Delusions and Hallucinations
252(3)
Self-Injuries Behavior
255(4)
Recommended Reading
259(1)
Review Questions
260(1)
Practice Quiz
261(1)
Query Answers
262(2)
Vicarious Learning
264(38)
Basic Procedures
266(13)
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioning
267(4)
Vicarious Operant Learning
271(8)
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitation
279(1)
Generalized Imitation
279(2)
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learning
281(6)
Consequences of the Model's Behavior
282(1)
Consequences of the Observer's Behavior
282(1)
Characteristics of the Model
283(1)
BOX: Vicarious Learning and Human Nature
284(1)
Observer's Age
285(1)
Observer's Learning History
285(1)
BOX: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes?
286(1)
Other Variables
287(1)
Theories of Vicarious Learning
287(5)
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
287(2)
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theory
289(3)
Applications of Vicarious Learning
292(6)
Foraging
292(1)
Crime and Television
293(2)
Therapy for Phobia
295(3)
Recommended Reading
298(1)
Review Questions
298(1)
Practice Quiz
299(1)
Query Answers
300(2)
Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control
302(44)
Generalization
304(9)
Generalization Gradients
306(2)
Semantic Generalization
308(1)
BOX: Generalized Therapy
309(3)
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishment
312(1)
Discrimination
313(9)
Discrimination Training
313(2)
BOX: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheads
315(2)
BOX: Lessons from Lepers
317(1)
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Procedures
318(1)
Errorless Discrimination Training
319(1)
Differential Outcomes Effect
320(2)
Stimulus Control
322(4)
BOX: Stimulus Control and Adaptation
324(2)
Theories of Generalization and Discrimination
326(6)
Pavlov's Theory
326(1)
Spence's Theory
326(3)
The Lashley-Wade Theory
329(3)
Applications of Generalization and Discrimination
332(9)
Concept Formation
332(3)
Mental Rotation
335(2)
Smoking Relapse
337(2)
Experimental Neuroses
339(2)
Recommended Reading
341(1)
Review Questions
342(1)
Practice Quiz
343(1)
Query Answers
344(2)
Schedules of Reinforcement
346(42)
Simple Schedules
349(12)
Continuous Reinforcement
349(1)
Fixed Ratio Schedules
349(2)
Variable Ratio Schedules
351(1)
BOX: VR Harassment
352(1)
Fixed Internal Schedules
353(1)
Variable Interval Schedules
354(1)
Other Simple Schedules
355(4)
Stretching the Ratio
359(1)
Extinction
360(1)
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PRE
361(6)
Discrimination Hypothesis
362(1)
Frustration Hypothesis
363(1)
Sequential Hypothesis
364(1)
Response Unit Hypothesis
365(2)
Complex Schedules
367(3)
Choice and the Matching Law
370(5)
BOX: Ghetto Choice
374(1)
Applications of Schedules
375(5)
Compulsive Gambling
375(2)
Experimental Economics
377(1)
Malingering
378(2)
The Importance of Schedules Research
380(3)
Recommended Reading
383(1)
Review Questions
384(2)
Practice Quiz
386(1)
Query Answers
386(2)
Forgetting
388(37)
Defining Forgetting
390(2)
Measuring Forgetting
392(4)
BOX: The Myth of Permanent Memory
394(2)
Variables in Forgetting
396(12)
Degree of Learning
398(2)
Prior Learning
400(3)
Subsequent Learning
403(2)
Context
405(1)
BOX: Reminiscence and the State of Learning
406(2)
Applied Research on Forgetting
408(4)
Foraging
408(1)
Eyewitness Testimony
409(3)
Learning to Remember
412(8)
BOX: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shuffle
413(1)
Overlearn
413(1)
Use Mnemonics
414(1)
Try a Mnemonic System
415(1)
Use Context Cues
416(1)
Use Prompts
417(2)
BOX: The Man Who Couldn't Forget
419(1)
A Final Word on Forgetting
420(1)
Recommended Reading
420(1)
Review Questions
421(2)
Practice Quiz
423(1)
Query Answers
424(1)
The Limits of Learning
425(23)
Physical Characteristics
426(2)
Nonheritability of Learned Behavior
428(2)
Heredity and Learning Ability
430(2)
Neurological Damage and Learning
432(2)
BOX: Recipe for Genius
433(1)
Critical Periods
434(2)
Preparedness and Learning
436(6)
BOX: Learning and Humanity
441(1)
Conclusion
442(2)
Recommended Reading
444(1)
Review Questions
444(2)
Practice Quiz
446(1)
Query Answers
446(2)
Glossary 448(9)
References 457(32)
Author Index 489(9)
Subject Index 498


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