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Learning And Behavior,9780131931633
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Learning And Behavior

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780131931633

ISBN10:
0131931636
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/25/2005
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $177.40
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Summary

Widely acclaimed for its thoroughness and clarity, this contemporary survey of the field of learning offers comprehensive coverage of both classic studies and the most recent developments and trendswith an emphasis on the importance of learning principles in everyday life. Many real-world examples and analogies make the often abstract concepts and theories of the field more concrete and relevant, and most chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification.Chapter topics include classical conditioning, operant conditioning, avoidance and punishment, theories and research on operant conditioning, stimulus control and concept formation, learning by observation, and much more.For individuals with an interest in psychology-especially learning, conditioning, and the experimental analysis of behavior.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
The Psychology of Learning and Behavior
1(18)
The Search for General Principles of Learning
2(2)
The Nature of Scientific Theories
4(7)
An Example of a Theory about Behavior: Biorhythm Theory
4(1)
The Major Components of Scientific Theories
5(1)
Judging Scientific Theories
6(1)
Issues and Techniques in Comparing Theory with Data
7(4)
Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning
11(5)
The Use of Animal Subjects
11(2)
The Emphasis on External Events
13(3)
On Free Will, Determinism, and Chaos Theory
16(2)
Summary
18(1)
Review Questions
18(1)
Simple Ideas, Simple Associations, and Simple Cells
19(19)
Early Theories about the Association of Ideas
19(4)
Aristotle
19(1)
The British Associationists: Simple and Complex Ideas
20(3)
Thomas Brown's Secondary Principles of Association
23(1)
Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memory
23(4)
Ebbinghaus's Major Findings
24(2)
Ebbinghaus and the Associationists Compared to Later Learning Theorists
26(1)
Physiological Facts and Theories Related to Associationism
27(9)
The Basic Characteristics of Neurons
27(2)
Physiological Research on ``Simple Sensations''
29(1)
Physiological Research on ``Complex Ideas''
30(2)
Physiological Research on Learning
32(4)
Summary
36(1)
Review Questions
37(1)
Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation
38(22)
Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems
39(1)
Reflexes
40(1)
Tropisms and Orientation
41(1)
Kineses
41(1)
Taxes
42(1)
Sequences of Behavior
42(3)
Fixed Action Patterns
42(2)
Reaction Chains
44(1)
Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions
45(2)
Habituation
47(12)
General Principles of Habituation
49(2)
Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation
51(2)
Habituation in Emotional Responses: The Opponent-Process Theory
53(6)
Summary
59(1)
Review Questions
59(1)
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
60(29)
Pavlov's Discovery and Its Impact
60(8)
The Standard Paradigm of Classical Conditioning
61(1)
The Variety of Conditioned Responses
62(3)
Pavlov's Stimulus Substitution Theory
65(2)
S-S or S-R Connections?
67(1)
Basic Conditioning Phenomena
68(7)
Acquisition
68(1)
Extinction
69(1)
Spontaneous Recovery
70(1)
Disinhibition
71(1)
Rapid Reacquisition
72(1)
Conditioned Inhibition
72(1)
Generalization and Discrimination
73(2)
The Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning
75(3)
CS-US Correlations
76(2)
Higher Order Conditioning
78(1)
Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory
79(8)
Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses
79(1)
Classical Conditioning and the Immune System
80(1)
Applications in Behavior Therapy
81(6)
Summary
87(1)
Review Questions
88(1)
Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning
89(29)
Theories of Associative Learning
90(9)
The Blocking Effect
90(1)
The Rescorla-Wagner Model
91(5)
Theories of CS Effectiveness
96(1)
Comparator Theories of Conditioning
97(2)
Summary
99(1)
Types of Associations
99(3)
Associations in First-Order Conditioning
99(1)
Associations in Second-Order Conditioning
99(1)
Associations with Contextual Stimuli
100(1)
CS-CS Associations
100(1)
Occasion Setting
101(1)
Summary
101(1)
Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning
102(6)
The Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion Learning
102(1)
Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Learning
103(2)
Biological Preparedness in Human Learning
105(1)
Biological Constraints and the General-Principle Approach
106(2)
The Form of the Conditioned Response
108(4)
Drug Tolerance and Drug Cravings as Conditioned Responses
108(3)
Conditioned Opponent Theories
111(1)
Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning
112(4)
Research with Primitive Creatures
112(2)
Research with Mammals and Other Vertebrates
114(1)
Research with Human Subjects
115(1)
Summary
116(1)
Review Questions
117(1)
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
118(27)
The Law of Effect
119(6)
Thorndike's Experiments
119(1)
Guthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening Process
120(3)
Superstitious Behaviors
123(2)
The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations
125(5)
Shaping Lever Pressing in a Rat
126(1)
Shaping Behaviors in the Classroom
127(1)
Shaping as a Tool in Behavior Modification
128(1)
Making Shaping More Precise: Percentile Schedules
129(1)
Versatility of the Shaping Process
130(1)
The Research of B. F. Skinner
130(6)
The Free Operant
131(1)
The Three-Term Contingency
132(1)
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
132(1)
Resurgence
133(1)
Conditioned Reinforcement
133(1)
Response Chains
134(2)
Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning
136(7)
Instinctive Drift
136(2)
Autoshaping
138(4)
Reconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological Constraints
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Review Questions
144(1)
Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications
145(25)
Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative Recorder
146(1)
The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules
146(7)
Fixed Ratio
146(2)
Variable Ratio
148(1)
Fixed Interval
149(2)
Variable Interval
151(1)
Extinction and the Four Simple Schedules
151(1)
Other Reinforcement Schedules
152(1)
Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules
153(4)
Behavioral Momentum
154(1)
Contingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed Behaviors
154(2)
Reinforcement History
156(1)
Summary
156(1)
The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules
157(5)
Cause of the FR Postreinforcement Pause
157(2)
Comparisons of VR and VI Response Rates
159(3)
Applications of Operant Conditioning
162(6)
Teaching Language to Autistic Children
162(2)
Token Economies
164(2)
Organizational Behavior Management
166(1)
Behavior Therapy for Marital Problems
167(1)
Summary
168(2)
Summary
170(1)
Review Questions
170(30)
Avoidance and Punishment
171(10)
Avoidance
172(1)
A Representative Experiment
172(1)
Two-Factor Theory
173(1)
Evidence Supporting Two-Factor Theory
174(1)
Problems with Two-Factor Theory
174(1)
One-Factor Theory
175(2)
Cognitive Theory
177(1)
Biological Constraints in Avoidance Learning
178(2)
Conclusions about the Theories of Avoidance
180(1)
Flooding as Behavior Therapy
180(1)
Learned Helplessness
181(3)
Punishment
184(6)
Is Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?
185(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
186(2)
Disadvantages of Using Punishment
188(2)
Negative Punishment
190(1)
Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy
190(9)
Positive Punishment
190(2)
Negative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-Out
192(2)
Other Techniques for Behavior Deceleration
194(3)
The Aversives Controversy
197(2)
Summary
199(1)
Review Questions
199(1)
Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning
200(24)
The Role of the Response
201(1)
The Role of the Reinforcer
202(7)
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?
202(1)
Expectations about the Reinforcer
202(2)
Is Reinforcement at Work in Classical Conditioning?
204(1)
Can Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?
205(2)
Biofeedback
207(2)
How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?
209(8)
Need Reduction
210(1)
Drive Reduction
211(1)
Trans-situationality
211(1)
Premack's Principle
212(3)
Response Deprivation Theory
215(1)
The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers
216(1)
Behavioral Economics
217(6)
Optimization: Theory and Research
218(2)
Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand
220(1)
Behavioral Economics and Drug Abuse
221(1)
Other Applications
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
Review Questions
223(1)
Stimulus Control and Concept Formation
224(26)
Generalization Gradients
225(4)
Measuring Generalization Gradients
225(1)
What Causes Generalization Gradients?
226(3)
Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?
229(5)
Transposition and Peak Shift
229(2)
Spence's Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients
231(1)
The Intermediate--Size Problem
232(1)
Evaluating the Two Theories
233(1)
Behavioral Contrast
234(2)
``Errorless'' Discrimination Learning
236(3)
Transfer of Learning after Discrimination Training
239(2)
Concept Formation
241(5)
The Structure of Natural Categories
241(1)
Animal Studies on Natural Concept Formation
242(3)
Developing Stimulus Equivalence
245(1)
Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification
246(3)
Stimulus Equivalence Training
246(1)
Study Behavior
247(1)
Insomnia
247(2)
Summary
249(1)
Review Questions
249(1)
Comparative Cognition
250(28)
Memory and Rehearsal
251(10)
Short-Term Memory, or Working Memory
251(5)
Rehearsal
256(3)
Long-Term Memory, or Reference Memory
259(2)
Time, Number, and Serial Patterns
261(8)
Experiments on an ``Internal Clock''
262(2)
Counting
264(2)
Serial Pattern Learning
266(1)
Chunking
266(3)
Language and Reasoning
269(8)
Teaching Language to Animals
269(4)
Reasoning by Animals
273(4)
Summary
277(1)
Review Questions
277(1)
Learning by Observation
278(22)
Theories of Imitation
279(7)
Imitation as an Instinct
279(2)
Imitation as an Operant Response
281(1)
Imitation as a Generalized Operant Response
282(1)
Bandura's Theory of Imitation
282(3)
Which Theory of Imitation Is Best?
285(1)
Factors That Affect the Likelihood of Imitation
286(1)
Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning
287(2)
Achievement Motivation
287(1)
Aggression
288(1)
Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior
289(2)
What Can Be Learned Through Observation?
291(3)
Phobias
291(1)
Drug Use and Addictions
292(1)
Cognitive Development
292(1)
Moral Standards and Behavior
293(1)
Modeling in Behavior Therapy
294(4)
Facilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors
294(1)
Acquisition of New Behaviors
295(1)
Elimination of Fears and Unwanted Behaviors
295(2)
Videotape Self-Modeling
297(1)
Conclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by Observation
298(1)
Summary
299(1)
Review Questions
299(1)
Learning Motor Skills
300(23)
The Variety of Motor Skills
301(1)
Variables Affecting Motor Learning and Performance
302(8)
Reinforcement and Knowledge of Results
302(3)
Knowledge of Performance
305(2)
Distribution of Practice
307(1)
Observational Learning of Motor Skills
307(1)
Transfer from Previous Training
308(1)
Ironic Errors in Movement
309(1)
Theories of Motor-Skill Learning
310(6)
Adams's Two-Stage Theory
310(3)
Schmidt's Schema Theory
313(2)
Battig's Contextual Interference Theory
315(1)
Learning Movement Sequences
316(6)
The Response Chain Approach
316(1)
Motor Programs
317(5)
Summary
322(1)
Review Questions
322(1)
Choice
323(30)
The Matching Law
324(7)
Herrnstein's Experiment
324(1)
Other Experiments on Matching
325(1)
Deviations from Matching
326(2)
Varying the Quality and Amount of Reinforcement
328(1)
An Application to Single Schedules
329(2)
Theories of Choice Behavior
331(8)
Matching as an Explanatory Theory
331(1)
Melioration Theory
332(1)
Optimization Theory as an Explanation of Matching
333(3)
Momentary Maximization Theory
336(2)
Other Theories of Choice
338(1)
Self-Control Choices
339(7)
The Ainslie-Rachlin Theory
341(1)
Animal Studies on Self-Control
342(2)
Factors Affecting Self-Control in Children
344(1)
Techniques for Improving Self-Control
345(1)
Other Choice Situations
346(5)
Preference for Variability
346(2)
Risk Taking
348(1)
The Tragedy of the Commons
349(2)
Summary
351(1)
Review Questions
352(1)
Glossary 353(14)
References 367(44)
Acknowledgments 411(4)
Author Index 415(17)
Subject Index 432


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