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Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition (with Workbook),9780495032076
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Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition (with Workbook)



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This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 8/8/2005.

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

  • Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition
    Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition
  • Learning and Behavior
    Learning and Behavior
  • Learning and Behavior: Active Learning Edition
    Learning and Behavior: Active Learning Edition
  • Learning and Behavior
    Learning and Behavior
  • Learning and Behavior
    Learning and Behavior


Now in a paperback format with a new, free workbook built right into the text! LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR looks at learning as an evolutionary mechanism. Chance's book is stimulating, interactive, and filled with high-interest queries and examples. Based on the theme that learning is a biological mechanism that aids survival, this book embraces a scientific approach to behavior but is written in a lucid, clear language. The workbook portion of the book requires students to design experiments to test certain questions raised in the textbook. It also asks the students to use graphs to illustrate and summarize key experimental findings. Other exercises require students to apply the material, some of which require a pet, a roommate or a willing friend to complete. Thought questions require students to synthesize the concepts that they find in the text.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Learning to Changep. 1
Natural Selectionp. 2
BOX: The Face of Changep. 3
Reflexesp. 8
Fixed Action Patternsp. 12
General Behavior Traitsp. 17
The Limits of Natural Selectionp. 22
Learning: Evolved Modifiabilityp. 24
Nature and Nurturep. 26
BOX: The Superior Animalp. 27
Recommended Readingp. 30
Review Questionsp. 31
Practice Quizp. 32
Query Answersp. 33
The Study of Learning and Behaviorp. 34
Learning Definedp. 36
Learning Means Changep. 36
What Changes Is Behaviorp. 37
BOX: Defining Operationsp. 38
What Changes Behavior Is Experiencep. 40
Measuring Learningp. 41
Research Designsp. 47
Anecdotal Evidencep. 47
Case Studiesp. 48
Descriptive Studiesp. 49
Experimental Studiesp. 50
Limitations of Experimental Researchp. 54
Animal Research and Human Learningp. 56
Reasons for Animal Researchp. 56
Objections to Animal Researchp. 56
Questions About Learningp. 61
Recommended Readingp. 62
Review Questionsp. 62
Practice Quizp. 64
Query Answersp. 65
Pavlovian Conditioningp. 66
BOX: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Footp. 69
Basic Proceduresp. 70
BOX: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning?p. 73
Higher-Order Conditioningp. 74
Measuring Pavlovian Learningp. 76
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioningp. 78
Pairing CS and USp. 78
BOX: Pavlovian Flowchartp. 81
CS-US Contingencyp. 81
CS-US Contiguityp. 82
Stimulus Featuresp. 83
Prior Experience with CS and USp. 86
Number of CS-US Pairingsp. 88
Intertrial Intervalp. 89
Other Variablesp. 89
Extinction of Conditional Responsesp. 91
BOX: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Beenp. 94
Theories of Conditioningp. 95
Stimulus Substitution Theoryp. 96
Preparatory Response Theoryp. 97
BOX: Conditioning and Awarenessp. 98
Recommended Readingp. 101
Review Questionsp. 101
Practice Quizp. 103
Query Answersp. 104
Pavlovian Applicationsp. 105
Fearp. 106
BOX: Thank You, Albertp. 108
BOX: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fearp. 111
Prejudicep. 112
Advertisingp. 114
BOX: Bite Your Tongue!p. 117
The Paraphiliasp. 118
Taste Aversionsp. 122
BOX: Changing the Coyote's Menup. 125
Immune Functionp. 126
Recommended Readingp. 129
Review Questionsp. 130
Practice Quizp. 131
Query Answersp. 132
Operant Reinforcementp. 133
BOX: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demandedp. 140
Basic Proceduresp. 141
BOX: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Sciencep. 144
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Proceduresp. 144
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Comparedp. 147
Primary and Secondary Reinforcersp. 149
Shaping and Chainingp. 151
BOX: Tips for Shapersp. 154
Variables Affecting Reinforcementp. 159
Contingencyp. 159
Contiguityp. 160
Reinforcer Characteristicsp. 163
Task Characteristicsp. 164
Deprivation Levelp. 165
BOX: Octopi Individualityp. 166
Other Variablesp. 166
Extinction of Reinforced Behaviorp. 167
Theories of Reinforcementp. 172
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theoryp. 172
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principlep. 174
Response Deprivation Theoryp. 176
Theories of Avoidancep. 178
Two-Process Theoryp. 179
One-Process Theoryp. 182
Recommended Readingp. 183
Review Questionsp. 184
Practice Quizp. 186
Query Answersp. 186
Operant Punishmentp. 188
Basic Proceduresp. 190
BOX: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Comparedp. 192
Variables Affecting Punishmentp. 193
Contingencyp. 193
Contiguityp. 195
Punisher Intensityp. 197
Introductory Level of Punishmentp. 198
Reinforcement of the Punished Behaviorp. 199
Alternative Sources of Reinforcementp. 200
Deprivation Levelp. 200
Other Variablesp. 202
Theories of Punishmentp. 202
Two-Process Theoryp. 203
One-Process Theoryp. 204
Problems with Punishmentp. 205
Escapep. 206
Aggressionp. 206
Apathyp. 207
Abusep. 208
Imitation of the Punisherp. 208
Alternatives to Punishmentp. 209
Response Preventionp. 209
Extinctionp. 210
Differential Reinforcementp. 211
Noncontingent Reinforcementp. 213
Recommended Readingp. 214
Review Questionsp. 215
Practice Quizp. 216
Query Answersp. 217
Operant Applicationsp. 218
Animal Care and Trainingp. 219
BOX: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogsp. 221
Self-Awarenessp. 222
BOX: The Shaping of Awarenessp. 225
Self-Controlp. 226
Verbal Behaviorp. 229
BOX: Rewarding Liesp. 234
Insightful Problem Solvingp. 235
Creativityp. 240
Superstitionp. 244
BOX: Quick! Get Some Mud!p. 248
Learned Helplessnessp. 249
Delusions and Hallucinationsp. 252
Self-Injurious Behaviorp. 255
Recommended Readingp. 259
Review Questionsp. 260
Practice Quizp. 261
Query Answersp. 262
Vicarious Learningp. 264
Basic Proceduresp. 266
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioningp. 267
Vicarious Operant Learningp. 271
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitationp. 279
Generalized Imitationp. 279
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learningp. 281
Consequences of the Model's Behaviorp. 282
Consequences of the Observer's Behaviorp. 282
Characteristics of the Modelp. 283
BOX: Vicarious Learning and Human Naturep. 284
Observer's Agep. 285
Observer's Learning Historyp. 285
BOX: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes?p. 286
Other Variablesp. 287
Theories of Vicarious Learningp. 287
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theoryp. 287
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theoryp. 289
Applications of Vicarious Learningp. 292
Foragingp. 292
Crime and Televisionp. 293
Therapy for Phobiap. 295
Recommended Readingp. 298
Review Questionsp. 298
Practice Quizp. 299
Query Answersp. 300
Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Controlp. 302
Generalizationp. 304
Generalization Gradientsp. 306
Semantic Generalizationp. 308
BOX: Generalized Therapyp. 309
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishmentp. 312
Discriminationp. 313
Discrimination Trainingp. 313
BOX: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheadsp. 315
BOX: Lessons from Lepersp. 317
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Proceduresp. 318
Errorless Discrimination Trainingp. 319
Differential Outcomes Effectp. 320
Stimulus Controlp. 322
BOX: Stimulus Control and Adaptationp. 324
Theories of Generalization and Discriminationp. 326
Pavlov's Theoryp. 326
Spence's Theoryp. 326
The Lashley-Wade Theoryp. 329
Applications of Generalization and Discriminationp. 332
Concept Formationp. 332
Mental Rotationp. 335
Smoking Relapsep. 337
Experimental Neurosesp. 339
Recommended Readingp. 341
Review Questionsp. 342
Practice Quizp. 343
Query Answersp. 344
Schedules of Reinforcementp. 346
Simple Schedulesp. 349
Continuous Reinforcementp. 349
Fixed Ratio Schedulesp. 349
Variable Ratio Schedulesp. 351
BOX: VR Harassmentp. 352
Fixed Interval Schedulesp. 353
Variable Interval Schedulesp. 354
Other Simple Schedulesp. 355
Stretching the Ratiop. 359
Extinctionp. 360
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PREp. 361
Discrimination Hypothesisp. 362
Frustration Hypothesisp. 363
Sequential Hypothesisp. 364
Response Unit Hypothesisp. 365
Complex Schedulesp. 367
Choice and the Matching Lawp. 370
BOX: Ghetto Choicep. 374
Applications of Schedulesp. 375
Compulsive Gamblingp. 375
Experimental Economicsp. 377
Malingeringp. 378
The Importance of Schedules Researchp. 380
Recommended Readingp. 383
Review Questionsp. 384
Practice Quizp. 386
Query Answersp. 386
Forgettingp. 388
Defining Forgettingp. 390
Measuring Forgettingp. 392
BOX: The Myth of Permanent Memoryp. 394
Variables in Forgettingp. 396
Degree of Learningp. 398
Prior Learningp. 400
Subsequent Learningp. 403
Contextp. 405
BOX: Reminiscence and the State of Learningp. 406
Applied Research on Forgettingp. 408
Foragingp. 408
Eyewitness Testimonyp. 409
Learning to Rememberp. 412
BOX: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shufflep. 413
Overlearnp. 413
Use Mnemonicsp. 414
Try a Mnemonic Systemp. 415
Use Context Cuesp. 416
Use Promptsp. 417
BOX: The Man Who Couldn't Forgetp. 419
A Final Word on Forgettingp. 420
Recommended Readingp. 420
Review Questionsp. 421
Practice Quizp. 423
Query Answersp. 424
The Limits of Learningp. 425
Physical Characteristicsp. 426
Nonheritability of Learned Behaviorp. 428
Heredity and Learning Abilityp. 430
Neurological Damage and Learningp. 432
BOX: Recipe for Geniusp. 433
Critical Periodsp. 434
Preparedness and Learningp. 436
BOX: Learning and Humanityp. 441
Conclusionp. 442
Recommended Readingp. 444
Review Questionsp. 444
Practice Quizp. 446
Query Answersp. 446
Glossaryp. 448
Referencesp. 457
Author Indexp. 489
Subject Indexp. 498
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