9780205388677

Learning Disabilities Foundations, Characteristics, and Effective Teaching

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205388677

  • ISBN10:

    0205388671

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-04-21
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This text includes the latest information on the characteristics of persons with learning disabilities, the causes of learning disabilities, and the most reliable educational interventions for students with LD.This clearly written, well-organized text strikes a perfect balance between foundational information and practical tools that educators can readily use with students.For teachers, therapists, students, parents, and anyone working with children with learning disabilities.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Basic Concepts
1(42)
What Are Individuals with Learning Disabilities Like?
2(3)
Jamal
2(2)
Shannon
4(1)
Why Is It Important to Understand Learning Disabilities?
5(3)
Most Teachers Will Have Students with Learning Disabilities
5(2)
Understanding Learning Disabilities Helps Us Understand Learning
7(1)
Many Students with Learning Disabilities Can Contribute Valuably to Society
8(1)
Why Are Learning Disabilities Controversial?
8(20)
Defining Learning Disabilities Has Been Difficult
12(6)
Discrepancy between Ability and Achievement Is Controversial
18(5)
Criteria Used to Determine Eligibility for Special Education Vary
23(4)
Learning Disability as a Construct
27(1)
How Many People Have Learning Disabilities?
28(8)
Demographics of People with Learning Disabilities
31(4)
Association with Other Disabilities
35(1)
Who Works with People Who Have Learning Disabilities?
36(1)
Can Learning Disabilities Be Overcome?
37(4)
A Critical Need for Effective Teaching
37(2)
Learning Disabilities Are Life-Span Problems
39(2)
Summary
41(2)
Causes of Learning Disabilities
43(22)
What Causes Learning Disabilities?
44(2)
Historical Context
44(1)
Reluctance to Accept Neurological Causes
44(2)
Toward an Acceptance of Neurological Causes
46(1)
How Does the Brain Function?
46(8)
Neurons Send and Receive Messages
46(2)
Different Parts of the Brain Have Different Functions
48(4)
Left and Right Hemispheres
52(2)
How Can We Infer Neurological Dysfunction?
54(2)
Postmortem Studies
54(1)
Neuroimaging Studies
55(1)
Right-Hemisphere Brain Dysfunction
55(1)
What Factors Contribute to Neurological Dysfunction?
56(5)
Hereditary Factors
56(3)
Teratogenic Factors
59(1)
Medical Factors
60(1)
Environmental Factors
61(1)
What Should Educators Keep in Mind Regarding Causes?
61(1)
Summary
62(3)
Eligibility for Special Education Services
65(44)
What Laws Govern the Delivery of Special Education?
65(1)
How Is Special Education Defined?
66(4)
Definition and Practice of Special Education
67(2)
Other Components of Special Education
69(1)
How Is a Learning Disability Defined in IDEA?
70(3)
What Is the Traditional Eligibility Process?
73(15)
Prereferral Strategies
74(1)
Referral for Special Education Evaluation
75(1)
Evaluation
76(12)
Eligibility Decision
88(6)
What Is an Alternative Eligibility Process?
94(2)
How Does Response-to-Treatment Work?
94(1)
Issues around the Response-to-Treatment Process
95(1)
What Is an Individualized Education Program?
96(11)
Components of the Individualized Education Program
98(3)
Special Education Service Delivery
101(6)
Summary
107(2)
Parents and Families
109(34)
How Have Professionals' Views of Parents Changed?
109(2)
Reciprocal Effects
110(1)
Passage of Federal Laws
111(1)
What Treatment Models Are Used with Families?
111(5)
Family Systems Approach
113(2)
Social Support Systems Approach
115(1)
What Are Some Current Trends in American Family Life?
116(1)
The Family Unit
116(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Language
116(1)
Socioeconomic Status
117(1)
What Is the Family's Role?
117(9)
Family Adjustment
118(3)
Family Values and Attitudes toward Learning
121(1)
Parents and Homework
122(4)
Parents as Advocates
126(1)
How Can Communication Be Enhanced between the Family and Professionals?
126(11)
Parent-Teacher Conferences
130(5)
School-Home Note Programs
135(2)
Summary
137(6)
Prevention and Intervention in Early Childhood
143(24)
How Can Learning Disabilities Be Prevented?
144(5)
Addressing Risk Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood
146(1)
Distinguishing Disabilities from Cultural Differences and Normal Variations
147(2)
How Are Learning Disabilities Identified in Infancy and Early Childhood?
149(3)
Two Approaches to Early Identification
150(1)
Promises and Pitfalls of Early Identification
151(1)
How Is Early Childhood Intervention Provided?
152(4)
Popular Early Intervention Programs
152(2)
Legal Requirements of Early Intervention
154(1)
Evaluating Early Childhood Program Quality
155(1)
What Are Some Trends in Early Childhood Special Education?
156(8)
Inclusive Education
156(2)
Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)
158(1)
Education for Transition
159(1)
Family-Based Education
159(1)
Assessment
160(1)
Self-Determination
161(1)
Technology
161(3)
Summary
164(3)
Transition Programming in Adolescence and Adulthood
167(28)
What Are Learning Disability Outcomes across the Life Span?
168(1)
Higher Dropout Rates
168(1)
Higher Underemployment
168(1)
Greater Dependency on Others
169(1)
What Transition Programs and Services Are Available?
169(6)
Federal Initiatives
169(1)
Interagency Collaboration and Service Delivery
170(2)
Social Skills and Self-Advocacy Training
172(2)
Parental Involvement
174(1)
Vocational Training and College Preparation
175(1)
How Are Students with Learning Disabilities Prepared for College?
175(1)
Programming Goals for College Preparation
176(1)
How Can Students with Learning Disabilities Succeed in College?
176(5)
Guidelines for Choosing a College
177(2)
Predictors of Success in College
179(1)
Instructional Accommodations
180(1)
How Can Students with Learning Disabilities Prepare for the Work World?
181(2)
Programming Goals for Vocational Training
182(1)
School-Business Partnerships
182(1)
How Can Employers Encourage Success for Adults with Learning Disabilities?
183(2)
Workplace Accommodations
184(1)
How Can Employees with Learning Disabilities Succeed in the Workplace?
185(7)
Choose a Job That Is a Good Match
186(1)
Use Personal Contacts to Find a Job
186(1)
Become a Self-Advocate
186(1)
Develop Compensatory Strategies
187(1)
Take Advantage of Technology
188(2)
Gain Control over One's Life
190(2)
Summary
192(3)
Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
195(28)
What Is the Link between Learning Disabilities and Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems?
195(4)
Social Competence
196(2)
Conduct Problems
198(1)
Other Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
199(1)
What Are the Major Causes of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems?
199(3)
Schooling as a Possible Cause
200(2)
How Should We Assess the Characteristics of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems?
202(6)
Screening
203(1)
Prereferral Interventions
204(1)
Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems in IEP Development
204(1)
Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans
204(2)
Other Possible Legal Aspects of Dealing with Behavior
206(2)
What Are the Main Educational Methods Used for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems?
208(12)
Modifying the Learning Environment for Proactive Management
208(3)
Teaching Desired Behavior
211(6)
Discouraging Undesired Behavior
217(3)
Summary
220(3)
Cognition, Metacognition, and Memory in Students with Learning Disabilities
223(36)
How Can We Explain Learning and Memory?
224(2)
Information-Processing Theory
224(2)
What Do We Know about the Learning and Memory of Students with Learning Disabilities?
226(12)
Learning Styles
227(3)
Cognitive Styles
230(1)
Memory Abilities
231(3)
Metacognitive or Executive Control Abilities
234(2)
Motivation
236(2)
How Can Learning, Memory, and Motivation Needs Be Addressed?
238(13)
Self-Instruction
238(4)
Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance
242(1)
Self-Determination
242(2)
Mnemonic Strategies
244(3)
Attribution Training
247(1)
Cognitive Strategies
248(3)
General Teaching Practices to Activate Learning and Memory
251(3)
Summary
254(5)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
259(36)
What Are the Links between Learning Disabilities and Attention Problems?
259(1)
What Are the Historical Origins of ADHD?
260(3)
Early Observations of ADHD Symptoms
260(1)
The Strauss Syndrome
261(1)
The Bridge from Mental Retardation to Normal Intelligence
262(1)
Minimal Brain Injury and the Hyperactive Child Syndrome
262(1)
What Is Today's Definition of ADHD?
263(2)
What Is the Prevalence of ADHD?
265(2)
How Is ADHD Assessed?
267(3)
Medical Exam
267(1)
Clinical Interview
267(1)
Rating Scales
268(1)
Using Technology to Assess ADHD
268(1)
Issues Related to Identification for Special Education Services
268(2)
What Are the Causes of ADHD?
270(7)
Neurological Factors
271(4)
Hereditary Factors
275(1)
Factors That Don't Cause ADHD
275(2)
What Are the Behavioral Characteristics of Persons with ADHD?
277(3)
Barkley's Model of ADHD: Behavioral Inhibition and Time Awareness and Management
277(3)
What Educational Methods Are Used with Students with ADHD?
280(6)
Stimulus Reduction
280(1)
Structure
281(1)
Functional Behavioral Assessment
281(1)
Contingency-Based Self-Management
282(1)
Self-Monitoring of Attention
282(4)
What Is the Role of Medication for Persons with ADHD?
286(3)
Side Effects
286(1)
Negative Publicity Regarding Ritalin
287(1)
Research on the Effectiveness of Medication
287(1)
Cautions Regarding Ritalin
287(2)
Summary
289(6)
Educational Approaches
295(30)
What Conceptual Models and Educational Approaches Have Been Described?
296(17)
Medical Model
297(1)
Diagnostic-Remedial Model
298(2)
Behavioral Model
300(7)
Cognitive Model
307(2)
Constructivist Model
309(4)
Why Is It Important for Teachers to Know What Research Says about Effective Practices?
313(4)
Research Syntheses: Meta-Analysis and Effect Size
315(2)
Cautions about Research Syntheses
317(1)
How Are Educational Approaches Different, and How Are They Similar?
317(5)
How Approaches Differ
317(3)
How Approaches Are Similar
320(2)
Summary
322(3)
Students Who Experience Difficulties with Spoken Language
325(36)
What Is Language?
325(1)
Are Language Problems Common in Learning Disabilities?
326(2)
What Are the Elements of Spoken Language and the Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities in Spoken Language?
328(13)
Receptive Language
329(1)
Expressive Language
329(1)
Difficulties of Students with Learning Disabilities in Receptive and Expressive Language
329(1)
Phonology
330(2)
Syntax
332(2)
Morphology
334(2)
Semantics
336(1)
Pragmatics
337(2)
Metalinguistic Awareness
339(2)
How Are Spoken Language Abilities Assessed?
341(6)
Standardized Assessment
341(3)
Informal Language Assessment Methods
344(2)
Methods of Monitoring Progress
346(1)
How Can Spoken Language Problems Be Addressed?
347(10)
General Principles and Accommodations
349(1)
Semantic Feature Analysis
350(1)
Keyword Mnemonics
351(2)
Teaching in Context and Conversation
353(1)
Phonemic Awareness
353(2)
Statement Repetition
355(2)
Summary
357(4)
Students Who Experience Difficulties with Reading
361(46)
What Is Reading?
362(2)
What Are the Major Elements of Reading?
364(3)
What Problems Do Students with Learning Disabilities Have in Reading?
367(8)
Problems with Phonology
368(1)
Problems with Decoding
369(1)
Problems with Fluency
370(1)
Problems with Comprehension
371(4)
How Is Reading Performance Assessed?
375(7)
Screening
376(1)
Diagnosing Problems and Planning Instruction
377(1)
Monitoring Student Progress
378(4)
How Common Are Reading Problems in Learning Disabilities?
382(1)
How Can Instruction Help Prevent Reading Disabilities?
383(6)
Teaching Phonemic Awareness
385(1)
Teaching Phonics
386(2)
Teaching Other Aspects of Early Reading
388(1)
Putting It All Together
388(1)
How Can Instruction Help Remediate Learning Disabilities in Reading?
389(12)
Historical Approaches
389(3)
Contemporary Approaches
392(3)
Instructional Tactics
395(6)
Summary
401(6)
Students Who Experience Difficulties with Writing
407(44)
What Handwriting Problems Do Students Experience?
407(2)
Problems with Letter Formation
408(1)
Problems with Fluency
409(1)
Causes and Effects of Handwriting Problems
409(1)
How Is Handwriting Performance Assessed?
409(4)
Planning Handwriting Instruction
409(2)
Monitoring Handwriting Progress
411(2)
What Interventions Can Help with Handwriting Difficulties?
413(1)
Teacher Modeling and Student Practice
413(1)
Reinforcement
414(1)
Self-Instruction Training
414(1)
What Spelling Problems Do Students Experience?
414(4)
Spelling Errors
416(2)
Effects of Spelling Problems
418(1)
How Is Spelling Performance Assessed?
418(4)
Standardized Assessment
418(2)
Planning Spelling Instruction
420(1)
Monitoring Progress in Spelling
421(1)
What Interventions Help Students' Spelling Difficulties?
422(5)
Developmental Interventions
423(1)
Remedial Interventions
424(1)
Effective Teaching Procedures
425(2)
What Composition Problems Do Students Experience?
427(3)
How Is Composition Performance Assessed?
430(3)
Screening
430(1)
Planning Composition Instruction
430(1)
Monitoring Progress in Composition
431(2)
What Interventions Help Students with Composition Difficulties?
433(12)
Developmental Interventions
433(3)
Remedial Interventions
436(1)
Effective Teaching Procedures
437(8)
Summary
445(6)
Students Who Experience Difficulties with Mathematics
451(38)
How Does Mathematical Knowledge Develop Normally?
452(5)
What Problems in Mathematics Do Students Experience?
457(3)
Problems in Cognitive Development
457(1)
Problems in Arithmetic Performance
458(2)
How Are Mathematics Abilities Assessed?
460(10)
Achievement Tests
462(1)
Formal Diagnostic Testing
463(1)
Informal Inventories
464(1)
Error Analysis
465(4)
Monitoring Progress
469(1)
What Interventions Help Students with Mathematics Difficulties?
470(14)
Developmental Interventions
473(1)
Remedial Interventions
474(1)
Technology
475(3)
Effective Teaching Procedures
478(6)
Summary
484(5)
Participation in General Education Classrooms for Students with Learning Disabilities
489(36)
What Are the Legal Mandates for Placement?
490(2)
Idea
491(1)
No Child Left Behind Act
491(1)
How Do Students with Learning Disabilities Receive Special Education Services in General Education Classrooms?
492(4)
Co-Teaching
492(4)
Resource Rooms
496(1)
How Can Placement and Instructional Decisions Be Made?
496(6)
Assessing the Instructional Ecology
496(2)
Monitoring Student Progress
498(4)
What Are Modifications for Students with Learning Disabilities in General Education Classrooms?
502(5)
Modifications Defined
503(1)
Instructional Accommodations
503(2)
Instructional Adaptations
505(2)
What Are Effective Instructional Practices for Students with Learning Disabilities in General Education Classrooms?
507(15)
A Few Notes before We Begin
507(2)
Synthesis of Instructional Interventions
509(2)
Graphic Organizers
511(3)
Peer-Mediated Instruction
514(2)
Note-Taking
516(3)
General Recommendations for Science Instruction
519(1)
General Recommendations for Social Studies Instruction
520(2)
Summary
522(3)
Appendix 525(13)
References 538(38)
Name Index 576(6)
Subject Index 582

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