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Learning and Instruction : Theory into Practice,9780130122278
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Learning and Instruction : Theory into Practice

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130122278

ISBN10:
0130122270
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This comprehensive volume takes a models approach by presenting separate chapters on individual theorists and perspectives. Within this well-organized structure, Gredler offers meticulously accurate coverage of contemporary learning theories and their application to educational practice--including issues of readiness, motivation, problem-solving, and the social context for learning. Key content additions include increased emphases on the contributions of neuroscience and of Vygotsky's work. For those involved with student counseling and evaluating classroom learning and instruction.

Table of Contents

PART I Introduction
The Role of Theory in Learning and Instruction
3(20)
Why Is the Study of Learning Important?
3(2)
What Are the Sources of Knowledge About Learning?
5(8)
Folklore, Traditional Wisdom, and Myths
5(1)
The Original Role of Philosophy
6(1)
Current Influences of Philosophical Beliefs
7(1)
Empirical Research
8(2)
Theory
10(1)
Comparisons of Theory with Other Knowledge Sources
11(1)
Summary
12(1)
What Are the Functions of Learning Theory?
13(4)
General Functions of Theories of Learning
13(2)
Specific Functions of Theories of Learning
15(2)
How Does This Text Present Knowledge About Learning?
17(3)
Psychological Models of Reality
17(2)
Organization of the Text
19(1)
Chapter Questions
20(1)
References
20(3)
Early Behaviorist Theories
23(20)
Classical Conditioning and Connectionism
23(12)
A Rationale for Behaviorism
24(1)
Basic Assumptions
24(1)
Reflex or Classical Conditioning
25(5)
Summary
30(1)
Edward Thorndike's Connectionism
31(4)
The Retreat to the Laboratory (1930-1950)
35(4)
The Refinement of Behaviorism
36(1)
Two S-R Theories
36(3)
Summary
39(1)
Applications to Education
40(1)
Chapter Questions
40(1)
References
41(2)
Gestalt Psychology: The Cognitive Perspective
43(22)
Major Concepts
43(8)
Origins of the Gestalt Perspective
44(1)
Basic Assumptions
44(3)
The Laws of Perceptual Organization
47(4)
Summary
51(1)
Other Gestalt Developments
51(9)
Arbitrary and Meaningful Learning
52(1)
Research on Problem Solving
53(3)
Summary
56(1)
Edward Tolman's Purposive Behaviorism
57(2)
Applications to Social Psychology
59(1)
Summary
60(1)
Applications to Education
60(1)
A Comparison of Behaviorism and Gestalt Theory
61(1)
Chapter Questions
62(1)
References
63(2)
Learning and Instruction
65(22)
Major Trends
65(14)
The Shift from the Laboratory to the Classroom (1950-1975)
65(3)
The Rise of Cognitive Psychology (1975-1990)
68(1)
The Rise of Social, Cultural, and Personal Factors in Learning (1980-present)
69(2)
The Emergence of Constructivism (1985-Present)
71(5)
The Interest in Neuroscience (1995-Present)
76(3)
Introduction to Seven Contemporary Theories
79(2)
The Analysis of Learning Theory
80(1)
Chapter Questions
81(1)
References
81(6)
PART II Learning-Process Theories
B. F. Skjinner's Operant Conditioning
87(42)
Principles of Learning
88(17)
Basic Assumptions
88(2)
The Components of Learning
90(11)
The Nature of Complex Learning
101(4)
Principles of Instruction
105(9)
Basic Assumptions
105(1)
The Components of Instruction
106(4)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
110(4)
Educational Applications
114(11)
Classroom Issues
114(4)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
118(3)
Classroom Example
121(2)
Review of the Theory
123(2)
Chapter Questions
125(1)
References
125(4)
Robert Gagne's Conditions of Learning
129(40)
Principles of Learning
130(15)
Basic Assumptions
130(3)
The Components of Learning
133(9)
The Nature of Complex Learning
142(3)
Principles of Instruction
145(10)
Basic Assumptions
146(1)
The Components of Instruction
147(7)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
154(1)
Educational Applications
155(10)
Classroom Issues
156(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
158(3)
Classroom Example
161(1)
Review of the Theory
161(4)
Chapter Questions
165(1)
References
165(4)
Cognitive Perspectives: I. The Processing of Information
169(38)
Principles of Learning
169(18)
Basic Assumptions
170(11)
The Components of Learning
181(6)
Principles of Instruction
187(9)
Basic Assumptions
188(1)
The Components of Instruction
188(8)
Educational Applications
196(5)
Classroom Issues
196(1)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
197(2)
Classroom Example
199(1)
Review of the Theory
199(2)
Chapter Questions
201(1)
References
201(6)
Cognitive Perspectives: II. Metacognition and Problem Solving
207(30)
The Nature of Complex Learning
207(19)
Metacognition
208(9)
Problem Solving
217(9)
Principles of Instruction
226(4)
Metacognition
226(2)
Problem Solving
228(2)
Educational Applications
230(3)
Classroom Issues
230(1)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
231(1)
Classroom Example
232(1)
Chapter Questions
233(1)
References
233(4)
PART III Cognitive-Development Theories
Jean Piaget's Cognitive-Development Theory
237(38)
Principles of Cognitive Development
239(16)
Basic Assumptions
239(2)
The Components of Cognitive Development
241(9)
The Levels of Complex Reasoning
250(5)
Principles of Instruction
255(9)
Basic Assumptions
256(1)
The Components of Instruction
256(8)
Educational Applications
264(7)
Classroom Issues
264(3)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
267(1)
Classroom Example
268(1)
Review of the Theory
269(2)
Chapter Questions
271(1)
References
271(4)
Lev S. Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development
275(40)
Principles of Psychological Development
278(1)
Basic Assumptions
278(19)
Summary of Basic Assumptions
283(1)
The Components of Cognitive Development
284(9)
The Nature of Complex Thought
293(4)
Principles of Instruction
297(6)
Basic Assumptions
297(1)
Components of Instruction
298(2)
Designing Instruction to Develop Complex Cognitive Functions
300(3)
Educational Applications
303(6)
Classroom Issues
304(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
306(1)
Classroom Example
307(1)
Review of the Theory
308(1)
Chapter Questions
309(1)
References
310(5)
PART IV Social-Context Theories
Albert Bandura's Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
315(38)
Principles of Learning
315(21)
Basic Assumptions
316(2)
The Components of Learning
318(12)
The Nature of Complex Learning
330(6)
Principles of Instruction
336(5)
Basic Assumptions
336(1)
The Components of Instruction
336(3)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
339(2)
Educational Applications
341(7)
Classroom Issues
341(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
343(1)
Classroom Example
344(2)
Review of the Theory
346(2)
Chapter Questions
348(1)
References
348(5)
Bernard Weiner's Attribution Theory
353(42)
Principles of Motivation
354(16)
Basic Assumptions
355(2)
The Components of the Attributional Process
357(11)
The Cumulative Effects of Attributions for Success or Failure
368(2)
Principles of Instruction
370(11)
Basic Assumptions
370(1)
The Essentials of Attributional Formation in the Classroom
370(9)
Designing Programs for Attributional Change
379(2)
Educational Applications
381(7)
Classroom Issues
381(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
383(1)
Classroom Examples
384(1)
Teaching Students to Identify the Main Idea
385(1)
Review of the Theory
386(2)
Chapter Questions
388(1)
References
388(7)
Epilogue 395(10)
Contributions of Learning Theory
395(3)
Current Issues
398(5)
References
403(2)
Glossary 405(8)
Name Index 413(6)
Subject Index 419


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