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Learning and Instruction : Theory into Practice,9780131119802
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Learning and Instruction : Theory into Practice

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131119802

ISBN10:
013111980X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $117.33
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Summary

This comprehensive volume takes a models approach by presenting separate chapters on individual theorists and perspectives.Within this well-organized structure, Gredler offers meticulously accurate coverage of contemporary learning theories and their application to educational practiceincluding issues of readiness, motivation, problem-solving, and the social context for learning. Key content additions include increased emphases on the contributions of neuroscience and of Vygotsky's work.For those involved with student counseling and evaluating classroom learning and instruction.

Table of Contents

PART I Introduction
1(72)
The Role of Theory in Learning and Instruction
2(25)
Why Is the Study of Learning Important?
2(2)
What Are the Sources of Knowledge About Learning?
4(11)
Folklore, Traditional Wisdom, and Myths
5(1)
The Original Role of Philosophy
5(1)
Current Influences of Philosophical Beliefs
6(2)
Research Methods
8(4)
Theory
12(1)
Comparisons of Theory with Other Knowledge Sources
13(1)
Summary
14(1)
What Are the Functions of Learning Theory?
15(4)
General Functions of Theories of Learning
15(2)
Specific Functions of Theories of Learning
17(2)
How Does This Text Present Knowledge About Learning?
19(6)
Psychological Models of Reality
19(3)
Organization of the Text
22(3)
Chapter Questions
25(1)
References
25(2)
Early Behaviorist Theories
27(21)
Classical Conditioning and Connectionism
27(13)
A Rationale for Behaviorism
28(1)
Basic Assumptions
28(1)
Reflex or Classical Conditioning
29(7)
Summary
36(1)
Edward Thorndike's Connectionism
36(4)
The Retreat to the Laboratory (1930--1950)
40(4)
The Refinement of Behaviorism
41(1)
Two S--R Theories
41(3)
Summary
44(1)
Applications to Education
44(1)
Chapter Questions
45(1)
References
45(3)
Gestalt Psychology: The Cognitive Perspective
48(25)
Major Concepts
48(10)
Origins of the Gestalt Perspective
49(1)
Basic Assumptions
49(3)
The Laws of Perceptual Organization
52(6)
Summary
58(1)
Other Gestalt Developments
58(9)
Arbitrary and Meaningful Learning
59(1)
Research on Problem Solving
60(4)
Summary
64(1)
Edward Tolman's Purposive Behaviorism
64(1)
Applications to Social Psychology
65(2)
Summary
67(1)
Applications to Education
67(1)
A Comparison of Behaviorism and Gestalt Theory
68(1)
Chapter Questions
69(1)
References
70(3)
PART II Major Trends
73(40)
Influences on Theory and Research
74(19)
The Expansion of Theory
74(7)
The Shift from the Laboratory to the Classroom (1950--1975)
74(4)
The Rise of Cognitive Psychology (1975--1990)
78(1)
The Rise of Social, Cultural, and Personal Factors in Learning (1980--present)
79(2)
Constructivist Beliefs
81(9)
The Nature of Disciplines of Knowledge
81(3)
Educational Constructivism
84(6)
Chapter Questions
90(1)
References
90(3)
The Human Brain
93(20)
Organization and Development
94(4)
Overview of the Microscopic Structure
94(3)
The Macroscopic Organization
97(1)
Cognitive and Educational Issues
98(10)
Linking Brain Structures and Functions
98(4)
Misapplications of Some Brain Research
102(1)
The Role of Cognitive Neuroscience
103(5)
Summary
108(1)
Chapter Questions
109(1)
References
109(4)
PART III Learning-Process Theories
113(150)
B. F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning
114(43)
Principles of Learning
115(17)
Basic Assumptions
115(3)
The Components of Learning
118(10)
The Nature of Complex Learning
128(4)
Principles of Instruction
132(10)
Basic Assumptions
133(1)
The Components of Instruction
134(4)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
138(4)
Educational Applications
142(11)
Classroom Issues
143(4)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
147(2)
Classroom Example
149(3)
Review of the Theory
152(1)
Chapter Questions
153(1)
References
154(3)
Robert Gagne's Conditions of Learning
157(39)
Principles of Learning
158(16)
Basic Assumptions
158(3)
The Components of Learning
161(10)
The Nature of Complex Learning
171(3)
Principles of Instruction
174(10)
Basic Assumptions
174(1)
The Components of Instruction
175(7)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
182(2)
Educational Applications
184(9)
Classroom Issues
184(3)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
187(2)
Classroom Example
189(3)
Review of the Theory
192(1)
Chapter Questions
193(1)
References
194(2)
Cognitive Perspectives: I. The Processing of Information
196(36)
Principles of Learning
196(17)
Basic Assumptions
197(9)
The Components of Learning
206(7)
Principles of Instruction
213(9)
Basic Assumptions
213(1)
The Components of Instruction
213(9)
Educational Applications
222(5)
Classroom Issues
222(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
224(1)
Classroom Example
225(1)
Review of the Theory
226(1)
Chapter Questions
227(1)
References
228(4)
Cognitive Perspectives: II. Metacognition and Problem Solving
232(31)
The Nature of Complex Learning
232(19)
Metacognition
233(9)
Problem Solving
242(9)
Principles of Instruction
251(5)
Metacognition
251(2)
Problem Solving
253(3)
Educational Applications
256(2)
Classroom Issues
256(1)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
257(1)
Classroom Example
257(1)
Chapter Questions
258(1)
References
258(5)
PART IV Cognitive-Development Theories
263(78)
Jean Piaget's Cognitive-Development Theory
264(40)
Principles of Cognitive Development
266(18)
Basic Assumptions
266(3)
The Components of Cognitive Development
269(9)
The Levels of Complex Reasoning
278(6)
Principles of Instruction
284(9)
Basic Assumptions
284(1)
The Components of Instruction
285(8)
Educational Applications
293(6)
Classroom Issues
293(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
295(1)
Classroom Example
296(2)
Review of the Theory
298(1)
Chapter Questions
299(1)
References
300(4)
Lev S. Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development
304(37)
Principles of Psychological Development
307(16)
Basic Assumptions
307(7)
The Components of Cognitive Development
314(7)
The Nature of Complex Thought
321(2)
Principles of Instruction
323(8)
Basic Assumptions
323(2)
Components of Instruction
325(3)
Designing Instruction to Develop Complex Cognitive Functions
328(3)
Educational Applications
331(6)
Classroom Issues
331(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
333(1)
Classroom Example
334(1)
Review of the Theory
335(2)
Chapter Questions
337(1)
References
337(4)
PART V Social-Context Theories
341(77)
Albert Bandura's Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
342(38)
Principles of Learning
342(20)
Basic Assumptions
343(2)
The Components of Learning
345(13)
The Nature of Complex Learning
358(4)
Principles of Instruction
362(6)
Basic Assumptions
362(1)
The Components of Instruction
362(5)
Designing Instruction for Complex Skills
367(1)
Educational Applications
368(7)
Classroom Issues
368(2)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
370(1)
Classroom Example
371(2)
Review of the Theory
373(2)
Chapter Questions
375(1)
References
375(5)
Cognitive Models and Theories of Academic Motivation
380(38)
Principles of Motivation
381(17)
Basic Assumptions
381(2)
Components of the Motivational Process
383(12)
The Cumulative Effects of Different Experiences on Motivational Beliefs
395(3)
Principles of Instruction
398(7)
Basic Assumptions
398(1)
Classroom Influences on Student Motivation
398(6)
Developing Programs for Motivational Change
404(1)
Educational Applications
405(6)
Classroom Issues
405(1)
Developing a Classroom Strategy
406(2)
Classroom Examples
408(1)
Review of Perspectives on Motivation
409(2)
Chapter Questions
411(1)
References
411(7)
Epilogue
418(9)
Contributions of Learning Theory
419(2)
Current Issues
421(5)
References
426(1)
Glossary 427(8)
Name Index 435(8)
Subject Index 443


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