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Legal Research, Analysis, and Writing

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780766854550

ISBN10:
0766854558
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/21/2003
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

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Summary

Paralegals in training, those in practice and law students will greatly appreciate the wealth of information contained in Legal Research, Writing and Analysis. This book is written in laymen?s terms with concepts clearly illustrated through numerous examples and hypotheticals. The material will prepare readers to perform tasks ranging from the drafting of interoffice legal memoranda summarizing research and analysis of issues involved in a client?s case to the preparation of drafts of appellate court briefs. Readers will become familiar with such subject areas as conducting statutory and case law research and analysis, identifying key facts in a case, conducting counteranalysis and identifying issues. There is no other book available that covers as many areas of legal research, writing and analysis and in such an in-depth manner.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Chapter Features xvi
Support Material xvii
Acknowledgments xix
About the Author xx
Table of Figures
xxi
Table of Cases
xxv
PART I Introduction to Research, Analytical Principles and the Legal Process
1(46)
Introduction to Legal Principles and Authorities
2(23)
Introduction
3(1)
Sources of Law
3(9)
Enacted Law
4(1)
Common Law/Case Law
5(7)
Hierarchy of the Law
12(1)
Authority
13(6)
Types of Authority
13(2)
Role of Authority
15(4)
Key Points Checklist: Analyzing the law
19(1)
Application
20(5)
Summary
21(1)
Quick References
22(1)
Internet Resources
22(1)
Exercises
23(2)
Introduction to Legal Research and Analysis
25(22)
Introduction
26(1)
Legal Analysis Defined
26(1)
Legal Research and the Analysis Process
26(11)
Facts
27(1)
Preliminary Research
28(1)
IRAC Analysis
28(9)
General Considerations
37(2)
Focus
37(1)
Ethics---Intellectual Honesty
38(1)
Key Points Checklist: Conducting Analysis
39(1)
Application
39(8)
Battery Issue
40(2)
Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress Issue
42(2)
Summary
44(1)
Quick References
44(1)
Internet Resources
44(1)
Exercises
45(2)
PART II Legal Research
47(250)
Constitutions, Statutes, Administrative Law, and Court Rules---Research and Analysis
48(49)
Introduction
49(1)
Anatomy of a Statute
49(9)
Numbers
56(1)
Short Title
56(1)
Purpose Clause
56(1)
Scope
56(1)
Definitions
57(1)
Substantive Provisions
57(1)
Other Provisions
57(1)
Annotations/Reference Information
57(1)
Statutory Research---Locating Statutes
58(12)
Federal Law
58(10)
State Statutory Law and Codes
68(1)
The Research Process---Techniques and Strategies
68(2)
Computer-Aided Research
70(1)
Ethics---Competence and Diligence
70(1)
Administrative Law
70(7)
Federal Administrative Law
71(6)
State Administrative Law
77(1)
Court Rules
77(1)
Analysis---The Process
77(8)
Step 1. Determine If the Statute Applies
78(2)
Step 2. Analyze the Statute
80(2)
Step 3. Apply the Statute to the Legal Problem or Issue
82(2)
Summary of the Statutory Analysis Process
84(1)
General Considerations
85(2)
Legislative History
85(1)
Canons of Construction
85(2)
Key Points Checklist: Working with Statutes
87(1)
Application
88(9)
Summary
91(1)
Quick References
92(1)
Internet Resources
93(1)
Statutory Citation
93(1)
Exercises
94(3)
Case Law---Research and Briefing
97(35)
Introduction
97(1)
Court Opinions---In General
98(1)
Court Opinions---Importance
98(2)
Court Opinions---Elements
100(4)
In General
100(1)
Elements of a Reported Case
100(4)
Court Opinions---Researching
104(12)
Publication of Court Opinions
104(10)
Researching Court Opinions---Locating Case Law
114(2)
Court Opinion---Briefing (Case Brief)
116(7)
Introduction
116(1)
Importance of Briefing
116(1)
How to Read a Case
116(1)
Case Brief---Elements
117(6)
Case Brief---Updating
123(1)
Key Points Checklist: Locating, Reading, and Briefing Court Opinion
123(1)
Application
124(8)
Summary
128(1)
Quick References
129(1)
Internet Resources
129(1)
Case Law Citation
130(1)
Exercises
130(2)
Secondary Authority---Encyclopedias, Treatises, Annotated Law Reports, Digests, Shepard's
132(51)
Introduction
132(2)
Legal Encyclopedias
134(9)
National Encyclopedias
135(1)
State Encyclopedias
135(8)
Treatises
143(3)
Types and Features of Treatises
143(2)
Research Using Treatises
145(1)
American Law Reports
146(9)
A.L.R. Components
147(6)
Research Using A.L.R.
153(2)
Digests
155(12)
West Key-Number Digest System
156(4)
Components of the West Digests
160(2)
Types of Digests
162(4)
Research Using Digests
166(1)
Shepard's Citations
167(11)
Format and Components of Shepard's Citations
168(5)
Types of Shepard's Citations
173(3)
Research Using Shepard's Citations
176(2)
Key Points Checklist: Secondary Authority
178(1)
Application
179(4)
Summary
179(1)
Quick References
180(1)
Internet Resources
180(1)
Citation
180(1)
Exercises
181(2)
Secondary Authority---Periodicals, Restatements, Uniform Laws, Dictionaries, Legislative History, and Other Secondary Authorities
183(37)
Introduction
183(1)
Legal Periodicals
184(7)
Types of Legal Periodicals
185(2)
Research Using Legal Periodicals
187(4)
Restatements of the Law
191(9)
Restatement Features
191(1)
Research Using Restatements of the Law
192(8)
Uniform Laws and Model Acts
200(5)
Features of Uniform Laws and Model Acts
201(1)
Research Using Uniform and Model Laws
201(4)
Dictionaries and Words and Phrases
205(1)
Legal Dictionaries
205(1)
Words and Phrases
206(1)
Legislative History
206(7)
Federal Legislative History Sources
206(2)
Researching Federal Legislative History
208(5)
State Legislative History
213(1)
Jury Instructions---Other Research Sources
213(2)
Jury Instructions
213(1)
Practice and Form Books
213(2)
Loose-leaf Services
215(1)
Presidential Materials
215(1)
Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory
215(1)
Key Points Checklist: Periodicals, Restatements, Uniform Laws, Dictionaries, Legislative History, and Other Secondary Authorities
215(1)
Application
216(4)
Summary
216(1)
Quick References
217(1)
Internet Resources
217(1)
Citation
218(1)
Exercises
219(1)
Computers and Legal Research
220(36)
Introduction
220(1)
Westlaw
221(16)
Signing On
221(1)
Finding Primary Authority
222(14)
Finding Secondary Authority
236(1)
Printing and Saving
237(1)
Lexis
237(13)
Signing On
237(1)
Finding Primary Authority
237(10)
Finding Secondary Authority
247(2)
Printing and Saving
249(1)
Westlaw or Lexis
250(1)
Other Internet Sources
250(1)
General Access and Links
250(1)
Government Sources
251(1)
Law School Web Sites
251(1)
CD-ROM
251(1)
Key Points Checklist: Computers and Legal Research
252(1)
Application
252(4)
Summary
253(1)
Quick References
254(1)
Internet Resources
254(1)
Citation
254(1)
Exercises
254(2)
Legal Citation
256(41)
Introduction
256(2)
In General
256(1)
The Bluebook and the ALWD Citation Manual
257(1)
General Rules of Citation
258(17)
Typeface
258(1)
Italics and Underscoring
259(1)
Citation Placement in Sentences and Clauses
260(1)
Abbreviations
261(1)
Capitalization
262(1)
Quotations
263(4)
Page Numbers (Pinpoint Citations)
267(2)
String Citations
269(1)
Short-Citation Forms (Id., Supra, and Hereinafter)
269(2)
Internal Cross-References (Supra and Infra)
271(1)
Signals
271(2)
Sections and Paragraphs (§ ¶)
273(1)
Electronic Sources
274(1)
Primary Authority
275(14)
Case Law
276(8)
Constitutions
284(1)
Statutory Law
285(3)
Rules of Evidence and Procedure
288(1)
Administrative Law
289(1)
Secondary Authority
289(4)
Annotated Law Reports
289(1)
Legal Dictionary
290(1)
Legal Encyclopedia
291(1)
Periodicals---Law Review/Journal Citations
291(1)
Restatements
292(1)
Treatises/Books
293(1)
Key Points Checklist: Citation
293(1)
Application
294(3)
Summary
294(1)
Quick References
295(1)
Internet Resources
295(1)
Exercises
295(2)
PART III The Specifics of Legal Analysis
297(108)
Legal Analysis---Key Facts
298(20)
Introduction
299(1)
Facts in General---Definition
300(1)
Importance of Facts
301(1)
Types of Facts in General
301(2)
Irrelevant Facts
302(1)
Background Facts
302(1)
Key Facts
303(1)
Key Facts---Definition and Types
303(2)
Definition
303(1)
Types of Key Facts
304(1)
Key Facts Identification---Client's Case
305(4)
Step 1 Identify Each Cause of Action
306(1)
Step 2 Determine the Elements
306(1)
Step 3 List All Facts Related to the Elements
307(1)
Step 4 Determine Which Facts Apply
307(1)
Multiple Issues
308(1)
Key Facts Identification---Case Law
309(3)
Step 1 Read the Entire Case
310(1)
Step 2 Look to the Holding
310(1)
Step 3 Identify the Key Facts
311(1)
Multiple Issues
312(1)
Key Points Checklist: Identifying Key Facts
312(1)
Application
312(6)
Client's Fact Situation
312(2)
Court Opinion
314(2)
Summary
316(1)
Quick References
316(1)
Internet Resources
317(1)
Exercises
317(1)
Legal Analysis---Issue Identification
318(25)
Introduction
319(1)
Definition and Types
319(1)
Elements
320(2)
Applicable Law
320(1)
Legal Question
321(1)
Key Facts
321(1)
Examples
321(1)
Issue Identification---Client's Case
322(4)
Step 1 Identify Each Type of Cause of Action
322(1)
Step 2 Determine the Elements of Each Cause of Action
323(1)
Step 3 Determine the Key Facts
324(1)
Step 4 Assemble the Issue
325(1)
Multiple Issues
326(1)
Issue Identification---Case Law
326(5)
Step 1 General Question
328(1)
Step 2 Look to the Holding
329(1)
Step 3 Assemble the Issue
330(1)
Other Aids---Case Law Issue Identification
330(1)
Multiple Issues
330(1)
Key Points Checklist: Identifying the Issue
331(1)
Application
332(11)
Client's Fact Situation
332(1)
Court Opinion
333(4)
Summary
337(1)
Quick References
337(1)
Internet Resources
337(1)
Exercises
338(5)
Legal Analysis---Stating the Issue
343(21)
Introduction
344(1)
Shorthand/Broad Statement of the Issue
344(2)
Comprehensive/Narrow Statement of the Issue
346(2)
Issue---Law Component
348(5)
Issue Based on Common Law
349(1)
Issue Based on Enacted Law
349(3)
Format of the Law Component
352(1)
Issue---Question Component
353(1)
Issue---Significant/Key Facts Component
354(2)
Ethics---Objectively Stating the Issue
356(1)
General Considerations
357(1)
Name
357(1)
Approach
358(1)
Multiple Issues
358(1)
Key Points Checklist: Drafting an Issue
358(1)
Application
359(5)
Chapter Hypothetical
359(1)
False Imprisonment
359(1)
Summary
360(1)
Quick References
361(1)
Internet Resources
361(1)
Exercises
361(3)
Case Law Analysis---Is a Case on Point?
364(20)
Introduction
365(1)
Definition---On Point
365(1)
On Point---Importance
365(2)
Precedent
366(1)
Mandatory Precedent
366(1)
Persuasive Precedent
366(1)
Stare Decisis
367(1)
Determining If a Case Is on Point
367(11)
Step 1---Are the Key Facts Sufficiently Similar?
368(5)
Step 2---Are the Rules/Principles of Law Sufficiently Similar?
373(5)
Key Points Checklist: Determining If a Case Is on Point
378(1)
Application
378(6)
Chapter Hypothetical
378(1)
Libel Case
379(1)
Summary
380(1)
Quick References
381(1)
Internet Resources
381(1)
Exercises
381(3)
Counteranalysis
384(21)
Introduction
385(1)
Counteranalysis---Definition
385(1)
Counteranalysis---Why?
385(1)
Counteranalysis---When?
386(1)
Counteranalysis---Techniques
387(10)
In General
387(1)
Enacted Law
388(4)
Case Law
392(5)
Counteranalysis Techniques---Comments
397(1)
Counteranalysis---Where?
397(2)
Court Brief
397(1)
Interoffice Research Memorandum
398(1)
Key Points Checklist: Conducting Counteranalysis
399(1)
Application
399(6)
Chapter Hypothetical
399(1)
Counteranalysis---Reliance on Legislative Act
400(1)
Counteranalysis---Reliance on Court Opinion
400(1)
Summary
401(1)
Quick References
401(1)
Internet Resources
402(1)
Exercises
402(3)
PART IV Legal Writing
405(162)
Fundamentals of Writing
406(31)
Sentences
406(4)
Sentence---Structure/Pattern
407(1)
Sentence---Basic Rules
407(3)
Paragraphs
410(2)
Paragraph---Topic Sentence
410(1)
Paragraph---Body
411(1)
Paragraph---Closing Sentence
411(1)
Paragraph---Transition Sentence
412(1)
Paragraph Length
412(1)
Word Selection and Usage
412(5)
Excessive/Redundant Words
413(1)
Noun-Verb Strings
413(1)
Nominalizations
413(1)
Legalese
414(1)
Archaic Words
414(1)
Sexist Language
414(2)
Specific Words---Problem Areas
416(1)
Grammar
417(7)
Subject-Verb Agreement
417(2)
Verb Tense
419(1)
Parallel Construction
419(1)
Superfluous Verbs
420(1)
Modifier and Infinitives
420(2)
Noun-Pronoun Agreement
422(2)
Punctuation
424(7)
Comma (,)
424(2)
Semicolon (;)
426(1)
Colon (:)
427(1)
Apostrophe (')
427(1)
Quotation Marks (`` '')
428(1)
Ellipses (. . .)
429(1)
Brackets ([ ])
430(1)
Parentheses ``()''
430(1)
Hyphen (-)
430(1)
Dash (---)
430(1)
General Considerations
431(1)
Spelling
431(1)
Numbers
431(1)
Formal Writing Conventions
432(1)
Key Points Checklist: Successful Legal Writing
432(1)
Application
432(5)
Summary
433(1)
Quick References
434(1)
Internet Resources
434(1)
Exercises
434(3)
The Writing Process for Effective Legal Writing
437(24)
Introduction
438(1)
Importance of Writing Skills
438(1)
Goal of Legal Writing
438(1)
Legal Writing Process
439(14)
Prewriting Stage
440(11)
Writing Stage
451(1)
Postwriting Stage
452(1)
General Research Suggestions
453(2)
Key Points Checklist: The Writing Process
455(1)
Application
455(6)
Prewriting Stage
455(2)
Writing Stage
457(1)
Postwriting Stage
457(1)
Summary
458(1)
Quick References
458(1)
Internet Resources
459(1)
Exercises
459(2)
Office Legal Memorandum: Issues and Facts
461(24)
Introduction
462(1)
Definition
463(1)
Purposes, Uses, and Importance
463(2)
Prewriting Stage
465(4)
Nature of the Assignment
465(1)
Constraints on the Assignment
466(1)
Organization of the Assignment
467(2)
Sections of the Office Memorandum
469(10)
Heading
469(1)
Statement of Assignment
470(1)
Issue
471(2)
Brief Answer
473(1)
Statement of Facts
474(5)
Key Points Checklist: Preparing an Interoffice Memorandum
479(1)
Application
480(5)
Summary
483(1)
Quick References
484(1)
Internet Resources
484(1)
Exercise
484(1)
Office Legal Memorandum: Analysis to Conclusion
485(30)
Introduction
486(1)
Analysis Section
486(9)
Analysis---Format
486(2)
Analysis Part A: Rule of Law
488(2)
Analysis Part B: Rule of Law Interpretation---Case Law
490(3)
Analysis Part C: Application of Rule of Law to Client's Case
493(2)
Analysis Part D: Counteranalysis
495(1)
Conclusion
495(2)
Recommendations
497(1)
General Considerations
498(3)
Heading
498(1)
Introductory Sentences
498(1)
Transition Sentences
498(1)
Paragraphs
499(1)
Persuasive Precedent
499(1)
Conclusions
500(1)
Revisions/Drafts
500(1)
Additional Authority
500(1)
Key Points Checklist: The Interoffice Memorandum---Analysis to Conclusion
501(1)
Application
501(14)
Example 1
501(1)
Example 2
502(4)
Comments on Examples
506(1)
Summary
507(1)
Quick References
507(1)
Internet Resources
507(1)
Exercises
507(8)
External Memoranda: Court Briefs
515(30)
Introduction
516(1)
General Considerations
516(9)
Similarities---Court Briefs and Office Memoranda
516(1)
Dissimilarities---Court Briefs and Office Memoranda
517(8)
Trial Court Briefs
525(6)
Audience
526(1)
Constraints
526(1)
Format/Content
527(4)
Appellate Court Briefs
531(4)
Audience
532(1)
Constraints
532(1)
Format/Content
532(3)
Key Points Checklist: Preparing a Court Brief
535(1)
Application
535(10)
Summary
539(1)
Quick References
540(1)
Internet Resources
540(1)
Exercises
540(5)
Correspondence
545(22)
Introduction
545(1)
Basic Components
546(5)
Letterhead
546(1)
Date
547(1)
Method of Delivery
547(1)
Recipient's Address Block
547(1)
Reference (Re:) Line
548(1)
Salutation
548(1)
Body
548(1)
Closing
549(1)
Signature and Title
550(1)
Initials of Drafter
550(1)
Enclosure Notation
550(1)
Others Receiving Copies
550(1)
Format Style
550(1)
General Considerations---All Correspondence
551(1)
Types of Correspondence
551(8)
Information Letter
552(2)
Opinion Letter
554(3)
Demand/Advocacy Letter
557(2)
Key Points Checklist: Preparing Legal Correspondence
559(1)
Application
559(8)
Example---Information Letter
560(1)
Example---Opinion Letter
561(2)
Comments on Examples
563(1)
Summary
563(1)
Quick References
564(1)
Internet Resources
564(1)
Exercises
565(2)
Appendix A---Court Opinions 567(47)
Appendix B---Appellate Court Brief 614(31)
Appendix C---Web Sites 645(3)
Glossary 648(5)
Index 653


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