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Life Span, The: Human Development for Helping Professionals,9780130144256
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Life Span, The: Human Development for Helping Professionals

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130144256

ISBN10:
0130144258
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $81.33
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Summary

The first developmental book written specifically for helping professionals, "The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals, Second Edition," provides an in-depth look at developmental theories and how they apply to the fields of counseling, social work and psychology. Using counseling applications, case studies, special topics boxes, and journal questions, the text introduces developmental theories and research within the context of clinical practice. This edition features a new chapter on well-being in adulthood, expanded counseling applications sections, current research on developmental psychopathology and prevention science, and a book-specific companion website.

Table of Contents

Organizing Themes in Development
1(38)
Introduction
1(1)
Reflection and Action
1(3)
The Gap Between Science and Practice
2(2)
The Big Picture: Models and Metaphors
4(14)
Stage Models
4(9)
Incremental Models
13(2)
Multidimensional Models
15(3)
Applying Models and Metaphors
18(1)
Major Issues in Development
19(12)
Nature Versus Nurture
19(9)
Critical Periods Versus Unlimited Plasticity
28(1)
Continuity Versus Change
29(1)
Activity Versus Passivity
30(1)
Applications
31(3)
Summary
34(3)
Case Study
37(2)
Heredity, Environment, and the Beginnings of Human Life
39(35)
The Nature/Nurture Illusion
39(1)
Mechanisms of Genetic Influence: How Do Genes Work?
39(11)
Biological Inheritance
40(3)
How Genes Influence Traits
43(3)
The Inheritance of Sex
46(2)
Hereditary Diseases
48(2)
Focus on Genetics: Its Influence on Behavior
50(4)
Molecular Genetics and Behavior
51(1)
Behavior Genetics
51(1)
Genetic Influences on Environments
52(2)
Shifting Focus to the Interaction of Genetics and Environment
54(5)
Criticisms of Behavior Genetics
54(3)
Developmental Systems: A Multidimensional Perspective
57(2)
Healthy Prenatal Development
59(8)
Genetic Interventions
60(1)
Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development
61(6)
Applications
67(2)
Summary
69(3)
Case Study
72(2)
Neural and Cognitive Developments in the Early Years
74(46)
The Brain
75(10)
Early Prenatal Brain Development
75(3)
Structure and Function of Neurons
78(3)
Later Prenatal Brain Development
81(1)
Postnatal Brain Development
82(1)
Sensory and Motor Development
83(2)
Cognitive Development
85(25)
Piaget's Constructivist Theory
86(3)
Infant Cognition: The Sensorimotor Stage
89(8)
Preschoolers' Cognition: The Preoperational Stage
97(9)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
106(4)
Applications
110(4)
Summary
114(3)
Case Study
117(3)
Emotional Development in the Early Years
120(38)
Theories of Emotions: The State of the Art
121(5)
Functions of Emotions
121(1)
Basic Emotions: Do They Exist?
122(1)
Theories and Sequence of Emotional Development
123(3)
Early Caregiver-Infant Interactions and Emotional Development
126(4)
Emotional Regulation
127(2)
Infants of Depressed Mothers
129(1)
Neurobiology of Early Social Bonding
129(1)
Attachment: Early Social Relationships
130(21)
Attachment Quality
135(2)
Maternal Care and Attachment Quality: Linking Mother's Sensitivity to Infant Security
137(2)
Beyond Maternal Caregiving: Other Influences on Relationship Quality
139(5)
Variations in Attachment Relationships
144(2)
The Importance of Early Attachments
146(3)
Working Models of Attachment
149(1)
Parenting Practices Versus Relationship Quality in Infant Development
150(1)
Applications
151(3)
Summary
154(2)
Case Study
156(2)
The Emerging Self and Socialization in the Early Years
158(33)
The Self-System: Traditional Conceptions
159(2)
The Early Development of the Self-System
161(7)
The Beginnings of the ``I'' and the ``Me''
161(4)
Roots of Self-Control and Self-Regulation
165(3)
Early Socialization: Parenting and the Development of the Self-System
168(11)
The Dimensions of Parenting Style
169(1)
Four Parenting Styles
170(2)
Parenting Style and Child Outcomes
172(1)
Parenting Practices: Methods of Control
172(3)
Moderators of Parenting and Parenting Effectiveness
175(4)
Parenting and the Developing Self-System
179(2)
Applications
181(5)
Summary
186(2)
Case Study
188(3)
Realms of Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
191(40)
Physical and Brain-Related Changes
192(1)
Cognitive Development
193(21)
Piaget's Stage of Concrete Operations
193(5)
An Alternative Perspective: The Information Processing Approach
198(1)
Achievements of the Concrete Operational Child
199(15)
Social Cognition
214(8)
Perspective Taking and Social Relationships
215(1)
Perspective Taking and Friendship Development
216(6)
Applications
222(5)
Summary
227(2)
Case Study
229(2)
Self and Moral Development in Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence
231(38)
Self-Concept
232(8)
The Development of Self-Concept
232(2)
The Structure of Self-Concept
234(2)
Influences on the Development of Self-Concept
236(2)
Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Differences
238(2)
The Moral Self
240(20)
Elements of Morality
241(2)
Some Classic Theories of Moral Development
243(7)
Children's Prosocial Behavior
250(5)
Children's Antisocial Behavior
255(5)
Applications
260(4)
Summary
264(2)
Case Study
266(3)
Gender and Peer Relationships in Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence
269(42)
Sex Role Development
270(18)
Gender Identity
271(4)
Gender and Behavior
275(13)
Peer Relationships
288(16)
The Peer Group, Social Competence, and Social Skills
289(5)
Analysis of the World of Peers
294(1)
Measurements of Individuals Within the Peer Group
294(1)
Individual Characteristics Related to Sociometric Status
295(4)
Gender and Cultural Differences
299(1)
Stability of Categories and Outcomes
299(1)
Measurement of the Peer Group: Another Level of Analysis
300(1)
Why Do Cliques Form?
301(1)
Peer Groups' Influence on Behavior
302(2)
Applications
304(3)
Summary
307(2)
Case Study
309(2)
Physical, Cognitive, and Identity Development in Adolescence
311(36)
Physical Development
312(11)
Puberty: The Adolescent Metamorphosis
312(10)
The Changing Brain
322(1)
Cognitive Development
323(7)
Formal Operational Thought
324(1)
Scientific Problem Solving
325(2)
Constructing Ideals
327(1)
Advances in Metacognitive Skill: Thinking About Thought
328(2)
Identity Development
330(10)
Some Basic Considerations
330(1)
Adolescent Identity Development
331(1)
Identity Status
331(2)
Assessment of Identity Domains
333(1)
Developmental Sequence in Identity Formation
334(1)
Identity Crisis: Truth or Fiction
335(1)
Identity Development and Diverse Groups
335(5)
Applications
340(2)
Summary
342(2)
Case Study
344(3)
The Social World in Adolescence
347(31)
Frameworklessness and Autonomy: Seltzer's Model of Adolescent Social Identity
348(2)
The Peer Arena
349(1)
The Structure of the Peer Network
350(2)
The Role of Parents
352(5)
Parents, Peers, and Ethnicity
356(1)
The Role of School
357(3)
Leisure and Work
360(2)
Media and the Consumer Culture
362(2)
Risky Behavior and Social Deviance
364(5)
Setting the Stage for Risk Taking
366(2)
Society's Role in Adolescent Problem Behavior: Then and Now
368(1)
Applications
369(5)
Summary
374(2)
Case Study
376(2)
Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood
378(29)
Physical Development in Young Adulthood
381(3)
Reaching Peak Physical Status
381(3)
The Changing Brain
384(1)
Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood
384(16)
Logical Thinking: Is There Qualitative Change?
385(1)
Schaie's View of Adults Adjusting to Environmental Pressures
386(3)
Postformal Thought
389(11)
Applications
400(4)
Summary
404(1)
Case Study
405(2)
Socioemotional and Vocational Development in Young Adulthood
407(37)
``Lieben''---To Love
408(13)
Adult Attachment Theory
408(1)
Research Traditions in Adult Attachment
408(5)
The Peer/Romantic Relationship Tradition
413(8)
``Arbeiten''---To Work
421(16)
Some Theories of the Career Development Process
422(4)
The Realities of Career Development in Young Adulthood
426(8)
Work and the Development of Self-Concept
434(3)
Applications
437(3)
Summary
440(2)
Case Study
442(2)
Cognitive, Personality, and Social Development in the Middle Years of Adulthood
444(41)
Life Span Development Theory
445(5)
Gains and Losses in Development: The Changing Architecture of Biology and Culture
446(1)
Development as Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss
447(1)
Defining Successful Development at Any Age
448(2)
Influences on Adult Development: Sources of Stability
450(2)
The Link to Temperament
451(1)
Influences on Adult Development: Sources of Change
452(11)
Age-Graded Changes
453(9)
History-Graded Changes
462(1)
Nonnormative Changes
463(1)
Key Developmental Tasks of Midlife: The Continuing Pursuit of Intimacy and Generativity
463(15)
Intimacy: Marriage and Other Primary Relationships
464(9)
Generativity: Making a Mark at Midlife
473(5)
Applications
478(2)
Summary
480(2)
Case Study
482(3)
Gains and Losses in Late Adulthood
485(37)
Aging Well
486(14)
Challenge and Loss in Late Adulthood
486(7)
Maintaining Well-Being in the Face of Loss: Successful Development
493(7)
Experiencing Loss
500(13)
Death and Dying
500(6)
Bereavement
506(7)
Applications
513(5)
Integrity: The Life Cycle Completed
517(1)
Summary
518(2)
Case Study
520(2)
References 522(52)
Author Index 574(13)
Subject Index 587

Excerpts

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THIS BOOK The study of human development over the life span reveals the fascinating story of human beings and how they change over time. The story is both universal and uniquely personal, because it speaks to us about ourselves and the people who are important to us in our lives. Besides being intrinsically interesting, knowledge about development has obvious relevance for professionals engaged in counseling, social work, and other helping fields. We believe that in order to understand our clients and the nature of their problems, we must see clients in context. One important context is clients' developmental history. As helping professionals, we must take into account the threads of continuity and change in people's lives that bring them to their present point in development. This text provides the background and the tools to enable professionals to view their clients from a developmental perspective. This text also reflects the contemporary view that life span development is a process deeply embedded within and inseparable from the context of family, social network, and culture. People do not progress through life in isolation; rather their developmental course influences and is influenced by other people and systems. Some of these influences are related to the cultural differences that exist in a world of increasing diversity. We recognize the importance of these factors in understanding human development and emphasize cultural and systemic influences on human growth and change throughout the book. Knowledge about development increases every day, making it exceptionally difficult to summarize this dynamic field. Presumably, every author needs to make some choices about what to include in a book of this nature. This particular text is configured to emphasize selected theories and research that have useful applications for helping professionals. The main purpose of this book is to provide students in the helping professions with information that can be translated into professional "best practice" applications. Throughout this text, we also emphasize the role of clinicians as reflective practitioners. Reflective practice involves "active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it leads" (Dewey, 1933/1998, p. 9). Our primary vehicle for accomplishing this goal is twofold: (1) encouraging the reader to reflect on personal experience and assumptions about development and (2) communicating the value of research-based knowledge as a means of understanding human development. Our particular orientation intentionally emphasizes the significance of developmental research to the work of the professional helper. We attempt to integrate various lines of developmental research into a useful whole that has practical value for helpers in applied settings. In so doing, this book bears witness to the enormous amount of work done by developmental researchers, particularly in the last several decades. Without their groundbreaking efforts, clinicians' own work to improve people's lives would be greatly impoverished. It has been a challenge and an honor to record their contributions in this book. COVERAGE AND ORGANIZATION The opening chapters establish the theme of the text and introduce broad issues in development. Chapter 1 begins with an examination of the role of developmental knowledge in reflective practice. Students are introduced to theoretical models and issues that appear and reappear throughout the text. They are encouraged to reflect on their own theoretical assumptions about development and on the impact those assumptions could have in clinical practice. Boxed features help students understand how developmental processes are studied scientifically and how scientifically established information can be useful in practice. Chapter 2 takes a close look at


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