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Life-span Human Development

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534553814

ISBN10:
0534553818
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/15/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $159.66

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Summary

Known for its clear, straightforward writing style, comprehensive coverage, strong and current research-based approach, and excellent visuals and tables, this life-span development text offers a topical organization at the chapter level and a consistent chronological presentation within each chapter. Each chapter focuses on a domain of development such as physical growth, cognition, or personality and traces developmental trends and influences in that domain from infancy to old age. Within each chapter, you will find sections on four life stages: Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood. This unique organization enables students to comprehend the processes of transformation that occur in key areas of human development. This new edition includes a clear focus on the complex interactions of nature and nurture in development, more integrated coverage of culture and diversity, and an exciting new media package for both students and instructors.

Table of Contents

Understanding Life-Span Human Development
1(25)
How Should We Think about Development?
2(1)
Defining Development
2(1)
Conceptualizing the Life Span
3(2)
Framing the Nature--Nurture Issue
5(1)
Explorations: Historical Changes in Periods of the Life Span
6(2)
What Is the Science of Life-Span Development?
8(1)
Goals of Study
8(1)
The Modern Life-Span Perspective
9(1)
Explorations: Pioneers of the Study of Life-Span Development
10(1)
How Is Developmental Research Conducted?
11(1)
The Scientific Method
11(1)
Sample Selection
11(1)
Data Collection
12(1)
Verbal Reports
12(1)
Behavioral Observations
12(1)
Physiological Measurements
13(1)
The Experimental and Correlational Methods
13(4)
The Experimental Method
14(1)
The Correlational Method
15(2)
Developmental Research Designs
17(3)
Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects
17(1)
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
17(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cross-Sectional Design
18(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Longitudinal Design
19(1)
Sequential Designs: The Best of Both Worlds
19(1)
How Do We Protect the Rights of Research Participants?
20(1)
How Do We Understand Development in Its Ecological Context?
21(3)
Summary Points
24(1)
Critical Thinking
24(1)
Key Terms
24(1)
Media Resources
25(1)
Theories of Human Development
26(29)
Developmental Theories and the Issues They Raise
27(1)
Explorations: Where Do You Stand on Major Developmental Issues?
28(1)
Nature and Nurture
28(1)
The Goodness and Badness of Human Nature
29(1)
Activity and Passivity
29(1)
Continuity and Discontinuity
29(1)
Universality and Context Specificity
30(1)
Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory
30(1)
Instincts and Unconscious Motives
30(1)
Id, Ego, and Superego
30(1)
Psychosexual Development
31(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses
32(1)
Explorations: Freud on Teenage Pregnancy
33(1)
Erikson: Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory
33(1)
Psychosocial Stages
34(1)
Explorations: Erikson on Teenage Pregnancy
35(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses
35(1)
Learning Theories
35(1)
Watson: Classical Conditioning
36(1)
Skinner: Operant Conditioning
36(3)
Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory
39(1)
Explorations: Bandura on Teenage Pregnancy
40(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses
40(1)
Cognitive Developmental Theory
41(1)
Piaget: Constructivism
41(1)
Stages of Cognitive Development
42(1)
Explorations: Piaget on Teenage Pregnancy
43(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses
43(1)
Contextual--Systems Theories
44(1)
Vygotsky: A Sociocultural Perspective
44(1)
Gottlieb: An Evolutionary--Epigenetic Systems View
45(2)
Strengths and Weaknesses
47(1)
Explorations: Gottlieb on Teenage Pregnancy
48(1)
Theories in Perspective
49(1)
Applications: Using Developmental Theories to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy
50(3)
Summary Points
53(1)
Critical Thinking
53(1)
Key Terms
53(1)
Media Resources
53(2)
Genes, Environment, and Development
55(28)
Evolution and Species Heredity
56(1)
Individual Heredity
57(1)
The Genetic Code
57(1)
Explorations: The Human Genome Project
58(2)
Genetic Uniqueness and Relatedness
59(1)
Determination of Sex
60(1)
Translation of the Genetic Code
60(1)
Mechanisms of Inheritance
61(2)
Single Gene-Pair Inheritance
61(1)
Sex-Linked Inheritance
62(1)
Polygenic Inheritance
62(1)
Mutations
63(1)
Chromosome Abnormalities
63(2)
Genetic Diagnosis and Counseling
65(1)
Explorations: Prenatal Detection of Abnormalities
66(2)
Studying Genetic and Environmental Influences
68(1)
Experimental Breeding
68(1)
Twin, Adoption, and Family Studies
69(1)
Estimating Influences
69(1)
Molecular Genetics
70(1)
Accounting for Individual Differences
71(1)
Intellectual Abilities
71(1)
Temperament and Personality
72(1)
Psychological Disorders
73(1)
The Heritability of Different Traits
74(1)
Influences on Heritability
75(1)
Heredity and Environment Conspiring
75(1)
Gene--Environment Interactions
76(1)
Gene--Environment Correlations
76(1)
Passive Gene--Environment Correlations
77(1)
Evocative Gene--Environment Correlations
77(1)
Active Gene--Environment Correlations
77(1)
Genetic Influences on Environment
77(1)
Controversies Surrounding Genetic Research
78(1)
Applications: Prevention and Treatment of Genetic Conditions
79(1)
Summary Points
80(1)
Critical Thinking
80(1)
Key Terms
81(1)
Media Resources
81(2)
Prenatal Development and Birth
83(28)
Prenatal Development
84(1)
Conception
84(1)
Explorations: Reproductive Technologies: New Conceptions of Conception
85(1)
Prenatal Stages
85(6)
The Germinal Period
86(1)
The Embryonic Period
86(1)
The Fetal Period
87(4)
The Prenatal Environment
91(1)
Teratogens
91(7)
Drugs
91(5)
Diseases
96(1)
Environmental Hazards
97(1)
The Mother's State
98(1)
Applications: Getting Life Off to a Good Start
98(2)
Age
98(1)
Emotional Condition
99(1)
Nutritional Condition
99(1)
The Father's State
100(1)
The Perinatal Environment
101(1)
Possible Hazards
101(2)
Anoxia
101(1)
Complicated Delivery
101(2)
Medications
103(1)
The Mother's Experience
103(2)
Cultural Factors
103(1)
Postnatal Depression
104(1)
The Father's Experience
105(1)
The Neonatal Environment
105(1)
Identifying At-Risk Newborns
106(2)
Risk and Resilience
108(1)
Summary Points
109(1)
Critical Thinking
109(1)
Key Terms
109(1)
Media Resources
110(1)
The Physical Self
111(32)
Building Blocks of Growth and Development
112(1)
The Endocrine System
112(1)
The Nervous System
113(4)
Brain Development
115(1)
The Aging Brain
116(1)
Explorations: Can Brain Development Explain Why Adolescents Take More Risks Than Adults?
117(1)
Principles of Growth
118(1)
The Infant
119(1)
Rapid Growth
119(1)
Newborn Capabilities
119(3)
Reflexes
119(2)
Behavioral States
121(1)
Sensing and Learning
121(1)
Explorations: Are Today's Children (and Adults) Sleep Deprived?
122(2)
Physical Behavior
124(3)
Locomotor Development
124(1)
Manipulating Objects
125(1)
Emergence of Motor Skills
126(1)
The Child
127(1)
Steady Growth
127(1)
Physical Behavior
128(1)
Applications: Promoting Lifelong Health with Physical Activity
128(2)
The Adolescent
130(1)
The Growth Spurt
131(1)
Sexual Maturation
131(2)
Psychological Implications
133(1)
Early versus Late Development
134(1)
Physical Behavior
134(1)
The Adult
135(1)
Physical Changes
135(2)
Appearance and Structure
135(1)
Functioning and Health
136(1)
Psychological Implications
136(1)
The Reproductive System
137(1)
Female Menopause
137(1)
Explorations: Cultural Differences in the Experience of Menopause
138(1)
Male Andropause
139(1)
Physical Behavior
139(2)
Slowing Down
139(1)
Disease, Disuse, and Abuse
140(1)
Summary Points
141(1)
Critical Thinking
141(1)
Key Terms
141(1)
Media Resources
141(2)
Perception
143(28)
Issues of Nature and Nurture
144(1)
The Infant
145(1)
Assessing Perceptual Abilities
145(1)
Habituation
145(1)
Preferential Looking
145(1)
Evoked Potentials
145(1)
Operant Conditioning
145(1)
Vision
146(4)
Basic Capacities
146(1)
Pattern Perception
147(1)
Depth Perception
148(1)
Organizing a World of Objects
149(1)
The Infant as an Intuitive Theorist
150(1)
Explorations: Can Babies Count?
150(2)
Hearing
152(1)
Basic Capacities
152(1)
Speech Perception
152(1)
Taste and Smell
153(1)
Applications: Aiding Infants and Children with Hearing Impairments
154(2)
Touch, Temperature, and Pain
156(1)
Integrating Sensory Information
156(1)
Influences on Early Perceptual Development
157(2)
Early Experience and the Brain
157(1)
The Infant's Active Role
158(1)
Cultural Variation
158(1)
The Child
159(1)
The Development of Attention
159(1)
Longer Attention Span
159(1)
More Selective Attention
159(1)
More Systematic Attention
159(1)
The Adolescent
160(1)
The Adult
160(1)
Vision
161(3)
Changes in the Pupil
161(1)
Changes in the Lens
161(2)
Retinal Changes
163(1)
Attention and Visual Search
163(1)
Explorations: Aging Drivers
164(1)
Hearing
164(2)
Basic Capacities
164(1)
Speech Perception
165(1)
Applications: Aiding Adults with Hearing Impairments
166(1)
Taste and Smell
167(1)
Touch, Temperature, and Pain
168(1)
The Adult in Perspective
168(1)
Summary Points
169(1)
Critical Thinking
169(1)
Key Terms
169(1)
Media Resources
169(2)
Cognition
171(28)
Piaget's Constructivist Approach
172(1)
What Is Intelligence?
172(1)
How Does Intelligence Develop?
173(1)
The Infant
174(1)
Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage
174(1)
The Development of Object Permanence
175(2)
The Emergence of Symbols
177(1)
The Child
178(1)
The Preoperational Stage
178(1)
Explorations: Can There Really Be a Santa Claus?
178(4)
Lack of Conservation
179(2)
Egocentrism
181(1)
Difficulty with Classification
181(1)
Did Piaget Underestimate the Preschool Child?
181(1)
The Concrete Operations Stage
182(1)
Conservation
182(1)
Seriation and Transitivity
182(1)
Other Advances
183(1)
The Adolescent
183(1)
The Formal Operations Stage
183(2)
Hypothetical and Abstract Thinking
183(1)
Problem Solving
183(1)
Progress toward Mastery
184(1)
Explorations: Children's Humor and Cognitive Development
185(1)
Implications of Formal Thought
186(2)
The Adult
188(1)
Limitations in Adult Cognitive Performance
188(1)
Growth beyond Formal Operations?
189(1)
Aging and Cognitive Skills
190(1)
Piaget in Perspective
191(1)
Piaget's Contributions
191(1)
Challenges to Piaget
191(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective
192(1)
Culture and Thought
192(1)
Social Interaction and Thought
193(1)
Tools of Thought
194(1)
Applications: Improving Cognitive Functioning
194(2)
Evaluation of Vygotsky
196(1)
Summary Points
197(1)
Critical Thinking
197(1)
Key Terms
197(1)
Media Resources
197(2)
Memory and Information Processing
199(26)
The Information-Processing Approach
200(1)
Memory Systems
200(1)
Implicit and Explicit Memory
201(1)
Problem Solving
202(1)
The Infant
202(1)
Memory
202(2)
Imitation
202(1)
Habituation
203(1)
Operant Conditioning
203(1)
Recall
204(1)
Problem Solving
204(1)
The Child
205(1)
Explaining Memory Development
205(4)
Do Basic Capacities Change?
205(1)
Do Memory Strategies Change?
206(1)
Does Knowledge about Memory Change?
207(1)
Does Knowledge of the World Change?
208(1)
Revisiting the Explanations
208(1)
Autobiographical Memory
209(2)
When Do Autobiographical Memories Begin?
209(1)
Scripts
210(1)
Eyewitness Memory
210(1)
Problem Solving
211(2)
The Adolescent
213(1)
The Adult
214(1)
Developing Expertise
214(1)
Autobiographical Memory
215(1)
Memory and Aging
215(1)
Explorations: Forgetting: What Is Normal and What Is Not?
216(4)
Areas of Strength and Weakness
216(2)
Explaining Declines in Old Age
218(2)
Applications: Improving Memory and Study Skills
220(2)
Problem Solving and Aging
222(1)
Summary Points
223(1)
Critical Thinking
223(1)
Key Terms
224(1)
Media Resources
224(1)
Intelligence and Creativity
225(29)
What Is Intelligence?
226(1)
The Psychometric Approach
227(1)
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
227(1)
Explorations: Measuring Intelligence
228(2)
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
230(2)
The Infant
232(1)
Developmental Quotients
232(1)
Infant Intelligence and Later Intelligence
232(1)
The Child
233(1)
How Stable Are IQ Scores during Childhood?
233(1)
Causes of Gain and Loss
233(1)
Explorations: Early Intervention for Preschool Children
234(1)
The Adolescent
234(1)
Continuity between Childhood and Adulthood
234(1)
IQ and School Achievement
235(1)
The Adult
236(1)
IQ and Occupational Success
236(1)
IQ and Health
236(1)
Change in IQ with Age
237(1)
Predictors of Decline
238(1)
Applications: IQ Training for Aging Adults
239(1)
Potential for Wisdom
239(2)
Factors That Influence IQ Scores
241(1)
Genes
241(1)
Home Environment
241(2)
Explorations: Family Size and Birth Order
243(1)
Social Class
243(1)
Race and Ethnicity
244(2)
Culture Bias
244(1)
Motivational Factors
244(1)
Genetic Influences
245(1)
Environmental Influences
246(1)
The Extremes of Intelligence
246(1)
Mental Retardation
246(1)
Giftedness
247(2)
What Is Creativity?
249(1)
Creativity in Childhood and Adolescence
249(1)
Creative Achievement in Adulthood
250(2)
Summary Points
252(1)
Critical Thinking
252(1)
Key Terms
253(1)
Media Resources
253(1)
Language and Education
254(32)
Mastering Language
255(1)
What Must Be Mastered
255(1)
The Course of Language Development
256(3)
Before the First Words
256(1)
The First Words
257(1)
Telegraphic Speech
258(1)
Later Language Development
259(1)
How Language Develops
260(4)
The Learning Perspective
260(1)
The Nativist Perspective
261(1)
The Interactionist Perspective
262(1)
A Critical Period for Language?
263(1)
Explorations: Language Acquisition among Deaf Children
264(1)
The Infant
265(1)
Mastery Motivation
265(1)
Early Education
266(1)
The Child
267(1)
Achievement Motivation
267(2)
Age Differences
268(1)
Parent Contributions
268(1)
School Contributions
269(1)
Learning to Read
269(3)
Mastering the Alphabetic Principle
269(1)
Emergent Literacy
270(1)
Skilled and Unskilled Readers
271(1)
How Should Reading Be Taught?
271(1)
Effective Schools
272(2)
Less Important Factors
272(1)
Factors That Matter
272(2)
Explorations: Making Integration and Inclusion Work
274(1)
The Adolescent
274(1)
Declining Levels of Achievement
275(2)
Family Characteristics
276(1)
Cognitive Growth
276(1)
Negative Feedback
276(1)
Peer Pressures
276(1)
Pubertal Changes
276(1)
Poor Person--Environment Fit
277(1)
Science and Mathematics Education
277(2)
Integrating Work and School
279(1)
Pathways to Adulthood
280(1)
The Adult
281(1)
Achievement Motivation
281(1)
Literacy
282(1)
Continuing Education
282(1)
Applications: What Can Theory and Research Contribute to Education?
283(1)
Summary Points
284(1)
Critical Thinking
284(1)
Key Terms
284(1)
Media Resources
284(2)
Self and Personality
286(36)
Conceptualizing the Self
287(1)
Perspectives on Personality Development
287(1)
Psychoanalytic Theory
287(1)
Trait Theory
288(1)
Explorations: A Brief Personality Scale
289(1)
Social Learning Theory
289(1)
The Infant
290(1)
The Emerging Self
290(1)
Temperament
291(2)
Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability
291(1)
Behavioral Inhibition
292(1)
Easiness and Difficultness
292(1)
Goodness of Fit
293(1)
Explorations: Goodness of Fit and the Case of Carl
293(1)
The Child
294(1)
Elaborating on a Sense of Self
294(2)
Self-Esteem
295(1)
Influences on Self-Esteem
296(1)
Forming Personality
296(1)
The Adolescent
297(1)
Self-Conceptions
297(1)
Self-Esteem
298(1)
Explorations: Big Fish in a Little Pond
299(1)
Forging a Sense of Identity
300(2)
Developmental Trends
300(2)
Explorations: Forging a Positive Ethnic Identity
302(2)
Influences on Identity Formation
303(1)
Vocational Identity and Choice
304(1)
The Adult
305(1)
Self-Conceptions
305(2)
Age Differences
305(2)
Cultural Differences
307(1)
Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality
307(1)
Applications: Stereotypes of Aging and Self-Perceptions in Old Age
308(3)
Do People Retain Their Rankings?
308(1)
Do Mean Personality Scores Change?
309(2)
Why Do People Change or Remain the Same?
311(1)
Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth
311(3)
The Path to Adulthood
311(1)
Early Adult Intimacy
312(1)
Midlife Generativity
313(1)
Old Age Integrity
313(1)
Midlife Crisis?
314(1)
Vocational Development and Adjustment
315(2)
Establishing a Career
315(1)
The Aging Worker
316(1)
Retirement
317(1)
Personality and Successful Aging
317(2)
Summary Points
319(1)
Critical Thinking
320(1)
Key Terms
320(1)
Media Resources
320(2)
Gender Roles and Sexuality
322(29)
Male and Female
323(1)
Gender Norms and Stereotypes
324(1)
Are There Gender Differences?
324(2)
The Infant
326(1)
Differential Treatment
326(1)
Early Learning
327(1)
The Child
327(1)
Acquiring Gender Stereotypes
327(1)
Gender-Typed Behavior
328(1)
The Adolescent
329(1)
Adhering to Gender Roles
329(1)
Explaining Gender-Role Development
329(3)
Biosocial Theory
330(2)
Explorations: Is the Social Label Everything, or Is Biology Destiny?
332(3)
Psychoanalytic Theory
333(1)
Social Learning Theory
333(2)
Explorations: Are Single-Sex Schools Good for Girls?
335(3)
Cognitive Theories
336(2)
An Attempt at Integration
338(1)
The Adult
338(1)
Changes in Gender Roles
338(1)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny
339(2)
Changes with Age
340(1)
Is Androgyny Advantageous?
341(1)
Sexuality over the Life Span
341(1)
Are Infants Sexual Beings?
341(1)
Applications: Changing Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior
342(1)
Childhood Sexuality
342(2)
Knowledge of Sex and Reproduction
343(1)
Sexual Behavior
343(1)
Childhood Sexual Abuse
344(1)
Adolescent Sexuality
344(3)
Sexual Orientation
345(1)
Sexual Morality
345(1)
Sexual Behavior
346(1)
Adult Sexuality
347(2)
Summary Points
349(1)
Critical Thinking
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Media Resources
350(1)
Social Cognition and Moral Development
351(33)
Social Cognition
352(1)
Developing a Theory of Mind
352(5)
First Steps
354(1)
Desire and Belief--Desire Psychologies
354(1)
Nature and Nurture
355(2)
Describing Other People
357(1)
Role-Taking Skills
357(1)
Social Cognition in Adulthood
358(1)
Perspectives on Moral Development
359(1)
Moral Affect: Psychoanalytic Theory and Beyond
360(1)
Moral Reasoning: Cognitive Developmental Theory
361(2)
Piaget's View
361(1)
Kohlberg's View
361(2)
Moral Behavior: Social Learning Theory
363(1)
Explorations: Sample Responses to the Mercy-Killing Dilemma at Kohlberg's Three Levels of Moral Reasoning
364(1)
The Infant
365(1)
Early Moral Training
365(1)
Prosocial Behavior
366(1)
The Child
366(1)
Weighing Intentions
366(1)
Understanding Rules
367(1)
Applying Theory of Mind
367(1)
Thinking through Kohlberg's Dilemmas
367(1)
Behaving Morally
368(1)
Nurturing Morality
368(2)
The Adolescent
370(1)
Changes in Moral Reasoning
370(1)
Antisocial Behavior
371(4)
Dodge's Social Information-Processing Model
371(1)
Patterson's Coercive Family Environments
372(1)
Nature and Nurture
373(2)
The Adult
375(1)
Moral Development
375(1)
Influences on Moral Development
375(1)
Applications: Combating Youth Violence
376(2)
Kohlberg's Theory and Beyond
378(1)
Culture Bias?
378(1)
Liberal Bias?
378(1)
Gender Bias?
378(1)
Explorations: Cultural Differences in Moral Thinking
379(3)
Supplementing Kohlberg
380(2)
Summary Points
382(1)
Critical Thinking
382(1)
Key Terms
383(1)
Media Resources
383(1)
Attachment and Social Relationships
384(37)
Perspectives on Relationships
385(1)
Attachment Theory
386(1)
Nature, Nurture, and Attachment
386(1)
Implications of Attachment
387(1)
Peers and the Two Worlds of Childhood
387(1)
Piaget
387(1)
Sullivan
387(1)
Harris
388(1)
The Infant
388(1)
Early Emotional Development
389(2)
Nature, Nurture, and Emotions
389(1)
Emotion Regulation
390(1)
An Attachment Forms
391(1)
The Caregiver's Attachment to the Infant
391(1)
The Infant's Attachment to the Caregiver
392(1)
Attachment-Related Fears
392(1)
Exploratory Behavior
392(1)
The Quality of the Attachment
392(1)
Explorations: Tips for Baby-Sitters Trying to Prevent Stranger Anxiety
393(4)
The Caregiver's Contributions
394(2)
The Infant's Contributions
396(1)
Contextual Contributors
396(1)
Implications of Early Attachment
397(1)
Effects of Social Deprivation
397(1)
Explorations: Is Day Care Good for Infant Development?
398(3)
Later Development of Securely and Insecurely Attached Infants
400(1)
First Peer Relations
401(1)
The Child
402(1)
Parent--Child Attachments
403(1)
Peer Networks
403(1)
Play
403(2)
Play Becomes More Social
403(1)
Play Becomes More Imaginative
404(1)
Play Becomes More Rule-Governed
405(1)
What Good Is Play?
405(1)
Peer Acceptance and Popularity
405(1)
Friendships
406(1)
The Adolescent
407(1)
Attachments to Parents
407(1)
Friendships
407(1)
Changing Social Networks
408(2)
Cliques and Crowds
408(1)
Dating
409(1)
Parent and Peer Influence
410(1)
The Adult
411(1)
Social Networks
411(1)
Explorations: Emotional Experience in Adult Relationships
412(1)
Attachment Styles
413(1)
Explorations: Internal Working Models of Attachment
414(2)
Adult Friendships
416(1)
Adult Relationships and Adult Development
416(1)
Applications: Building Stronger Social Relationships
417(1)
Summary Points
418(1)
Critical Thinking
419(1)
Key Terms
419(1)
Media Resources
419(2)
The Family
421(34)
Understanding the Family
422(1)
The Family as a System
422(1)
The Family as a System within Other Systems
423(1)
The Family as a Changing System
423(1)
A Changing System in a Changing World
423(2)
The Infant
425(1)
Mother--Infant and Father--Infant Relationships
425(1)
Mothers, Fathers, and Infants: The System at Work
426(1)
The Child
426(1)
Parenting Styles
426(3)
Dimensions of Child Rearing
426(1)
Social Class, Economic Hardship, and Parenting
427(2)
Models of Influence in the Family
429(1)
Parent Effects Model
429(1)
Child Effects Model
429(1)
Transactional Model
429(1)
Explorations: Genes, Culture, and Parenting
430(1)
Sibling Relationships
430(3)
A New Baby Arrives
431(1)
Ambivalence in Sibling Relationships
432(1)
Contributions to Development
432(1)
The Adolescent
433(1)
Ripples in the Parent--Child Relationship
433(1)
Renegotiating the Relationship
433(2)
The Adult
435(1)
Establishing the Marriage
435(1)
New Parenthood
435(2)
The Child-Rearing Family
437(1)
The Empty Nest
437(1)
Grandparenthood
438(1)
Changing Family Relationships
439(3)
Marital Relationships
439(1)
Sibling Relationships
439(1)
Parent--Child Relationships
440(2)
Diversity in Family Life
442(1)
Singles
442(1)
Childless Married Couples
443(1)
Dual-Career Families
443(1)
Gay and Lesbian Families
444(1)
Divorcing Families
444(2)
Before the Divorce
444(1)
After the Divorce
445(1)
Explorations: ``Good'' and ``Bad'' Divorces: Factors Influencing Adjustment
446(2)
Remarriage and Reconstituted Families
448(1)
The Problem of Family Violence
448(1)
Why Does Family Violence Occur?
449(1)
The Abuser
449(1)
The Abused
450(1)
The Context
450(1)
What Are the Effects of Family Violence?
450(2)
Applications: Battling Family Violence
452(1)
Summary Points
453(1)
Critical Thinking
453(1)
Key Terms
453(1)
Media Resources
454(1)
Developmental Psychopathology
455(29)
What Makes Development Abnormal?
456(1)
DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria
456(1)
Developmental Psychopathology
457(3)
Psychopathology as Development, Not as Disease
457(1)
Considering Social Norms and Age Norms
458(1)
Developmental Issues
458(1)
The Diathesis--Stress Model
459(1)
The Infant
460(1)
Autism
460(2)
Suspected Causes
461(1)
Explorations: Is Autism an Extreme Version of the Male Brain?
462(2)
Developmental Outcomes and Treatment
464(1)
Depression
464(1)
Explorations: Failure to Thrive
465(1)
The Child
466(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
467(2)
Developmental Course
467(1)
Suspected Causes
468(1)
Treatment
468(1)
Depression
469(1)
Applications: Challenges in Treating Children and Adolescents
470(1)
Nature, Nurture, and Childhood Disorders
471(1)
Do Childhood Problems Persist?
472(1)
The Adolescent
473(1)
Storm and Stress?
473(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
473(2)
Suspected Causes
474(1)
Treatment
475(1)
Depression and Suicidal Behavior
475(2)
The Adult
477(1)
Depression
477(1)
Age and Sex Differences
477(1)
Treatment
478(1)
Aging and Dementia
478(4)
Alzheimer's Disease
479(2)
Other Causes of Cognitive Impairment
481(1)
Summary Points
482(1)
Critical Thinking
482(1)
Key Terms
483(1)
Media Resources
483(1)
The Final Challenge: Death and Dying
484(27)
Life and Death Issues
485(1)
What Is Death?
485(1)
Biological Definitions of Death
485(1)
Explorations: Should We Hasten Death?
486(2)
Social Meanings of Death
487(1)
What Kills Us and When?
488(1)
Theories of Aging: Why Do We Age and Die?
489(1)
Programmed Theories
489(1)
Damage Theories
490(1)
Nature and Nurture Conspiring
491(1)
The Experience of Dying
491(1)
Applications: Can We Delay Death?
492(1)
Kubler-Ross's Stages of Dying
492(2)
Criticisms and Alternative Views
494(1)
The Experience of Bereavement
495(1)
The Parkes/Bowlby Attachment Model
495(1)
Some Evidence
496(1)
The Infant
497(1)
The Child
498(1)
Grasping the Concept of Death
498(1)
The Dying Child
499(1)
The Bereaved Child
500(1)
The Adolescent
500(1)
The Adult
501(1)
Death in the Family Context
502(2)
The Loss of a Spouse
502(1)
The Loss of a Child
503(1)
The Loss of a Parent
504(1)
Challenges to the Grief Work Perspective
504(2)
Who Copes and Who Succumbs?
506(1)
Personal Resources
506(1)
The Nature of the Loss
506(1)
The Context of Supports and Stressors
506(1)
Bereavement and Human Development
507(1)
Taking the Sting Out of Death
507(1)
For the Dying
507(1)
For the Bereaved
508(1)
Summary Points
509(1)
Critical Thinking
509(1)
Key Terms
509(1)
Media Resources
510(1)
EPILOGUE Fitting the Pieces Together
511
Major Trends in Development
512(1)
Infants (Birth to Age 2)
512(1)
Preschool Children (Ages 2 through 5)
513(1)
School-Age Children (Ages 6 through 11)
513(1)
Adolescents (Ages 12 through 19)
514(1)
Young Adults (Ages 20 through 39)
514(1)
Middle-Aged Adults (Ages 40 through 64)
514(2)
Older Adults (Age 65 and Up)
516(2)
Major Themes in Human Development
518(1)
Nature and Nurture Truly Interact in Development
518(1)
We Are Whole People throughout the Life Span
518(1)
Development Proceeds in Multiple Directions
519(1)
There Is Both Continuity and Discontinuity in Development
519(1)
There Is Much Plasticity in Development
519(1)
We Are Individuals, Becoming Even More Diverse with Age
519(1)
We Develop in a Cultural and Historical Context
520(1)
We Are Active in Our Own Development
520(1)
Development Is a Lifelong Process
520(1)
Development Is Best Viewed from Multiple Perspectives
520
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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