Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 4/30/2010
  • Publisher: Mit Pr
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This popular introductory linguistics text is unique for its integration of themes. Rather than treat morphology, phonetics, phonology, syntax, and semantics as completely separate fields, the book shows how they interact. It provides a sound introduction to linguistic methodology while encouraging students to consider why people are intrinsically interested in language-the ultimate puzzle of the human mind. The text first treats such structural and interpretive parts of language as morphology, phonology, syntax, and semantics, then takes a cognitive perspective and covers such topics as pragmatics, psychology of language, language acquisition, and language and the brain. For this sixth edition, all chapters have been revised. New material includes updated examples, new special topics sections, and new discussions of the minimalist program, semantic minimalism, human genetic relationships and historical relationships among languages, Gricean theories, experimental pragmatics, and language acquisition. The organization of the book gives instructors flexibility in designing their courses. Chapters have numerous subsections with core material presented first and additional material following as special topics. The accompanying workbook supplements the text with exercises drawn from a variety of languages. The goal is to teach basic conceptual foundations of linguistics and the methods of argumentation, justification, and hypothesis testing within the field. By presenting the most fundamental linguistics concepts in detail, the text allows students to get a feeling for how real work in different areas of linguistics is done.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsp. ix
Note to the Teacherp. xi
The Structure of Human Language
Introductionp. 5
What Is Linguistics?p. 13
Morphology: The Study of the Structure of Wordsp. 67
Words: Some Background Conceptsp. 13
Complex Words and Morphemesp. 18
Neologisms: How Are New Words Created?p. 25
Inflectional versus Derivational Morphologyp. 45
Problematic Aspects of Morphological Analysisp. 48
Special Topicsp. 51
Phonetics and Phonemic Transcriptionp. 67
Some Background Conceptsp. 68
The Representation of Speech Soundsp. 73
Special Topicsp. 99
Phonology: The Study of Sound Structurep. 109
What Is Phonology?p. 109
The Internal Structure of Speech Sounds: Distinctive Feature Theoryp. 110
The External Organization of Speech Soundsp. 126
Special Topicp. 140
Syntax: The Study of Sentence Structurep. 149
Some Background Conceptsp. 149
An Informal Theory of Syntaxp. 154
A More Formal Account of Early Transformational Theoryp. 194
Special Topicsp. 201
Semantics: The Study of Linguistic Meaningp. 225
Semantics as Part of a Grammarp. 225
Theories of Meaningp. 226
The Scope of a Semantic Theoryp. 234
Special Topicsp. 246
Language Variationp. 273
Language Styles and Language Dialectsp. 273
Some Properties of the Grammar of Informal Style in Englishp. 285
Other Language Varietiesp. 293
Language Changep. 311
Some Background Conceptsp. 311
The Reconstruction of Indo-European and the Nature of Language Changep. 315
The Linguistic History of Englishp. 332
Special Topicsp. 343
Communication and Cognitive Science
Introductionp. 359
Pragmatics: The Study of Language Use and Communicationp. 363
Some Background Conceptsp. 363
The Message Model of Linguistic Communicationp. 365
The Inferential Model of Linguistic Communicationp. 371
Discourse and Conversationp. 388
Special Topicsp. 393
Psychology of Language: Speech Production and Comprehensionp. 419
Performance Modelsp. 419
Speech Productionp. 419
Language Comprehensionp. 427
Special Topicsp. 458
Language Acquisition in Childrenp. 481
Some Background Conceptsp. 481
Is There a ‘‘Language Acquisition Device∆∆?p. 494
Is the Human Linguistic Capacity Unique? Children and Primates Comparedp. 510
Special Topicp. 519
Language and the Brainp. 531
Is Language Localized in the Brainýand If So, Where?p. 532
How Does the Brain Encode and Decode Speech and Language?p. 539
Are the Components of Language Neuroanatomically Distinct?p. 547
Special Topicsp. 551
Appendixp. 569
The Written Representation of Language
Glossaryp. 579
Indexp. 601
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