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Listening : Attitudes, Principles, and Skills,9780205335398
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Listening : Attitudes, Principles, and Skills

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205335398

ISBN10:
020533539X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This text makes an experiential approach to listening instruction, providing extensive supplemental applications and cases within the context of a sound theoretical framework. Brownell encourages students to view listening as a process involving six interrelated components. Each component is developed along the parallel dimensions of theory and skill building. Within the unifying theoretical framework of the HURIER model, students not only develop an understanding of the listening process, they also acquire specific, observable listening skills. This behavioral approach enables students to increase their listening effectiveness while developing an understanding of listening-related research and theory. The impact of culture, technology, and globalization is also explored. Ethical questions are raised through sidebars, and students are challenged to consider the responsibilities associated with listening behavior. Extensive self-assessment instruments, individual and group activities, and case studies further distinguish this engaging text. Students readily recognize the important role listening plays in their daily lives, and acquire strategies to improve their listening behavior.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I: An Introduction to Listening 1(23)
Improving Listening Effectiveness
3(21)
Outline
4(1)
Chapter Objectives
4(1)
The Importance of Listening
5(2)
The World of Listening
7(1)
Reasons to Listen
8(5)
Accomplish Tasks and Build Relationships: The China Affair
8(3)
Make Wise Decisions: The Selection Process
11(1)
Appreciate and Enjoy What You Hear: A Second Chance
12(1)
The Hurier Approach to Listening
13(5)
Components of the HURRIER Model Listening Filters
14(2)
Listening Filters
16(1)
Development of the HURIER Model
16(1)
Applying the HURIER Model
17(1)
Understand Yourself as a Listener
18(6)
Self-monitoring
19(1)
Howell's Dimensions
20(1)
Constructive Feedback
21(2)
Assessing Your Listening Behavior
23(1)
Summary
24(1)
Applications 24(45)
Understand the Importance and Benefits of Listening
25(1)
Understand the Components of the HURIER Model
26(2)
Understand Yourself as a Listener
28(3)
Your Hurier Listening Profile
31(3)
Bibliography
34(2)
Listening Theory and Research
36(33)
Outline
36(1)
Chapter Objectives
36(1)
Theoretical Perspectives
37(10)
Early Perspectives on Communication
38(2)
The Relational Perspective
40(7)
Listening-Centered Communication
47(1)
What We Know About Listening Behavior
47(4)
Challenges in Listening Research
48(1)
Models of the Listening Process
49(2)
Factors that Influence Listening
51(4)
Research on Listening Assessment
55(2)
Types of Assessment Instruments
55(1)
Assessment Concerns
55(2)
The Hurier Model: A Behavioral Approach
57(1)
Settings and Purposes: Developing Listening Strategy
58(2)
Summary
60(1)
Applications
61(5)
Understand Relational Communication
61(2)
Understand Research in Listening
63(2)
Understand Listening Assessment
65(1)
Recognize How Situation and Purpose Influence Listening
65(1)
Bibliography
66(3)
PART II: Listening: Principles and Applications 69(236)
The Process of Hearing
71(32)
Outline
72(1)
Chapter Objectives
72(2)
Case: The Home Front
74(2)
The Process of Hearing: Principles
76(6)
The Mechanics of Hearing
77(1)
Levels of Hearing
78(1)
Characteristics of Sound
79(1)
Auditory Discrimination
80(2)
Hearing and Attention
82(3)
Perceptual Readiness
83(1)
Selective Attention
83(2)
Learning To Focus Your Attention
85(6)
The Thought--Speech Differential
86(1)
Listener Apprehension
87(2)
Maintain an Appropriate Mental Attitude
89(1)
Be Physically Prepared to Concentrate
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Applications
91(9)
Focus on Your Hearing
92(2)
Identify and Reduce Distractions
94(1)
Adopt an Appropriate Listening Attitude
95(2)
Apply the Vocalized Listening Technique
97(1)
Overcome Listener Apprehension
98(1)
Behave Like a Good Listener
99(1)
Hearing Messages: Short Case
100(1)
The Home Front: Case Questions
101(1)
Bibliography
102(1)
The Process of Understanding
103(36)
Outline
104(1)
Chapter Objectives
104(2)
Case: First-Semester Freshman: Part I
106(1)
Case: First Semester Freshman: Part II
107(3)
The Process of Understanding: Principles
110(5)
Understanding What You Hear
111(2)
Inner Speech
113(1)
Semantic Reactions
114(1)
Comprehension in Two-Way Settings
115(5)
Sharing and Building Vocabulary
115(1)
Asking Appropriate Questions
116(3)
Listening to the Entire Message
119(1)
Understanding in One-Way Communication Settings
120(7)
Patterns of Organization
121(1)
Note-Taking Systems
122(3)
Using Notes Effectively
125(2)
Summary
127(1)
Applications
127(12)
Increase Your Vocabulary
128(1)
Keep in Touch with Your Inner Speech
129(1)
Listen to the Entire Message
130(1)
Ask Relevant Questions
131(2)
Listen for Main Ideas
133(1)
Use Appropriate Note-Taking Methods
134(2)
Understanding Messages: Short Case
136(1)
First-Semester Freshman: Case Questions
137(1)
Bibliography
138(1)
The Process of Remembering
139(34)
Outline
140(1)
Chapter Objectives
140(2)
Case: Running Late
142(2)
The Process of Remembering: Principles
144(1)
Memory Systems
145(10)
Immediate Memory
146(2)
Short-Term Memory
148(2)
Long-Term Memory
150(5)
Obstacles to Effective Memory
155(2)
Repression and Distortion
155(1)
Retroactive Inhibition
156(1)
Primacy and Recency Effects
156(1)
Rigid Thinking
157(1)
Paths to a Better Memory
157(3)
Eat Right
157(1)
Increase Creativity
157(2)
Reduce Stress
159(1)
Summary
160(1)
Applications
161(8)
Improve Your Immediate and Short-Term Memory
162(1)
Improve Your Long-Term Memory
163(2)
Reduce Obstacles to Memory
165(1)
Increase Creative Thinking
166(1)
Reduce Stress
167(2)
Remembering Messages: Short Case
169(1)
Running Late: Case Questions
170(1)
Bibliography
171(2)
The Process of Interpreting
173(51)
Outline
174(1)
Chapter Objectives
174(2)
Case: Burgerworld
176(3)
The Process of Interpreting: Principles
179(1)
The Nature of Empathy
180(7)
Types of Empathy
181(2)
Individual Differences in Empathic Listening
183(3)
Empathy Requires Reciprocity
186(1)
Nonverbal Communication
187(11)
Basic Considerations in the Interpretation of Nonverbal Cues
188(4)
Facial Expression
192(1)
Eye Behavior
192(2)
Body Movements, Posture, and Gesture
194(2)
Touch
196(1)
Appearance
196(2)
Vocal Cues
198(4)
Characteristics of Voice
199(2)
Silence
201(1)
Verbal and Nonverbal Cues Interrelate
202(3)
Contradicting
203(1)
Substituting
203(1)
Complementing
203(1)
Relating and Regulating
204(1)
Becoming an Empathic Listener
205(1)
Summary
206(1)
Applications
207(12)
Develop the Cognitive Aspects of Empathy
207(3)
Develop the Perceptive Aspects of Empathy
210(1)
Develop the Behavioral Aspects of Empathy
210(4)
Interpret Your Partner's Vocal Cues
214(4)
Identify the Ways in Which Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors Interrelate
218(1)
Short Cases for Analysis and Discussion
219(1)
Burgerworld: Case Questions
220(1)
Bibliography
221(3)
The Process of Evaluating
224(41)
Outline
225(1)
Chapter Objectives
225(1)
Case: Tough Sell
226(4)
The Process of Evaluating: Principles
230(2)
Theories of Persuasion
232(3)
Attitude Change Theory
233(1)
Consistency Theories
233(1)
Social Judgment Theories
234(1)
Prepare Yourself for Critical Listening
235(2)
There's Always More to Know
235(1)
Be Ready to Modify your Position
236(1)
Consider Differences As Well As Similarities
236(1)
Recognize Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
236(1)
Use Indexing to Focus on Individuals Rather Than Categories
236(1)
Date Your Information and Constantly Reassess the Situation
237(1)
There's a Lot of Gray between Black and White
237(1)
Elements of Persuasion
237(3)
Evaluate Speaker Credibility
238(1)
Initial, Derived, and Terminal Credibility
239(1)
Evaluate Rational Appeals
240(8)
Distinguish among Facts, Opinions, and Inferences
240(2)
Types of Evidence and Support
242(1)
Types of Reasoning
243(3)
Identify Logical Fallacies
246(2)
Evaluate Emotional Appeals
248(4)
Propaganda Devices
250(2)
Summary
252(1)
Applications
252(11)
Mentally Prepare Yourself to Listen Objectively
253(3)
Analyze Source Credibility
256(1)
Analyze the Speaker's Evidence
257(2)
Analyze the Speaker's Reasoning
259(1)
Analyze the Speaker's Emotional Appeals
260(3)
Tough Sell: Case Questions
263(1)
Bibliography
264(1)
The Process of Responding
265(40)
Outline
266(1)
Chapter Objectives
266(2)
Case: The Interview
268(2)
Responding to Messages: Principles
270(3)
Developing Your Listening Response
272(1)
Your Listening Response and Your Personal Style
272(1)
The Transactional Analysis Framework
273(4)
Child Ego State
273(1)
Parent Ego State
274(2)
Adult Ego State
276(1)
Response Styles
277(9)
The Assertive Response
277(7)
Supportive Responses
284(2)
Nonverbal Dimensions: Creating Listening Environments
286(5)
Communication Settings
286(1)
Space and Communication
287(3)
Time as a Communication Variable
290(1)
Summary
291(1)
Applications
292(10)
Expand Your Comfort Zone
292(1)
Identify the Transactional Analysis Ego-States
293(3)
Develop Your Assertive Skills
296(1)
Practice Supportive Responses
297(3)
Create Supportive Listening Environments
300(2)
The Interview: Case Questions
302(1)
Bibliography
303(2)
PART III: Listening: Relationships and Challenges 305(86)
Listening Relationships
307(50)
Outline
308(1)
Chapter Objectives
308(1)
Case: Home for the Holidays
309(3)
Listening Relationships
312(1)
Relationships in the Family
312(7)
Listening to your Partner or Spouse
313(2)
Listening to Children
315(1)
Listening to the Elderly
316(3)
Educational Relationships
319(6)
Listening in the Classroom
320(1)
Listening to Presentations
321(2)
Listening to Feedback and Evaluation
323(2)
Helping Relationships
325(5)
Listening in the Counseling Interview
325(1)
Listening to a Friend in Trouble
326(2)
Listening as a Patient
328(2)
Organizational Relationships
330(11)
Listening to Employees
331(2)
Listening to Supervisors
333(2)
Listening in Small Groups and Teams
335(4)
Listening to Rumor
339(2)
Summary
341(1)
Applications
341(12)
Listen to Members of Your Family
342(2)
Listen in Educational Relationships
344(1)
Listen in Helping Relationships
345(3)
Listen in Organizational Contexts
348(5)
Listening in Groups: Short Cases
353(1)
Home for the Holidays: Case Questions
354(1)
Bibliography
354(3)
Listening Challenges
357(34)
Outline
358(1)
Chapter Objectives
358(1)
Case: Gender and Communication at the Fortune
359(2)
The Challenge of Listening to the Media
361(3)
Suggestions for Listening to the Media
363(1)
The Challenge of Listening in High Technology Environments
364(3)
Suggestions for Listening in High Technology Environments
366(1)
The Challenge of Global Listening
367(5)
Suggestions for Effective Global Listening
371(1)
The Challenge of Listening Between Genders
372(5)
Verbal Differences in Gender Communication
374(1)
Nonverbal Differences in Gender Communication
375(1)
Suggestions for Effective Cross-Gender Listening
376(1)
The Challenge of Ethical Listening
377(2)
Suggestions for Ethical Listening
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Applications
380(7)
Meet the Challenge of Listening to the Media and Listening in High-Technology Environments
380(2)
Meet the Challenge of Global Listening
382(2)
Meet the Challenge of Listening across Gender
384(1)
Meet the Challenge of Ethical Listening
385(2)
Gender and Communication at the Fortune: Case Questions
387(1)
Bibliography
388(3)
Name Index 391(4)
Subject Index 395


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