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Listening to Music

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780139073465

ISBN10:
0139073469
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This book provides the foundation for development of one's knowledge of music. It concentrates on "listening" skills in order to increase music appreciation and demystify the concert-going experience. The musical process, the materials of music, the common style periods of music, adjunct music, and audience power.

Author Biography

Dr. Jay Zorn is Chairman of the Music Education Department at the University of Southern California, Thornton School of Music, and a past president of the California Music Educators Association. He devoted his early career to gaining extensive, diverse experience as a conductor and a trumpet performer in orchestras, bands, and chamber ensembles. For almost 30 years, Dr. Zorn has focused his activities on training music educators, teaching music appreciation to thousands of students, and developing new courses in music appreciation to appeal to the expanding cultural diversity of student populations. June August is a playwright whose works have been produced in New England, California, Florida, and off-Broadway. She has been the Editorial Director of the Education Division of Walt Disney Productions. Manager of Public Information for WPBT-Channel 2, Miami, and Director of Public Information for the University of Southern California, Thornton School of Music. In addition, June is a writing consultant and trainer for Fortune 500 companies throughout North America.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Prelude: Music Belongs to Everyone 1(2)
Part One: The Musical Process
From the Creator To the Listener
3(2)
Creation, Recreation, Response
4(1)
How to Listen to Music
5(3)
The Sensory Level
5(1)
The Emotional Level
6(1)
The Contextual Level
6(1)
The Script Level
6(1)
The Musically Active Level
7(1)
Becoming a Musically Aware Concertgoer
8(13)
Attending Concerts
Martin Bookspan, Host
8(1)
What are the Different Types of Concerts?
9(2)
Symphony Orchestra
9(1)
Chamber Music Ensemble
9(1)
Chamber Orchestra
9(1)
Recital
9(1)
Vocal Ensemble
9(1)
Secular Vocal Ensemble
9(1)
Religious Choir
10(1)
Opera
10(1)
Broadway Musical Theater
11(1)
How Can I Find Out about Concerts and Ticket Sales?
11(1)
How Can I Prepare for a Concert?
12(1)
What Do I Need to Know Before the Concert Begins?
13(1)
What Concert Traditions Do I Need to Know About?
13(1)
When Should I Applaud?
14(1)
What is the Conductor's Role?
14(2)
What Are the Terms Commonly Used in Performance?
16(2)
What Is in the Printed Concert Program?
18(1)
What Are the Catalog Systems for Composers' Works?
19(2)
Part Two: The Materials of Music
How the Basic Musical Elements Interact
21(11)
Multimedia Presentation
21(1)
Elements of Music: Martin Bookspan, Host
22(1)
Rhythm (Duration of Sound)
22(4)
Pitch (Melody and Harmony)
26(3)
Textures
29(2)
Summary of Basic Musical Elements
31(1)
Performing Media: Instruments, Voices, and Ensembles
32(29)
Acoustics of Vocal and Instrumental Sound
32(1)
Performing Media and Performances: Solo Instruments and Ensembles
33(2)
The Orchestra and its Instruments
35(6)
How Do I Become Familiar with the Instruments?
41(4)
Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra
42(3)
How the Orchestra Developed
45(1)
Historical Perspective: What is the Secret of the Cremona Instruments?
46(9)
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, ``Spring,'' Op. 8, First Movement
47(2)
Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, Third Movement
49(1)
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 (Surprise), Third Movement
50(2)
Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, First Movement
52(1)
Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, Fifth Movement
53(1)
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, ``Sacrificial Dance''
54(1)
The Wind Ensemble
55(1)
Keyboard Instruments
55(3)
Bach, Fugue in g Minor (Little)
56(1)
Mozart, Variations ``Ah, Vous Dirai-Je, Maman'' K. 265
56(1)
Chopin, Fantasie Impromptu, Opus 66
57(1)
Electronic Instruments
58(1)
Human Voice
58(3)
Mozart, ``Madamina'' Aria From Don Giovanni
59(1)
Puccini, La Boheme (The Bohemian Life), Act 1 (Excerpt)
60(1)
Part Three: The Common Style Periods of Concert Music
An Introduction To Musical Styles
61(3)
Why Study Musical Styles?
61(1)
Historical Perspective: Styles in the Arts
62(2)
Music Before 1600
64(15)
The Middle Ages (450--1450)
64(3)
Music of the Middle Ages
67(1)
Gregorian Chant. Alleluia Pascha Nostrum
67(1)
The Beginnings of Polyphony
68(3)
Organum: Leonin, Alleluia Dies Sancrificatus
69(2)
The Renaissance (1450--1600)
71(1)
Music in the Renaissance
72(2)
How to Listen to Polyphonic Music
73(1)
Palestrina's Biography and Principal Works
74(1)
Palestrina, De Beata Virgine, ``Kyrie'' from the Mass
75(1)
Important Composers of the Renaissance
75(4)
The Baroque Style Period (1600--1750)
79(5)
Protestant Reformation
79(1)
Counter-Reformation
80(1)
Historical Perspective: Book and Music Printing
81(1)
Overview of the Baroque Style Period (1600--1750)
82(2)
Baroque Style Music (1600--1750)
84(30)
Changes Occur in the New Baroque Music
84(1)
Baroque-Style Vocal Music
85(1)
Historical Perspective: The Sensory Appeal of the Catholic Church Service
86(1)
Monteverdi's Biography and Principal Works
87(2)
Historical Perspective: Use of Italian Terms in Music
89(1)
Schutz's Biography and Principal Works
90(1)
Handel's Biography and Principal Works
91(2)
Baroque Cantata
93(4)
Handel, Messiah, ``For Unto Us A Child is Born''
94(3)
Historical Perspective: Handel's Messiah
97(1)
How to Listen to Baroque Music
98(1)
Bach's Biography and Principal Works
99(5)
Bach, Cantata No. 140, ``Opening Chorus''
101(3)
Baroque Instrumental Music
104(1)
Historical Perspective: Evolution of Public Concerts: The Baroque Period
104(1)
Vivaldi's Biography and Principal Works
105(9)
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, ``Spring'' First Movement
106(1)
Baroque Keyboard Music
107(1)
Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, Third Movement
108(3)
Bach, Fugue in g Minor (Little)
111(3)
The Classical Style Period (1750--1820)
114(4)
Political and Social Background
114(2)
Classical Origins
116(1)
Overview of the Classical Period (1750--1820)
117(1)
Music of the Classical Period
118(26)
Mozart
118(1)
Haydn
118(1)
Young Beethoven
119(1)
Mozart's Biography and Principal Works
119(2)
Historical Perspective: Mozart Myths Revealed
121(1)
Haydn's Biography and Principal Works
122(1)
Historical Perspective: Haydn's Labor Protest---The ``Farewell'' Symphony
123(1)
Historical Perspective: Evolution of Public Concerts: The Classical Period
124(11)
How to Listen to Classical Music
126(1)
Mozart, Variations ``Ah, Vous Dirai-je, Maman, K. 265
127(2)
Mozart, Horn Concerto No. 2, Third Movement
129(1)
Beethoven, Piano Sonata No. 8 in c Minor, Opus 13 ``Pathetique,'' Third Movement
130(3)
Haydn, Symphony No. 94, ``Surprise'' Third Movement
133(2)
Historical Perspective: What Was Haydn's Surprise?
135(4)
Mozart, Symphony #40, First Movement
136(3)
Classical-Period Opera
139(5)
Mozart, ``Madamina'' Aria from Don Giovanni
140(4)
Beethoven: Bridge To Romanticism
144(12)
Beethoven's Biography and Principal Works
145(1)
Historical Perspective: Beethoven's Deafness
146(1)
Historical Perspective: The Heiligenstadt Testament
146(4)
Beethoven, Piano Sonata #8 (Pathetique), Third Movement
148(2)
Historical Perspective: Beethoven Meets Mozart
150(3)
Beethoven, Symphony No. 5, First Movement
150(3)
Historical Perspective: Beethoven and the Changing Status of Composers
153(2)
The Great Ninth Symphony
155(1)
The Romantic Style Period (1820--1900)
156(4)
Romantic Subjects
157(1)
Romanticism in Music
157(1)
Overview of the Romantic Period
158(2)
Early-Romantic Music
160(30)
Orchestral Music
160(1)
Berlioz's Biography and Principal Works
161(2)
Historical Perspective: Berlioz's Innovative Orchestration
163(5)
Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique, Fifth Movement
165(3)
What to Listen for in Romantic Music
168(1)
The Romantic Art Song
168(1)
Schubert's Biography and Principal Works
169(5)
Schubert, Erlking
170(4)
Robert Schumann's Biography and Principal Works
174(1)
Romantic Piano Music
175(1)
Clara Schumann's Biography and Principal Works
176(4)
Schumann (Clara), Scherzo, Opus 10
177(3)
Chopin's Biography and Principal Works
180(2)
Chopin, Fantaisie Impromptu Op. 66
181(1)
Liszt's Biography and Principal Works
182(2)
Felix Mendelssohn's Biography and Principal Works
184(1)
Fanny Mendelssohn's Biography and Principal Works
185(5)
Mendelssohn, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, First Movement
186(4)
Romantic Opera
190(31)
Historical Perspective: Opera in the North America
191(1)
Italian Romantic Opera
192(1)
Donizetti's Biography and Principal Works
193(1)
Bellini's Biography and Principal Works
193(1)
Rossini's Biography and Principal Works
194(1)
Verdi's Biography and Principal Works
195(5)
Verdi, La Traviata, Act 1, ``E strano! E strano!'' ``Sempre libera'' ``Follie, Follie''
196(4)
Puccini's Biography and Principal Works
200(9)
Puccini, La Boheme, Act 1, duet
200(9)
French Romantic Opera
209(1)
Offenbach's Biography and Principal Works
209(3)
Bizet's Biography and Principal Works
212(1)
German Romantic Opera
213(1)
Weber's Biography and Principal Works
214(1)
Wagner's Biography and Principal Works
215(6)
Wagner, Overture to Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg
216(4)
Understanding Wagnerian Opera
220(1)
Late-Romantic Music
221(19)
The State of Music in the Late-Romantic Period
221(1)
Historical Perspective: Evolution of Public Concerts
222(2)
Brahms's Biography and Principal Works
224(5)
Brahms, Academic Festival Overture
225(3)
Enjoying chamber Music
228(1)
Mahler's Biography and Principal Works
229(7)
Mahler, Songs of a Wayfarer, ``Ging Heut Morgen uber Feld''
230(4)
Mahler, Symphony #1, First Movement
234(2)
Strauss's Biography and Principal Works
236(4)
Enjoying Programmatic and Highly Descriptive Music
238(2)
Nationalism
240(14)
Political Influences
240(1)
Nationalism in Music
241(1)
Mussorgsky's Biography and Principal Works
242(1)
Tchaikovsky's Biography and Principal Works
243(2)
How to Listen to Nationalistic Music
244(1)
Historical Perspective: The 1812 Overture: Spectacular Performances
245(4)
Tchaikovsky, The 1812 Overture
245(4)
Rimsky-Korsakov's Biography and Principal Works
249(1)
Rachmaninov's Biography and Principal Works
250(1)
Bartok's Biography and Principal Works
251(3)
Impressionism
254(10)
Impressionistic Poetry and Painting
254(1)
Impressionism in Music
255(1)
Debussy's Biography and Principal Works
256(6)
How to Listen to Impressionistic Music
259(1)
Debussy, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
260(2)
Ravel's Biography and Principal Works
262(2)
The Twentieth-Century Style Period
264(7)
Influence of the World Wars
264(1)
Art Redefined
265(1)
Overview of the Twentieth-Century Period
266(5)
Stravinsky: Into the Twentieth Century
271(11)
Stravinsky's Pivotal Position
271(1)
Stravinsky's Biography and Principal Works
272(1)
Historical Perspective: The Rite of Spring---Its Infamous Debut in 1913
273(9)
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring ``Sacrificial Dance''
277(4)
How to Listen to Twentieth-Century Music
281(1)
Expressionism: Atonal Music
282(7)
Schoenberg's Biography and Principal Works
283(1)
Atonality
284(3)
How to Listen to Twelve-tone Music
285(1)
Schoenberg, Suite for Piano, Op. 25 ``Praeludium''
286(1)
Webern's Biography and Principal Works
287(1)
Berg's Biography and Principal Works
288(1)
Neoclassicism: Mainstream Music
289(15)
Beginnings of Neoclassicism
289(1)
Historical Perspective: Neoclassical Approaches
290(1)
Prokofiev's Biography and Principal Works
290(4)
Prokofiev Symphony No. 1 ``Classical,'' First Movement
291(3)
Shostakovich's Biography and Principal Works
294(1)
Moving Back to the Mainstream
294(2)
Spotlight: Outstanding Artist-Teacher: Nadia Boulanger
296(8)
Experimental and Technological Music
304(7)
Musique Concrete
305(1)
Electronic Music
305(1)
Computer and Mixed Media
306(4)
How to Listen to Chance and Aleatoric Music
309(1)
What Lies Ahead?
310(1)
Music in North America
311(40)
Immigration
311(2)
American Composers
313(1)
Amy Beach's Biography and Principal Works
313(2)
Ives' Biography and Principal Works
315(7)
Ives, Song: ``Charlie Rutlege''
316(3)
How to Listen to Ives
319(1)
Ives, First Orchestral Set: Three Places in New England, ``Putnam's Camp''
319(3)
Jazz: The American Art Form
322(4)
Historical Perspective: Rags and Ragtime
326(1)
Joplin's Biography and Principal Works
327(6)
Joplin, ``The Entertainer''
328(5)
Gershwin's Biography and Principal Works
333(6)
Gershwin, Porgy and Bess ``Bess, You Is My Woman Now''
335(3)
How to Listen to Eclectic Music
338(1)
Copland's Biography and Principal Works
339(3)
Copland, Rodeo Ballet, ``Hoe Down''
340(2)
Bernstein's Biography and Principal Works
342(3)
Bernstein, Overture to Candide
343(2)
Other American Composers
345(1)
Menotti's Biography and Principal Works
346(1)
Zwilich's Biography and Principal Works
347(4)
Zwilich, Concerto Grosso, 1985, First Movement
347(4)
Part Four: Adjunct Music
North American Popular Music
351(10)
Early American Popular Music
352(1)
Tin Pan Alley
352(1)
The Commercialization of Popular Music
353(1)
The Swing Era
353(2)
Country Music
355(1)
Rhythm and Blues
356(1)
Rock 'n' Roll/Rock
356(5)
Broadway Musical Theater
361(29)
The Broadway Musical: Its Roots
361(1)
North American Roots of the Musical
362(2)
Stephen Foster's Biography and Principal Works
364(2)
From Minstrelsy to Vaudeville
366(6)
Sigmund Romberg's Biography and Principal Works
372(1)
Victor Herbert's Biography and Principal Works
372(1)
Rudolf Friml's Biography and Principal Works
373(1)
Irving Berlin's Biography and Principal Works
373(1)
Jerome Kern's Biography and Principal Works
374(2)
Historical Perspective: Kern's Show Boat: The New Broadway Musical
376(4)
Kern, Show Boat, ``Ol' Man River''
376(3)
Listening to Broadway Musical Theater Songs
379(1)
Cole Porter's Biography and Principal Works
380(1)
Richard Rodgers's Biography and Principal Works
381(1)
Stephen Sondheim's Biography and Principal Works
382(4)
Sondheim, A Little Night Music, ``Send in the Clowns''
383(1)
Bernstein, Overture to Candide
384(1)
Bock, Fiddler on the Roof, ``Sunrise, Sunset''
385(1)
Historical Perspective: Rent: A Rock Opera for the 90s
386(1)
Other Important Broadway Musicals
387(3)
Music in the Movies
390(18)
How it Began: The Silent Era
390(1)
Cataloguing of Existing Concert Music
391(1)
Masters Transcribed for Film
391(1)
The Role of Music in Sound Films
392(1)
Historical Perspective: From Broadway to Hollywood
392(1)
Film Music Comes of Age
393(1)
The Hollywood Sound
393(1)
The Contribution of Music to Film
394(1)
Listening for Associations in Film Music
394(1)
Movie Music of the Golden Age
394(1)
Some of the Great Film Composers of the Golden Age
395(3)
The Next Generation of Composers
398(3)
Music and the Magic of Animation
401(2)
Matching Music and Pictures
403(1)
The Stature of Movie Music Today
404(4)
How to Listen to Film Music
404(4)
Contributions of World Cultures
408(13)
Non-Western Influences in Western Art Music
409(1)
Music South of the Sahara
410(4)
``If it Comes to Fighting with Guns'' Ewe People of West Africa
412(2)
Music of India
414(2)
India: Ghazal, ``Bat Karane Mujhe Mushkil''
416(1)
Music of Japan
416(5)
Japan (Gagaku): Netori (Prelude) & ``Etenraku in Hyojo''
417(3)
Japan: Kabuki nagauta music from the play Pojoji
420(1)
Finale: Audience Power in the 21st Century 421(6)
Our New Millennium
421(2)
Beyond Survival
423(4)
Finale: Host, Martin Bookspan
425(2)
Appendix A: Music Notation 427(2)
Appendix B: Common Scales in Music 429(5)
Appendix C: Writing Reports 434(4)
Appendix D: Music Listening Guide 438(2)
Challenge Your Expertise Answers 440(5)
Glossary of Music Terms 445(6)
Photo Credits 451(4)
Index 455


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