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Literacy for the 21st Century : A Balanced Approach (with MyEducationLab),9780136101406
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Literacy for the 21st Century : A Balanced Approach (with MyEducationLab)



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The market leader in literacy education, "Literacy for the 21st Century: A Balanced Approach "continues to evolve to meet the needs of a changing world. Crafted for the undergraduate K-8 literacy course, this comprehensive and thoroughly applied text continues to cover the information new and experienced teachers need to know to teach literacy effectively, and follows this information with the specific strategies to use in the classroom to develop successful readers and writers. Integrating the best of what we know about teaching reading and writing, and implementing the ideas that will lead us into the future of education, the fifth edition provides the balance new and experienced teachers need to be successful in the classroom.

Author Biography

Gail Tompkins   I’m a teacher, first and foremost.  I began my career as a first-grade teacher in Virginia in the 1970s.  I remember one first grader who cried as the first day of school was ending.  When I tried to comfort him, he sobbed accusingly, “I came to first grade to learn to read and write and you forgot to teach me.”  The next day, I taught that child and his classmates to read and write! We made a small patterned book about one of the stuffed animals in the classroom.  I wrote some of the words and the students supplied the others, and I duplicated copies of the book for each child.  We practiced reading it until everyone memorized our little book.  The children proudly took their books home to read to their parents. I’ve never forgotten that child’s comment and what it taught me:  Teachers must understand their students and meet their expectations.

            My first few years of teaching left me with more questions than answers, and I wanted to become a more effective teacher so I started taking graduate courses.  In time I earned a master’s degree and then a doctorate in Reading/Language Arts, both from Virginia Tech.  Through my graduate studies, I learned a lot of answers, but more importantly, I learned to keep on asking questions.

            Then I began teaching at the university level.  First I taught at Miami University in Ohio, then at the University of Oklahoma, and finally at California State University, Fresno. I’ve taught preservice teachers and practicing teachers working on master’s degrees, and I’ve directed doctoral dissertations. I’ve received awards for my teaching, including the Provost’s Award for Excellence in Teaching at California State University, Fresno, and I was inducted into the California Reading Association’s Reading Hall of Fame. Throughout the years, my students have taught me as much as I taught them.  I’m grateful to all of them for what I’ve learned.

            I’ve been writing college textbooks for more than 20 years, and I think of the books I write as teaching, too.  I’ll be teaching you as you read this text.  As I write a book, I try to anticipate the questions you might ask and provide that information.

Table of Contents

Becoming an Effective Teacher of Reading
Effective Teachers Understand How Students Learn
Information Processing Theory
Effective Teachers Support Students: Use Of The Cueing Systems
The Phonological System
The Syntactic System
The Semantic System
The Pragmatic System
Effective Teachers Create A Community Of Learners
Characteristics of a Classroom Community
How to Create a Classroom Community
Effective Teachers Adopt A Balanced Approach To Instruction
Effective Teachers Scaffold Students: Reading And Writing
Modeled Reading and Writing
Shared Reading and Writing
Interactive Reading and Writing
Guided Reading and Writing
Independent Reading and Writing
Effective Teachers Organize For Literacy Instruction
Basal Reading Programs
Literature Focus Units
Literature Circles
Reading and Writing Workshop
Effective Teachers Link Instruction And Assessment
Purposes of Classroom Assessment
Classroom Assessment Tools
Effective Teachers Become Partners With Parents
Review: How Effective Teachers Teach Reading and Writing
Professional References
Children's Book References
Teaching the Reading and Writing Processes
Vignette: Mrs. Goodman's Seventh Graders Read The Giver
The Reading Process
Activating Background Knowledge
Setting Purposes
Planning for Reading
Buddy Reading
Guided Reading
Shared Reading
Reading Aloud to Students
Writing in Reading Logs
Participating in Discussions
Examining the Author's Craft
Focusing on Words and Sentences
Teaching Minilessons
Reading Strategies and Skills
Types of Reading Strategies and Skills
The Writing Process
Choosing a Topic
Considering Purpose and Form
Gathering and Organizing Ideas
Rereading the Rough Draft
Sharing in Writing Groups
Making Revisions
Revising Centers
Correcting Errors
Making Books
Sharing Writing
Writing Strategies
Qualities of Good Writing
Assessing Students: Writing
Reading And Writing Are Reciprocal Processes
Comparing the Two Processes
Classroom Connections
Professional References
Assessing Students: Literacy Development
Vignette: Mrs. McNeal Conducts Second-Quarter Assessment
Classroom Assessment Tools
Determining Students: Reading Levels
Monitoring Students: Progress
Diagnosing Students: Strengths and Weaknesses
Documenting Students: Learning
Portfolio Assessment
Why Are Portfolios Worthwhile?
Collecting Work in Portfolios
Involving Students in Self-Assessment
Showcasing Students: Portfolios
High-Stakes Testing
Problems with High-Stakes Testing
Preparing for Standardized Tests
The Politics of High-Stakes Testing
Review: How Effective Teachers Assess Students: Literacy Development
Professional References
Children's Book References
Working with the Youngest Readers and Writers
Vignette: Ms. McCloskey's Students Become Readers and Writers
Fostering An Interest In Literacy
Concepts about Print
Assessing Students: Concepts about Print
Concepts About Words
Environmental Print
Literacy Play Centers
Concepts about the Alphabet
How Children Develop As Readers And Writers
Emergent Reading and Writing
Beginning Reading and Writing
Fluent Reading and Writing
Instructional Practices
Shared Reading
Language Experience Approach
Interactive Writing
Manuscript Handwriting
Writing Centers
Professioal References
Cracking the Alphabetic Code
Vignette: Mrs. Firpo Teaches Phonics Using a Basal Reading Program
Phonemic Awareness
Components of Phonemic Awareness
Teaching Phonemic Awareness
Assessing Children's Phonemic Awareness
Why Is Phonemic Awareness Important?
Phonics Concepts
Teaching Phonics
Assessing Students: Phonics Knowledge
What's the Role of Phonics in a Balanced Literacy Program?
Stages of Spelling Development
Teaching Spelling
Assessing Students: Spelling
What's the Controversy About Spelling Instruction?
Professional References
Children's Book References
Developing Fluent Readers and Writers
Vignette: Ms. Williams: Students Learn High-Frequency Words
Learning To Read And Write Words
Word Recognition
Word Identification
What Is Fluency?
The Components of Fluency
Promoting Reading Fluency
Developing Writing Fluency
Assessing Students: Fluency
Professional References
Children's Book References
Expanding Students: Knowledge of Words
Vignette: Mrs. Sanom's Word Wizards Club
How Do Students Learn Vocabulary Words?
Levels of Word Knowledge
Incidental Word Learning
Why Is Vocabulary Knowledge Important?
Teaching Students To Unlock Word Meanings
Word-Study Concepts
Words to Study
Teaching Students about Words
Word-Study Activities
Word-Learning Strategies
Word Consciousness
Assessing Students: Vocabulary Knowledge
Review: How Effective Teachers Expand Students: Knowledge of Words
Professional References
Children's Book References
Facilitating Students: Comprehension: Reader Factors
Vignette: Mrs. Donnelly Teaches Comprehension Strategies
What Is Comprehension?
Reader and Text Factors
Prerequisites to Comprehension
Background Knowledge
Comprehension Strategies
Activating Background Knowledge
Setting a Purpose
Determining Importance
Drawing Inferences
Comprehension Skills
Teaching Students About Reader Factors
Explicit Comprehension Instruction
Developing Comprehension Through Reading
Developing Comprehension Through Writing
Assessing Students: Comprehension
The Teacher's Role
Students: Role
How to Engage Students in Reading and Writing
Assessing Students: Motivation
Comparing Capable and Less Capable Readers and Writers
Review: How Effective Teachers Facilitate Readers: Comprehension
Professional References
Children's Book References
Facilitating Students: Comprehension: Text Factors
Vignette: Mr. Abrams's Fourth Graders Learn About Frogs
Text Factors Of Stories
Formats of Stories
Narrative Genres
Elements of Story Structure
Narrative Devices
Looking at the Text Factors in a Story
Text Factors Of Informational Books
Nonfiction Genres
Expository Text Structures
Nonfiction Features
Looking at the Text Factors in an Informational Book
Text Factors Of Poetry
Formats of Poetry Books
Poetic Forms
Poetic Devices
Looking at the Text Factors in a Book of Poetry
Teaching Students About Text Factors
Comprehension Strategies
Reading and Writing Activities
Assessing Students: Knowledge About Text Factors
Review: How Effective Teachers Focus on Text Factors
Professional References
Organizing for Instruction
Vignette: Fourth Graders Participate in a Yearlong Author Study
Teaching With Basal Reading Programs
Components of Basal Reading Programs
Materials Included in Basal Reading Programs
Managing a Basal Reading Program
Teaching With Literature Focus Units
Steps in Developing a Unit
Units Featuring a Picture Book
Units Featuring a Novel
Units Featuring a Genre
Units Featuring an Author
Managing Literature Focus Units
Orchestrating Literature Circles
Key Features of Literature Circles
Implementing Literature Circles
Using Literature Circles With Young Children
Managing Literature Circles
Implementing Reading And Writing Workshop
Reading Workshop
Writing Workshop
Managing a Workshop Classroom
Review: How Effective Teachers Organize for Instruction
Professional References
Children's Book References
Differentiating Reading and Writing Instruction
Vignette: Mrs. Shasky Differentiates Instruction
Ways To Differentiat Instruction
Grouping for Instruction
Text Sets of Reading Materials
Tiered Activities
Differentiated Projects
Struggling Readers And Writers
Struggling Readers
Struggling Writers
Working with Struggling Students
Review: How Effective Teachers Differentiate Literacy Instruction
Professional References
Children's Book References
Reading and Writing in the Content Areas
Vignette: Mrs. Zumwalt's Third Graders Create Multigenre Projects
Connecting Reading And Writing
Reading Nonfiction Books
Writing as a Learning Tool
Writing to Demonstrate Learning
Content-Area Textbooks
Features of Content-Area Textbooks
Making Content-Area Textbooks More Comprehensible
Learning How to Study
Why Aren:t Content-Area Textbooks Enough?
Thematic Units
How to Develop a Thematic Unit
A First-Grade Unit on Trees
A Fourth-Grade Unit on Desert Ecosystems
A Sixth-Grade Unit on Ancient Egypt
Review: How Effective Teachers Use Reading and Writing in the Content Areas
Professional References
Children's Book References
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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