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Literacy for the 21st Century : Teaching Reading and Writing in Grades 4 Through 8,9780130986542

Literacy for the 21st Century : Teaching Reading and Writing in Grades 4 Through 8

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130986542

ISBN10:
0130986542
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $137.40

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Summary

For Elementary and Middle School Literacy Methods courses. Based on the same principles and guidelines as Tompkins'best-selling literacy text, this new volume gives prospective teachers the background they need to teach essential literacy skills in grades 4-8 including vocabulary, content area reading, the reading/writing connections, narrative text, and print skills. Throughout the text, Tompkins' trademark minilessons highlight coverage that is based on four contemporary theories of literacy learning: constructivist, interactive, socio-linguistic, and reader-response. Because a child's learning can be seriously jeopardized by poor reading skills, significant attention is paid throughout the text to provide ways to help struggling learners become competent readers and writers.

Table of Contents

Becoming an Effective Teacher of Reading
2(28)
Effective Teachers Understand How Students Learn
3(3)
Constructivist Learning Theories
4(1)
Interactive Learning Theories
5(1)
Sociolinguistic Learning Theories
5(1)
Reader Response Learning Theories
6(1)
Effective Teachers Support Students' Use of the Four Cueing Systems
6(5)
The Phonological System
8(1)
The Syntactic System
8(1)
The Semantic System
9(1)
The Pragmatic System
10(1)
Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learners
11(3)
Ten Characteristics of Classroom Communities
11(1)
Creating an Effective Classroom Community
12(2)
Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction
14(2)
Effective Teachers Scaffold Students' Reading and Writing Experiences
16(3)
Modeled Reading and Writing
17(1)
Shared Reading and Writing
17(1)
Interactive Reading and Writing
17(1)
Guided Reading and Writing
18(1)
Independent Reading and Writing
19(1)
Effective Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Ways
19(2)
Effective Teachers Connect Instruction and Assessment
21(4)
Preassessing
22(1)
Monitoring
23(1)
Assessing
24(1)
Effective Teachers Continue to Learn About Reading and Writing
25(1)
Review
26(2)
Professional References
28(1)
Children's Book References
29(1)
Teaching the Reading and Writing Processes
30(36)
Vignette: Mrs. Goodman's Seventh Graders Read The Giver
31(4)
The Reading Process
35(11)
Stage 1: Prereading
36(3)
Stage 2: Reading
39(5)
Stage 3: Responding
44(1)
Stage 4: Exploring
45(1)
Stage 5: Applying
46(1)
The Writing Process
46(15)
Stage 1: Prewriting
46(6)
Stage 2: Drafting
52(1)
Stage 3: Revising
53(3)
Stage 4: Editing
56(3)
Stage 5: Publishing
59(2)
Reading and Writing Are Similar Processes
61(1)
Comparing the Two Processes
61(1)
Classroom Connections
61(2)
Review
63(1)
Professional References
64(1)
Children's Book References
65(1)
Assessing Students' Literacy Development
66(34)
Vignette: Mrs. Peterson Conducts End-of-Quarter Conferences
67(5)
Literacy Assessment Tools
72(16)
Assessing Students' Phonics Knowledge
72(1)
Assessing Students' Fluency
73(4)
Assessing Students' Comprehension
77(2)
Assessing Students' Vocabulary
79(1)
Assessing Students' Writing
80(4)
Assessing Students' Spelling
84(1)
Assessing Students' Attitudes and Motivation
84(3)
Monitoring Students' Progress
87(1)
Implementing Portfolios in the Classroom
88(7)
Why Are Portfolio Programs Worthwhile?
88(2)
Collecting Work in Portfolios
90(2)
Involving Students in Self-Assessment
92(2)
Showcasing Students' Portfolios
94(1)
Assigning Grades
95(2)
Review
97(1)
Professional References
97(2)
Children's Book References
99(1)
Refining Students' Print Skills
100(36)
Vignette: Mr. King Teaches Word Work Lessons
101(5)
Word Identification
106(13)
Phonics
107(5)
Phonic Analysis
112(1)
Syllabic Analysis
112(2)
Morphemic Analysis
114(1)
Teaching and Assessing Word Identification
115(4)
Spelling
119(14)
The English Orthographic System
119(1)
Stages of Spelling Development
120(4)
Teaching and Assessing Spelling
124(9)
Review
133(1)
Professional References
133(2)
Children's Book References
135(1)
Learning About the Meanings of Words
136(36)
Vignette: Mrs. Sanom's Word Wizards Club
137(6)
How Do Students Learn Vocabulary Words?
143(5)
Levels of Word Knowledge
144(1)
Incidental Word Learning
144(1)
Context Clues
145(2)
Word-Learning Strategies
147(1)
Why Is Vocabulary Knowledge Important?
147(1)
Teaching Students to Unlock Word Meanings
148(20)
Characteristics of Effective Instruction
148(3)
Components of Word Study
151(11)
Choosing Words to Study
162(1)
Spotlighting Words on Word Walls
162(1)
Activities for Exploring Words
163(5)
Review
168(2)
Professional References
170(1)
Children's Book References
171(1)
Facilitating Students' Comprehension
172(34)
Vignette: Mr. Wyatt Teaches Inference
173(5)
Comparing Capable and Less Capable Readers
178(3)
The Comprehension Process
181(11)
Microprocesses
182(4)
Integrative Processes
186(1)
Macroprocesses
187(1)
Elaborative Processes
187(3)
Metacognitive Processes
190(1)
Levels of Comprehension
190(2)
Literacy Strategies and Skills
192(11)
Reading and Writing Strategies
192(4)
Reading and Writing Skills
196(2)
Teaching Strategies and Skills
198(5)
Review
203(1)
Professional References
204(1)
Children's Book References
205(1)
Becoming Familiar With the Structure of Text
206(36)
Vignette: Mr. Abrams's Fourth Graders Learn About Frogs
207(4)
Elements of Narrative Structure
211(14)
Plot
212(4)
Characters
216(2)
Setting
218(2)
Point of View
220(1)
Theme
221(2)
Literary Devices
223(1)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Narrative Structure?
223(2)
Expository Text Structures
225(5)
Description
226(1)
Sequence
227(1)
Comparison
227(1)
Cause and Effect
228(1)
Problem and Solution
228(1)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Expository Text Structures?
229(1)
Poetic Forms
230(7)
Rhymed Verse
232(1)
Narrative Poems
232(1)
Haiku and Related Forms
232(2)
Free Verse
234(1)
Other Poetic Forms
234(3)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Poetic Forms?
237(1)
Review
237(1)
Professional References
238(1)
Children's Book References
239(3)
Teaching With Narrative Texts
242(40)
Vignette: Mrs. Bradshaw's Students Read in Book Clubs
243(4)
Choosing Literature
247(7)
Narrative Genres
247(4)
The Best of the Best
251(1)
Multicultural Literature
251(1)
Why Use Multicultural Literature?
252(2)
Literature Focus Units
254(10)
Framework for a Literature Focus Unit
254(1)
Steps in Developing a Unit
255(5)
Units Featuring a Novel
260(2)
Units Focusing on a Genre
262(1)
Units Featuring an Author
262(2)
Benefits of Using Literature Focus Units
264(1)
Literature Circles
264(13)
Key Features of Literature Circles
266(7)
Implementing Literature Circles
273(1)
Monitoring and Assessing Students' Learning
274(3)
Benefits of Using Literature Circles
277(1)
Review
277(1)
Professional References
278(1)
Children's Book References
279(3)
Teaching With Content-Area Textbooks
282(32)
Vignette: Ms. Boland's Students Study Medieval Life
283(7)
Content-Area Textbooks
290(13)
Unique Conventions of Content-Area Textbooks
290(1)
Characteristics of ``Considerate'' Textbooks
290(1)
Making Content-Area Textbooks More Comprehensible
291(7)
Learning How to Study
298(4)
Why Aren't Content-Area Textbooks Enough?
302(1)
Thematic Units
303(9)
How to Develop a Thematic Unit
303(3)
A Fourth-Grade Unit on Desert Life
306(1)
A Sixth-Grade Unit on Ancient Egypt
307(5)
Review
312(1)
Professional References
313(1)
Children's Book References
313(1)
Connecting Reading and Writing
314(36)
Vignette: Fourth-Grade English Learners Read and Write About Pilgrims
315(6)
Keeping Journals
321(10)
Reading Logs
322(3)
Learning Logs
325(1)
Double-Entry Journals
325(1)
Simulated Journals
326(4)
Teaching Students to Keep Journals
330(1)
Writing Projects
331(16)
Reports
331(5)
Poetry
336(3)
Persuasion
339(5)
Multigenre Projects
344(3)
Review
347(1)
Professional References
348(1)
Children's Book References
348(2)
Working With Struggling Readers and Writers
350(30)
Vignette: Mrs. Shasky Differentiates Instruction
351(6)
Differentiated Instruction
357(14)
Working With Struggling Readers
358(6)
What About Basal Readers?
364(1)
Using Literacy Centers
365(2)
Working With Struggling Writers
367(4)
Determining the Difficulty Level of Books
371(8)
Traditional Readability Formulas
371(2)
The Reading Recovery Approach to Leveling Books
373(2)
The Lexile Framework
375(4)
Review
379(1)
Professional References
379(1)
Children's Book References
379(1)
Becoming Lifelong Readers and Writers
380(28)
Vignette: Ms. Torres's Students Love to Read
381(3)
Engaging Students With Reading and Writing
384(6)
Factors That Affect Motivation
385(3)
Characteristics of Exceptional Teachers
388(1)
Students Who Adopt Avoidance Strategies
389(1)
The Workshop Approach
390(16)
Reading Workshop
390(7)
Is Sustained Silent Reading the Same as Reading Workshop?
397(1)
Writing Workshop
398(3)
Managing a Workshop Classroom
401(3)
Benefits of Using Reading and Writing Workshop
404(2)
Review
406(1)
Professional References
406(1)
Children's Book References
407(1)
Compendium of Instructional Procedures
408(51)
Alphabet books
410(1)
Anticipation guides
410(2)
Book boxes
412(1)
Book talks
413(1)
Choral reading
413(1)
Cloze procedure
414(1)
Clusters, maps, and webs
415(1)
Collaborative books and reports
415(2)
Cubing
417(2)
Data charts
419(1)
Directed reading-thinking activity
419(1)
Double-entry journals
420(2)
Exclusion brainstorming
422(1)
Grand conversations
422(2)
Guided reading
424(1)
Individual books and reports
425(1)
Instructional conversations
425(2)
Interactive writing
427(2)
K-W-L charts
429(2)
Language experience approach
431(1)
Learning logs
432(1)
Making words
433(1)
Minilessons
434(1)
Open-mind portraits
435(1)
Possible sentences
436(1)
Prereading plan
436(1)
Quickwrites
437(1)
Quilts
438(2)
Read-arounds
440(1)
Readers theatre
440(1)
Reading logs
441(1)
Repeated readings
441(1)
Running records
441(2)
Say something
443(1)
Semantic feature analysis
443(2)
Shared reading
445(1)
SQ3R study strategy
445(1)
Story boards
446(1)
Story maps
446(3)
Sustained silent reading
449(1)
Tea party
450(1)
Word sorts
451(3)
Word walls
454(1)
Writing groups
455(4)
Glossary 459(4)
Index of Authors and Titles 463(11)
Subject Index 474

Excerpts

Founded on the principles and research that have madeLiteracy for the 21st Centurythe best selling literacy text in the market, my new text,Literacy for the 21st Century: Teaching Reading crud Writing in Grades Four Through Eight,focuses on the literacy needs and development of 4th through 8th grade learners. My aim is to present, clearly and thoroughly, the theory, application, examples, and strategies prospective teachers need to fully understand teaching and assessing reading and writing in these grades.Created for core literacy courses that have been split to meet a growing demand for credentialing teachers with more in-depth knowledge of upper elementary literacy strategies, this text provides a solid foundation for teaching and using vocabulary, content area reading, the reading and writing connection, narrative text, and print skills with middle grade students. Of particular importance is the strong focus on the needs of struggling readers.Middle grade teachers have special concern for their struggling readers. By the middle grades, students are no longer learning to read, but reading to learn. If students are uncomfortable, or unfamiliar, with the basics of reading and writing by the time they reach grade four, all their learning will suffer. For that reason, middle grade teachers need the understanding, strategies, and skills to best address the needs of struggling readers. A special feature in each chapter addresses the needs of struggling readers and writers, culminating in a complete chapter addressing the topic.This comprehensive text presents sound approaches to literacy instruction and guides teachers toward best practice in teaching strategies as well as skills. The principles of effective reading instruction outlined in Chapter 1 provide a strong, easily understood foundation for the entire book. I have culled and created minilessons and assessment tools geared specifically toward teaching and assessing strategies and skills in grades 4-8; the authentic classroom activities and student artifacts included spotlight a number of middle grade teachers who illustrate how they plan for and engage their students in literacy activities; English Language Learner margin notes address the specific concerns of this audience of learners; and the accompanying CD-ROM of classroom footage, along with a full-color CD insert within the text, further establish what is best practice for literacy teachers working with students in this age range. DRIVING PRINCIPLESMy goal in this text is to show beginning teachers how to teach reading and writing effectively in middle grades, how to create a classroom climate where literacy flourishes, and how to empower the diverse array of readers and writers in today's classrooms to function competently as literate adults in the twenty-first century. To that end, I have based the text on four contemporary theories of literacy learning: constructivist, interactive, sociolinguistic, and reader response theories.You will lea n how to implement a reading program with strategies and skills taught in context using a whole-part-whole organizational approach. The approach I take can, I believe, best be described as balanced and comprehensive. You will learn how to teach vital strategies and useful skills within the context of authentic reading and writing experiences. I have carefully selected the principles, strategies, skills, and examples of literature that will empower the beginning teacher to get up to speed quickly with their early adolescent readers. In creating this textbook, I used knowledge I gleaned from a host of teachers who have been students in my reading courses over the years, and I also sifted through the array of practices and procedures proven effective in today's classrooms and with today's diverse student populations. Although there are many other useful ideas and strategies that can accomplish the goal of producing litera


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