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Literacy for the 21st Century : Teaching Reading and Writing in Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade 4,9780130987198
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Literacy for the 21st Century : Teaching Reading and Writing in Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade 4

by
ISBN13:

9780130987198

ISBN10:
0130987190
Format:
Paperback w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $78.00
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Summary

For Literacy in the Elementary School and Elementary Reading Methods and Strategies courses. Based on the same principles and guidelines of Tompkins' best-selling literacy text, this new volume addresses specific strategies for teaching reading and writing to children from Preschool to Grade 4. The author provides a solid foundation in the content of literacy instructionphonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehensionliberally spiced with her trademark minilessons and replete with children's writing samples and authentic classroom vignettes. Included are a wealth of age-appropriate assessment tools, authentic classroom activities, and illustrative examples of how effective teachers engage children in preschool through primary grades in the captivating act of reading and writing.

Table of Contents

Becoming an Effective Teacher of Reading
2(30)
Principle 1: Effective Teachers Understand How Children Learn
3(3)
Constructivist Learning Theories
4(1)
Interactive Learning Theories
5(1)
Sociolinguistic Learning Theories
5(1)
Reader Response Learning Theories
6(1)
Principle 2: Effective Teachers Support Children's Use of the Four Cueing Systems
6(5)
The Phonological System
7(1)
The Syntactic System
8(1)
The Semantic System
9(1)
The Pragmatic System
9(2)
Principle 3: Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learners
11(3)
Ten Characteristics of Classroom Communities
11(1)
How to Create a Classroom Community
12(2)
Principle 4: Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction
14(1)
Principle 5: Effective Teachers Scaffold Children's Reading and Writing Experiences
15(5)
Modeled Reading and Writing
16(1)
Shared Reading and Writing
17(1)
Interactive Reading and Writing
17(1)
Guided Reading and Writing
18(1)
Independent Reading and Writing
19(1)
Principle 6: Effective Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Ways
20(1)
Principle 7: Effective Teachers Connect Instruction and Assessment
21(4)
Preassessing
21(1)
Monitoring
22(2)
Assessing
24(1)
Principle 8: Effective Teachers Become Partners With Parents
25(5)
Providing Literacy Information to Parents
26(1)
Parent Volunteers
27(1)
Supporting Literacy at Home
27(2)
Family Literacy
29(1)
Review
30(1)
Professional References
30(1)
Children's Book References
31(1)
Examining Children's Literacy Development
32(30)
Ms. McCloskey's Students Become Readers and Writers
33(6)
Fostering Young Children's Interest in Literacy
39(7)
Concepts About Print
39(3)
Concepts About the Alphabet
42(3)
Manuscript Handwriting
45(1)
Young Children Develop as Readers and Writers
46(14)
Emergent Reading and Writing
46(2)
Beginning Reading and Writing
48(7)
Fluent Reading and Writing
55(5)
Review
60(1)
Professional References
60(1)
Children's Book References
61(1)
Assessing Young Children's Literacy Development
62(28)
Mrs. McNeal Conducts Second-Quarter Assessments
63(6)
Literacy Assessment Tools
69(14)
Assessing Children's Concepts About Print
70(1)
Assessing Children's Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
71(1)
Assessing Children's Fluency
72(2)
Determining Children's Instructional Reading Level
74(2)
Assessing Children's Writing
76(3)
Assessing Children's Spelling
79(1)
Monitoring Children's Progress
80(3)
Assigning Grades
83(4)
Assignment Sheets
83(1)
``Show-Me'' Tests
84(3)
Review
87(1)
Professional References
88(1)
Children's Book References
88(2)
Breaking the Alphabetic Code
90(26)
Mrs. Hoddy Teachers Phonics
91(4)
Phonemic Awareness
95(8)
Components of Phonemic Awareness
95(1)
Teaching Phonemic Awareness
96(6)
Why Is Phonemic Awareness Important?
102(1)
Phonics
103(9)
Phonics Concepts, Skills, and Generalizations
103(5)
Teaching Phonics
108(4)
What Is the Role of Phonics in a Balanced Literacy Program?
112(1)
Review
112(1)
Professional References
113(1)
Children's Book References
114(2)
Learning to Spell
116(26)
Mrs. Zumwalt Matches Instruction to Children's Stage of Spelling Development
117(4)
Children's Spelling Development
121(5)
Stage 1: Emergent Spelling
123(1)
Stage 2: Letter-Name Spelling
123(1)
Stage 3: Within-Word Pattern Spelling
123(1)
Stage 4: Syllables and Affixes Spelling
124(1)
Stage 5: Derivational Relations Spelling
125(1)
Teaching Spelling
126(13)
Spelling Concepts, Strategies, and Skills
126(2)
Daily Reading and Writing Opportunities
128(1)
Minilessons
128(2)
Word Study Activities
130(5)
Weekly Spelling Tests
135(4)
What Is the Controversy About Spelling Instruction?
139(1)
Review
139(1)
Professional References
140(2)
Developing Fluent Readers and Writers
142(30)
Ms. Williams's Students Learn High-Frequency Words
143(4)
Teaching Children to Read and Write Words
147(13)
Word Recognition
147(5)
Word Identification
152(8)
What Is Fluency?
160(9)
Promoting Reading Fluency
163(3)
Developing Writing Fluency
166(3)
Assessing Students' Reading and Writing Fluency
169(1)
Review
169(1)
Professional References
170(1)
Children's Book References
171(1)
Expanding Children's Knowledge of Words
172(26)
Mrs. Dillon's Students Learn About Words
173(4)
How Do Children Learn Words?
177(5)
Levels of Word Knowledge
177(1)
Incidental Word Learning
178(4)
Why Is Word Knowledge Important?
182(1)
Explicit Teaching of Words
182(13)
Characteristics of Effective Instruction
182(3)
Components of Word Study
185(4)
Choosing Words to Study
189(1)
Spotlighting Words on Word Walls
190(1)
Activities for Exploring Words
191(4)
Review
195(1)
Professional References
196(1)
Children's Book References
197(1)
Guiding Children's Comprehension
198(30)
Mrs. Donnelly Focuses on Comprehension
199(4)
The Comprehension Process
203(7)
Microprocesses
204(2)
Integrative Processes
206(1)
Macroprocesses
207(1)
Elaborative Processes
208(1)
Metacognitive Processes
209(1)
Literacy Strategies and Skills
210(15)
Reading and Writing Strategies
212(5)
Reading and Writing Skills
217(3)
Teaching Strategies and Skills
220(5)
Review
225(1)
Professional References
226(1)
Children's Book References
227(1)
Becoming Familiar With the Structure of Text
228(36)
Mrs. Mast's Students Read ``The Three Bears''
229(4)
Stories
233(14)
Genres of Stories
235(4)
Elements of Story Structure
239(7)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Story Elements?
246(1)
Informational Books
247(5)
Genres of Informational Books
249(1)
Expository Text Structures
250(2)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Expository Text Structures?
252(1)
Poetry
252(8)
Types of Poetry Books
253(1)
Poetic Forms
253(7)
Why Do Teachers Need to Know About Poetic Forms?
260(1)
Review
260(1)
Professional References
261(1)
Children's Book References
262(2)
Scaffolding Children's Reading Development
264(36)
Mrs. Ohashi Uses the Reading Process
265(6)
The Reading Process
271(18)
Stage 1: Prereading
271(3)
Stage 2: Reading
274(11)
Stage 3: Responding
285(2)
Stage 4: Exploring
287(2)
Stage 5: Applying
289(1)
Using the Reading Process to Organize for Instruction
289(8)
Literature Focus Units
290(1)
Literature Circles
290(2)
Reading Workshop
292(1)
Basal Reader Programs
293(4)
Review
297(1)
Professional References
297(1)
Children's Book References
298(2)
Scaffolding Children's Writing Development
300(30)
First Graders Participate in Writing Workshop
301(5)
The Writing Process
306(12)
Stage 1: Prewriting
306(4)
Stage 2: Drafting
310(1)
Stage 3: Revising
310(2)
Stage 4: Editing
312(4)
Stage 5: Publishing
316(2)
Introduction Young Children to Writing
318(5)
Adapting the Writing Process for Young Children
319(1)
Interactive Writing
320(2)
Writing Centers
322(1)
Reading and Writing Are Similar Processes
323(4)
Comparing the Two Processes
323(2)
Classroom Connections
325(2)
Review
327(1)
Professional References
328(1)
Children's Book References
329(1)
Integrating Reading and Writing Into Thematic Units
330(30)
Mrs. Roberts's Class Learns About Penguins
331(6)
Tools for Learning
337(8)
Reading Informational Books
337(2)
Integrating Stories and Poetry
339(1)
Writing to Learn
340(5)
Instructional Conversations
345(1)
Demonstrating Learning
345(6)
Writing Projects
345(3)
Multigenre Projects
348(1)
Oral Presentations
348(3)
Thematic Units
351(7)
How to Develop a Thematic Unit
351(2)
Topics for Thematic Units
353(5)
Review
358(1)
Professional References
358(1)
Children's Book References
359(1)
Compendium of Instructional Procedures 360(37)
Alphabet Books
362(1)
Anticipation Guides
362(1)
Book Boxes
363(2)
Book Talks
365(1)
Choral Reading
365(1)
Clusters, Maps, and Webs
366(1)
Collaborative Books and Reports
367(1)
Data Charts
368(1)
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
369(1)
Grand Conversations
370(1)
Guided Reading
370(1)
Individual Books and Reports
371(1)
Instructional Conversations
372(1)
Interactive Writing
373(1)
K-W-L Charts
374(2)
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
376(1)
Learning Logs
377(1)
Making Words
378(2)
Minilessons
380(1)
Open-Mind Portraits
380(1)
Quickwriting
381(1)
Quilts
382(2)
Read-Arounds
384(1)
Readers Theatre
384(1)
Reading Aloud to Children
385(1)
Reading Logs
385(1)
Repeated Readings
386(1)
Running Records
386(1)
Say Something
387(1)
Shared Reading
388(1)
Story Boards
389(1)
Story Maps
389(2)
Word Sorts
391(1)
Word Walls
392(1)
Writing Groups
393(2)
Professional References
395(1)
Children's Book References
396(1)
Glossary 397(4)
Author and Title Index 401(10)
Subject Index 411

Excerpts

Helping children become literate is one of the greatest challenges facing teachers today. As some teachers and researchers tout and defend one approach after another, parents are frightened that the new instructional methods aren't getting the job done. The media fuels the controversy with reports lamenting low test scores and criticism that many schools are failing to produce literate citizens who can function competently. I have written this textbook to blaze a pathway toward implementing a thoughtful, balanced approach to teaching reading and writing in the early grades, a pathway that incorporates the most effective teaching approaches and strategies. Literacy for the 21st Century: Teaching Reading and Writing in Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade 4builds on the research-based approaches to literacy instruction outlined inLiteracy for the 21st Century,the most popular reading methods text in the market, but focuses squarely on the issues, concerns, and opportunities involved in teaching children in pre-kindergarten through grade 4. I created this text for core literacy courses that have been split to meet a growing demand for credentialing teachers with more in-depth knowledge of early literacy strategies, aiming to provide a solid foundation for teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. This comprehensive text presents sound approaches to literacy instruction and guides teachers toward best practice in teaching skills as well as strategies. The principles of effective reading instruction outlined in Chapter 1 provide a strong, easily understood foundation for the entire book. I have culled and created minilessons and assessment tools geared specifically toward assessing and teaching PreK-4 skills; the authentic classroom activities and student artifacts include spotlights on primary teachers who illustrate how they plan for and engage their students in literacy activities; and PreK margin notes address the specific concerns of this audience of learners. DRIVING PRINCIPLES My goal in this text is to show beginning teachers how to teach reading and writing effectively in the early grades, how to create a classroom climate where literacy flourishes, and how to empower the diverse array of young children in today's classrooms to function competently as literate adults in the twenty-first century. To that end, I have based the text on four contemporary theories of literary learning: constructivist, interactive, socio-linguistic, and reader response theories. Readers will learn how to implement a reading program with skills and strategies taught in context using a whole-part-whole organizational approach. The approach I take can, I believe, best be described as balanced and comprehensive. You will learn how to teach vital skills and strategies within the context of authentic reading and writing experiences. I have carefully selected the principles, skills, strategies, and examples of literature that will empower the beginning teachers to get up to speed quickly with their young readers. In creating this textbook, I used knowledge I gleaned from a host of teachers who have been students in my beginning reading course over the years, and I also sifted through the array of practices and procedures proven effective in today's classrooms and with today's diverse student populations. Although there are many other useful ideas and strategies that can accomplish the goal of producing literate students, I have deliberately and painstakingly chosen research-based, classroom-tested ideas-the best of the best-as the focus of this textbook. SPECIAL FEATURES These special features increase the effectiveness of the text and address the most current resources in the field of literacy. Instructional Procedures The easily accessible Compendium of Instructional Procedures following Chapter 12 offers clearly articulated instructio


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