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Literacy's Beginnings Supporting Young Readers and Writers,9780132617659
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Literacy's Beginnings Supporting Young Readers and Writers

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780132617659

ISBN10:
013261765X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/14/2011
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

Literacy#x19;s Beginnings: Supporting Young Readers and Writers, 6/eis one of the most talked about resources for prospective and current teachers of children from birth to age eight. It offers an integrated approach to reading and writing instruction keyed to the five typical stages through which most children pass: the IRA/NAEYC phases of literacy. Included are clear, simple explanations of the issues addressed in Reading First and Early Reading First legislation which all teachers of children must know; excellent coverage of assessment, including ready-to-use assessments in the appendices; Tie-In features that send readers to exemplary websites and suggest methods of integrating technology with reading and writing instruction; and new, expanded sections on differentiating instruction for struggling readers and writers, for children who are English Language Learners, and for children who have been identified as needing more intensive instruction as part of the Response to Intervention process.

Author Biography

Lea M. McGee is the Marie Clay Chair of Reading Recovery and Early Literacy at The Ohio University.

Donald J. Richgels is a professor at Northern Illinois University

Table of Contents

Chapter 1:  Understanding Children’s Literacy Development

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

           

Language, Thinking, and Learning

 

Schemas and Learning

 

            Schemas

 

            Infants and Schemas

 

The Relation between Language and Learning

 

            Social Basis for Learning

 

            Zone of  Proximal Development

 

Four Systems of Spoken Language

 

            Pragmatics

 

            Semantics

 

            Syntax

 

            Phonology

 

Four Systems of Written Language

 

            Functions of Written Language

 

            Meanings in Written Language

 

                        Unusual Words and Phrases

 

                        Contextualization

 

Written Language Forms

 

            Words and Sentences

 

            Text Formats

 

Meaning-Form Links

 

Children’s Concepts about Written Language

 

            Ted’s Delight: A Case Study of Two Children’s Reading and Writing

 

Ted’s and Carrie’s Concepts about Written Language

 

Developmental Changes in Children’s Reading and Writing

 

            Awareness and Exploration

 

            Experimenting Reading and Writing

 

            Conventional Reading and Writing

 

Assessment and Phases of Reading and Writing Development

 

            Screening

 

            Monitoring

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 2: Birth to Three Years: The Foundations of Literacy Development

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

The Beginnings of Literacy

 

            Kristen’s Early Literacy Experiences

 

                        Literacy Experiences from Birth to One

 

                        Literacy Experiences from One to Two

 

 

                        Literacy Experiences from Two to Three

 

Concepts about Literacy Acquired from Early Book and Drawing Experiences

 

 

Home Influences on Literacy Learning: Learning in Social and Cultural Contexts

 

 

Parent-Child Interactive Bookreading

 

            Elizabeth and Her Mother Share Where’s Spot?  

 

            Jon-Marc and His Father Share The Story of Ferdinand

 

Participation in Interactive Bookreading

 

Concept of Story

 

Environmental Print

 

Spoken Language Development and Its relationship to Literacy Development               

 

            Spoken Language Development

 

            English Language Learners

 

Assessing Literacy Beginners

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 3: Three to Five Years:  Novice Readers and Writers in the Phase of Awareness and Exploration

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

Who Are Novice Readers and Writers?

 

            Written Language Communicates Messages: Novice Readers’ and Writers’ New Insights

 

An Example of Novice Writing and Reading

 

Meaning

 

Constructing the Meaning of Environmental Print

 

            Constructing Meaning While Listening to Story and Information Book Read-Alouds

 

                        Children’s Meaning-Making Strategies

 

                        Teachers’ Roles in Helping Children Understand Interactive Read-Alouds

 

 

Constructing Meaning in Pretend Reading and Retelling

 

Writing Meaningful Messages

 

Written Language Forms

 

            Concepts about Print

 

            From Scribbles to Alphabet Letters

 

Alphabet Letters

 

Signatures

 

            Texts

 

Meaning-Form Links

 

            Contextual Dependency

 

            Matching Print to Spoken Language: More Than Contextual Dependency

 

            Phonological Awareness

 

            Using Symbols: The Connections among Dramatic Play, Writing, and Computer Use

 

Written Language Functions

 

English Language Learners as Novice Readers and Writers

 

Assessing Novice Readers and Writers

 

            Assessing Alphabet Knowledge and Signature Writing

 

            Assessing Concepts about Print

 

            Assessing Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

 

            Assessing Vocabulary and Oral Comprehension

 

            Analyzing Assessment Data

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 4:  From Five to Seven Years:  Experimenting Readers and Writers

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

Who Are Experimenters?

 

The New Understandings and Awareness of Experimenting Readers and Writers

 

Examples of Experimenters

 

Experimenting with Meaning

 

Experimenting with Forms

 

Concept of Word

           

            Texts

 

Experimenting with Meaning-Form Links

 

            Sounding Literate

 

                        Developmental Changes in Pretend Reading

 

                        Sounding Literate in Writing

 

            Being Precise

 

            Using Sound-Letter Relationships

 

            A System Based on Phonemic Awareness

 

            Ways of Relating Sounds and Letters

 

                        Stages of Spelling Development

 

            Sound-Letter Relationships in Reading

 

                        English Language Learners and Invented Spelling

           

Experimenting with Functions of Written Language

 

Assessing Experimenting Readers and Writers in Kindergarten and First Grade

 

            Assessing Phonemic Awareness and sound-letter knowledge

 

            Assessing Concepts about print

 

            AssessingAlphabetic Principle

 

            Developing an Assessment Plan

 

            Keeping Records

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 5:  From Six to Eight Years:  Conventional Readers and Writers in Early, Transitional, and Self-Generative Phases

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

            Who Are Conventional Readers and Writers?

 

                        Three Phases of Conventional Literacy Development

 

                        Examples of Early and Transitional Readers and Writers

 

            Meaning Construction

 

                        Meaning Making in Reading: Using Strategies

 

                        Meaning Making in Writing

 

            Written Language Forms

 

                        Morphological Awareness and Grammar

 

                        Composing Stories and Expositions

 

                                    Narrative Elements

 

                                    Developmental Trends in Children’s Story Writing

 

                                    Expository Texts

 

                                    Developmental Trends in Children’s Expositions

 

            Meaning-Form Links

 

                        Decoding

 

                        Spelling

 

                                    Later Letter-Name or Later Alphabetic Spelling

 

                                    Within-a-Word Spelling

 

                                    Syllable Juncture Spelling

 

            Functions

 

            English Language Learners

 

                        Speech Emergence

 

                        Intermediate Fluency

 

            Phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency

 

            Assessing Children’s Ability to Read Texts of Increasing Difficulty

 

                        Using Running Records to Determine Reading Levels

 

                        Using Questions to Analyze Comprehension and Vocabulary

 

                        Miscue Analysis

 

                        Using Running Records to Analyze Fluency and Strategy Use

 

                        Analyzing Children’s Decoding Strategies

 

                        Analyzing Spelling

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 6:  Literacy-Rich Classrooms

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

Components of Language- and Literacy-Rich Classrooms

 

Planning for the Physical Arrangement of Classroom and Daily Schedule

 

            Whole-Class Literacy Routines

 

                        Reading Aloud

 

                        Shared Reading

 

                        Modeled Writing, Shared Writing, and Interactive Writing

 

                        Letter-Word-Sound Workshop or Word Work

 

            Small-Group Literacy Instruction

 

            Independent Practice

 

Daily Schedule dictates room Arrangement

 

            Centers or Workstations

 

            Library Center

 

            Writing Center

 

            Computer Centers

 

            Displays in Language- and Literacy-Rich Classrooms

 

Materials

 

            Children’s Literature

 

            Materials for Writing

 

            Technology Materials

 

Culturally Sensitive and Integrated Curriculum

 

            Culturally Sensitive Curriculum

 

            Integrated Content Units

 

Measuring Classroom Environment Quality

 

Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners and Struggling Readers and Writers

 

Developmentally Appropriate Instruction and Explicit Instruction

 

Assessment-Based Comprehensive Literacy Instruction

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using the Information

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 7: Supporting Language and Literacy Learning in Preschools

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

The Preschool Context

 

The Critical Role of Preschool

 

Learning in the Preschool Classroom

 

Reading and Writing in Exemplary Preschool Classrooms

 

            Mrs. McKannon's Classroom:  Preschool Literacy in an Exemplary Language- and Print-Rich Environment

 

                        Children at Play

 

                        The Teacher at Work: Mrs. McKannon Teaches Literacy All Day

 

            Ms. Rodgers' Classrooms: Teaching Concepts about Print, Alphabet Recognition, and Phonemic Awareness

 

                        Shared Writing with Write On

 

                        Guided Drawing

 

                        Small-Group Lessons in Alphabet Recognition and Phonemic Awareness

 

Supporting Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension

 

            Using Interactive Read Alouds in Preschool to Build Vocabulary and Listening Comprehension

 

            Storytelling and Drama

 

            Taking Time to Talk

 

Supporting Concepts about Print and Alphabet Letter Learning

 

            Shared Reading

 

Shared Writing

 

The Sign-in Procedure and Other Name Activities

 

Activities to Promote Alphabet Letter Learning

 

Supporting Children’s Development of Phonemic Awareness, Letter-Sound Knowledge, and Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle

 

Attending to Syllable and Rhyme

                                                                                     

Attending to Beginning Phonemes

 

Modifying Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners

 

            Targeted Classroom Interventions

 

                        Shared Reading with Planned Language Activities

 

            Talking about Objects Related to a Book or Theme

 

Meeting the Needs of Preschool ELLs

 

A Comprehensive Model of Assessment and Instruction in Action

 

            A Day in Ms. Clements' Classroom

 

                        Whole-Class Gathering

 

                        Center Time: Ms. Clements Teaches a Mini-lesson and Observes Children

 

            Ms.Clements Reflects and Plans

 

Chapter Summary

 

Using and Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8:  Supporting Literacy Learning in Kindergarten

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

           

 

            The Kindergarten Context: What’s New Here?

 

            Text Reading and Writing in Exemplary Classrooms

 

                        Using Interactive Read Alouds

 

                        Using Assessment to Plan Instruction

 

                        Teaching Small Groups

 

                        Shared Reading

 

                        The “What Can You Show Us?” Activity

 

                        Reading the Morning Message

 

                        Teaching Small Group: Word Work That Starts with Book Reading

 

                        Interactive Writing in Small Group

 

            Teaching Children the Conventions

 

                        Alphabet Instruction Including Letter-Sound Knowledge

 

                        Phonemic Awareness Instruction Including Decoding

 

                        Concepts about Print Instruction including Learning Sight Words

 

                        Teaching Comprehension and Vocabulary

 

            Independent Literacy Experiences

            Real World Literacy Experiences

            Work Stations

           

            Differentiated Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse Students

 

                        Using Environmental Print

 

                        Morning Message Plus

 

                        Using Similarities between Spanish and English

 

                        Using Finger-Point Reading

 

                        Writing and Reading in Two Languages

 

            Pulling Assessment Together: Using Portfolios

 

                        Analyzing Children’s Writing

 

                                    Analysis of Form

 

                                    Story Form

 

                        Analysis of the Alphabet Principle

 

Chapter Summary

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 9:  Supporting Literacy Learning in First Grade

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

What’s New Here?

 

Reading and Writing Instruction in Exemplary First-Grade Classrooms

 

                        Guided Reading Instruction in Mrs. Tran’s First Grade

 

                                    Literacy Centers

 

                                    Talk-Through to Introduce Guided Reading Texts

 

                                    Teaching for Strategies during Guided Reading

 

                                    Word work and spelling instruction

 

                                    Interactive Writing

 

                                    Whole group word study

 

                        Writing in Mr. Schultheis’s First Grade

 

                        Informational Writing in Mrs. Duthie’s First Grade

 

            Word Study: Decoding Print and Spelling Words

 

                        Early Decoding Strategies and Building Sight Words

 

                                    Phonics

 

                                    Phonics Generalizations

 

                                    Systematic, Explicit Instruction in Phonics

 

                                    Whole-Class Word Study

 

                        Building Automatic Sight Vocabularies

 

                        Teaching for Comprehension 

           

            Modifying Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners

 

                        Modifying Commercial Reading Programs

 

                        Modifying Instruction for English Language Learners

 

                        Modifying Instruction for Struggling Readers

 

            Assessing Student Progress in First Grade

 

Chapter Summary

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

 

Chapter 10: Supporting Literacy Learning in Second through Fourth Grades

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

            What’s New Here?

 

            Literature study through Interactive Read-Alouds

 

                        Selecting a Text Set and a Literary Focus for Discussion

 

                        Selecting and Teaching Literary Reading Strategies

 

                        After Reading Response Activities

 

            Guided Reading and Spelling

 

                        Determining Instructional Level and Selecting Children

 

                        Explicit Teaching of Orthographic Decoding and Vocabulary Using Shared Reading in Guided Reading Instruction

 

                        Explicit Teaching of Comprehension Strategies and Vocabulary Meanings in Guided Reading Instruction

 

                        Reading Information Books in Guided Reading

 

                        Using Guided Reading and Readers' Theatre to Foster Fluency

 

                        Explicit Teaching of Spelling

 

            Advanced Word Study

 

                        Learning about Sound Chunks in Making Big Words

 

                        Learning about Morphemes, Base Words, and Affixes

 

            Independent Reading Practice

 

                        Selecting and Arranging Books for Independent Reading

 

                        Fostering Motivation and Accountability

 

                        Monitoring Individual Student's Reading

 

                        Using Book Club as an Alternative to Independent Reading

 

                        Using Literature Circles or Strategy Groups instead of Guided Reading

 

            Writing

 

                        Components of Writing Workshop: Explicitly Teaching the Writing Processes

 

                        Poetic Elements

 

                        Writing Informational Texts

 

                        Inquiry Units during Content Study

 

            Integrating Reading and writing Nonfiction with Content exploration

 

                        Inquiry Units

 

                        Internet Workshop

 

            Culminating Activities

 

            Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners

 

                        Supporting Struggling Readers with Attention to Fluency

 

                        Explicit Attention to Vocabulary for Strugglers and English Language Learners

 

                        Explicit Attention to Narrative and Expository Text Forms For Strugglers and English Language Learners

 

            Assessing Student Performance for Differentiated Instruction

 

                        Individualized Reading Inventory

 

                        Assessing Writing Using Rubrics

 

Chapter Summary

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References

 

 

Chapter 11:  Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners

 

Key Concepts and Instructional Activities That You Will Read About in This Chapter

 

            English Language Learners as a Special Case of At-Risk Learners

 

                        Second Language Acquisition

 

                                    Second language acquisition

 

                                    Stages of Language Development

 

                                    Preproduction

 

                                    Early Production

 

                                    Speech Emergence and Intermediate Fluency

 

                        Exemplary Teachers of English Language Learners

 

                        Considerations for Teachers

 

                                    Learning about the community and family

 

                                    Considering differences in print and language

 

                        Selecting Books for English Language Learners and Adjusting Reading-Aloud Techniques

 

                        ELL Interactive Read-Aloud Procedure

 

                        Using Oral Language to Support Reading and Writing

 

                        Teaching Reading and Writing Using a Multiliteracy Approach

 

                        Teaching Decoding and Spelling to English Language Learners

 

                        Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners

 

                        Teaching Fluency and Comprehension to English Language Learners

 

                        Explicit Attention to the Sentence Structures of Written Text For English Language Learners

 

                        Teaching Grammar to English Language Learners

 

            Assessment for English Language Learners

 

Chapter Summary

 

Applying the Information

 

Going Beyond the Text

 

References



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