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Literary Criticism : An Introduction to Theory and Practice,9780130333971

Literary Criticism : An Introduction to Theory and Practice

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130333971

ISBN10:
0130333972
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $57.00

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Summary

The fourth edition of the bestselling Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice showcases various schools of 20th century criticism in historical and philosophical contexts. New features include: - A new chapter on queer theory. - Every chapter has been revised with new introductions with appropriate new critical vocabulary, critical terms, further readings sections, and web sites. - New student essays - Structuralism and Deconstruction have been combined into one section to make the material clearer and more streamlined. - The addition of Plotinus, Giovanni Boccaccio, Joseph Addison, Percy Pysshe Shelley, and Mikhail Bakhtin. Pick a Penguin Program* We offer select Penguin Putnam titles at a substantial discount to your students when you request a special package of one or more Penguin titles with this text. Please contact your local Prentice Hall Sales Representative for more information.

Table of Contents

Foreword ix
To the Reader xii
Defining Criticism, Theory, and Literature
1(15)
Eavesdropping on a Literature Classroom
1(2)
Can a Text Have More Than One Interpretation?
3(1)
How to Become a Literary Critic
3(1)
What Is Literary Criticism?
4(2)
What Is Literary Theory?
6(1)
Making Meaning from Text
7(1)
The Reading Process and Literary Theory
8(2)
What Is Literature?
10(2)
Literary Theory and the Definition of Literature
12(1)
The Function of Literature and Literary Theory
13(1)
Beginning the Formal Study of Literary Theory
14(1)
Further Reading
15(1)
A Historical Survey of Literary Criticism
16(21)
Introduction
16(1)
Plato (ca. 427-347 B.C.)
16(2)
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
18(3)
Horace (65-8 B.C.)
21(1)
Longinus (First Century A.D.)
22(1)
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
23(1)
Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586)
24(1)
John Dryden (1631-1700)
24(1)
Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
25(1)
William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
26(3)
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (1828-1893)
29(1)
Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)
30(2)
Henry James (1843-1916)
32(2)
Modern Literary Criticism
34(1)
Further Reading
35(2)
New Criticism
37(18)
Introduction
37(2)
Historical Development
39(3)
Assumptions
42(3)
Methodology
45(3)
Questions for Analysis
48(1)
Sample Essay
48(1)
Further Reading
49(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
49(1)
Student Essay: Dale Schuurman, Keats's ``To Autumn'': Verses of Praise for a Malicious Season?
50(5)
Reader-Response Criticism
55(20)
Introduction
55(2)
Historical Development
57(4)
Assumptions
61(2)
Methodology
63(6)
Questions for Analysis
69(1)
Sample Essay
70(1)
Further Reading
70(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
71(1)
Student Essay: Jennifer Douglas, ``Ethan Brand's'' Challenge to Me
72(3)
Structuralism
75(19)
Introduction
75(1)
Historical Development
76(6)
Assumptions
82(2)
Methodologies
84(5)
Questions for Analysis
89(1)
Sample Essay
89(1)
Further Reading
90(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
90(1)
Student Essay: Conie Krause, Will the Real Walter Mitty Please Wake Up: A Structuralist's View of ``The Secret Life of Walter Mitty''
91(3)
Deconstruction
94(25)
Structuralism and Poststructuralism: Two Views of the World
94(2)
Modernity
96(2)
Poststructuralism or Postmodernism
98(2)
Historical Development
100(4)
Assumptions
104(3)
Methodology
107(6)
American Deconstructors
113(1)
Questions for Analysis
114(1)
Sample Essay
114(1)
Further Reading
115(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
115(1)
Student Essay: Jennifer Douglas, Deconstructing a ``Real'' House
116(3)
Psychoanalytic Criticism
119(23)
Introduction
119(2)
Historical Development
121(11)
Assumptions
132(1)
Methodologies
133(2)
Questions for Analysis
135(1)
Sample Essay
136(1)
Further Reading
136(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
137(1)
Student Essay: David Johnson, A Psychoanalytic Approach to Poe's ``The City in the Sea''
137(5)
Feminism
142(19)
Introduction
142(2)
Historical Development
144(9)
Assumptions
153(1)
Methodology
154(2)
Questions for Analysis
156(1)
Sample Essay
156(1)
Further Reading
157(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
157(1)
Student Essay: Lori Huth, Throwing Off the Yoke: ``Rip Van Winkle'' and Women
158(3)
Marxism
161(18)
Introduction
161(1)
Historical Development
162(8)
Assumptions
170(2)
Methodology
172(1)
Questions for Analysis
173(1)
Sample Essay
174(1)
Further Reading
174(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
175(1)
Student Essay: Juanita Wolfe, Baking Bread for the Bourgeoisie
175(4)
Cultural Poetics or New Historicism
179(18)
Introduction
179(2)
Historical Development
181(4)
Assumptions
185(3)
Methodology
188(2)
Questions for Textual Analysis
190(1)
Questions for Analysis
191(1)
Sample Essay
191(1)
Further Reading
191(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
192(1)
Student Essay: Krista Adlhock, Hawthorne's Understanding of History in ``The Maypole of Merry Mount''
193(4)
Cultural Studies
197(17)
Introduction
197(2)
Postcolonialism: ``The Empire Writes Back''
199(1)
Historical Development of Postcolonialism
200(2)
Assumptions of Postcolonialist Theory
202(2)
Methodology
204(1)
Questions for Analysis
205(1)
Postcolonialism and African American Criticism
205(3)
Gender Studies: New Directions in Feminism
208(1)
Sample Essay
209(1)
Further Reading
209(1)
Web Sites for Exploration
210(1)
Student Essay: Wendy Rader, ``The Gentlemen of the Jungle'': Or Are They Beasts?
211(3)
Literary Selections 214(46)
``To Autumn''
214(1)
John Keats
``Ethan Brand''
215(13)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
``The Secret Life of Walter Mitty''
228(4)
James Thurber
``The House on Mango Street''
232(1)
Sandra Cisneros
``The City in the Sea''
233(2)
Edgar Allan Poe
``Rip Van Winkle''
235(13)
Washington Irving
``Marked with D.''
248(1)
Tony Harrison
``The Maypole of Merry Mount''
248(8)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
``The Gentlemen of the Jungle''
256(4)
Jomo Kenyatta
Glossary 260(29)
References 289(23)
Credits 312(2)
Index 314

Excerpts

To the Reader Like the first two editions, this new edition ofLiterary Criticismis designed as a supplemental text for introductory courses in both literature and literary criticism. In all three editions, the purpose of this text has always remained the same: to enable students to approach literature from a variety of practical and theoretical perspectives and to equip them with a theoretical and a practical understanding of how critics develop their interpretations. Its overall aim is to take the mystery out of working with and interpreting texts. Like the first and second editions, the third edition holds to several key premises. First, I assume that there is no such thing as an "innocent" reading of a text. Whether our responses to a text are emotional and spontaneous or well reasoned and highly structured, all of our interpretations are based on underlying factors that cause us to respond in a particular way. What elicits these responses, and how a reader makes sense out of a text, is what really matters. It is the domain of literary theory to question our initial and all our further responses, our beliefs, our values, our feelings, and our eventual, overall interpretation. To understand why we respond to a text in a certain way, we must first understand literary theory and criticism. Second, since our responses to any text have theoretical bases, I presume that all readers have a literary theory. Consciously or unconsciously, as readers we have developed a mind-set that fits or encompasses our expectations when reading any text. Somehow we all seem able to make sense of a text. The methods we use to frame our personal and public interpretations directly involve us in the process of literary criticism and theory and automatically make us practicing literary critics, whether we know it or not! My third assumption rests on the observation that each reader's literary theory and accompanying methodology is either conscious or unconscious, complete or incomplete, informed or ill-informed, eclectic or unified. Since an unconscious, incomplete, ill-informed, and eclectic literary theory more frequently than not leads to illogical, unsound, and haphazard interpretations, I believe that a well-defined, logical, and clearly articulated theory will enable readers to develop their own methods of interpretation, permitting readers, in fact, to order, clarify, and justify their appraisals of a text in a consistent and rational manner. Unfortunately, many readers cannot articulate their own literary theory and have little knowledge of the history and development of the ever-evolving principles of literary criticism. It is the goal of this book to introduce such students to literary theory and criticism, its historical development, and the various theoretical positions or schools of criticism that will enable them as readers to make conscious, informed, and intelligent choices about their own methods of interpretation. Like the first two editions, this new edition introduces students to the basic concerns of literary theory in Chapter 1, which now includes a more expansive definition ofliteratureitself. Chapter 2 places literary theory and criticism in historical perspective, starting with Plato and ending with modern-day theorists. Chapters 3 to 11 have all been revised, adding new terminology where appropriate. These chapters present the eleven major schools of criticism that have been developed in the twentieth century: New Criticism, Reader-Response Criticism, Structuralism, Deconstruction, Psychoanalytic Criticism, Feminism, Marxism, Cultural Poetics or New Historicism, and Cultural Studies, with an expanded discussion of Postcolonialism, including African American and Gender Studies. To maintain consistency and for ease of study, each of these chapters is identically organized. We begin with a briefIntroductionfollowed by theHistorical Developmentof each school of


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