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Literature : Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama: Compact Edition

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9780072558067

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0072558067
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Pub. Date:
7/17/2003
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McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

This compact edition of Robert DiYanni's presentation of the three genres of literature offers the refreshing New Voices of authors whose writing has never before appeared in an introductory text, in addition to classic works, eight Authors in Context, and a transformed Transformations chapter.

Table of Contents

* signifies new work or section

INTRODUCTION

READING (AND WRITING ABOUT) LITERATURE

Reading Literature

The Pleasures of Fiction
The Dog and the Shadow
Learning to Be Silent
*Reading the Parable in Context
The Pleasures of Poetry
Robert Frost, Dust of Snow
*Reading Frost's Poem in Context
The Pleasures of Drama
*Reading a Play in Context

Understanding Literature:

*Experience
*Interpretation
*Evaluation
*Reading in Context

Writing About Literature

Reasons for Writing About Literature
Ways of Writing About Literature
Writing the Paper
Stephen Crane, War Is Kind

PART ONE: FICTION

CHAPTER 1: READING STORIES

Luke: The Prodigal Son

The Experience of Fiction

The Interpretation of Fiction

The Evaluation of Fiction

*Reading in Context

John Updike A&P

The Act of Reading Fiction

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

CHAPTER 2: TYPES OF SHORT FICTION

Early Forms: Parable, Fable, and Tale

Aesop, The Wolf and the Mastiff

Petronius, The Widow of Ephesus

The Short Story

The Nonrealistic Story

The Short Novel

CHAPTER 3: THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION

Plot and Structure

Frank O'Connor, Guests of the Nation

Character

Kay Boyle, Astronomer's Wife

Setting

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh

Point of View

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Language and Style

James Joyce, Araby

Theme

Eudora Welty, A Worn Path

Irony and Symbol

D.H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner

CHAPTER 4: WRITING ABOUT FICTION

Reasons for Writing About Fiction

Informal Ways of Writing About Fiction

Annotation

Katherine Anne Porter, Magic

Freewriting

Formal Ways of Writing About Fiction

Student Papers on Fiction

Questions for Writing about Fiction

Suggestions for Writing

CHAPTER 5: THREE FICTION WRITERS IN CONTEXT

Reading Edgar Allan Poe and Flannery O'Connor

Questions for In-Depth Reading

*Edgar Allan Poe in Context

*Poe and Journalism
*Poe and the Horror Story
*Poe and the Detective Story
*The Dimension of Style

*Edgar Allan Poe: Stories

The Black Cat
*The Cask of Amontillado
*The Fall of the House of Usher
*The Purloined Letter

*Writer Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe

*Joyce Carol Oates, Artist

*Edgar Allan Poe: Essays

*Critics on Poe

*Flannery O'Connor in Context

*Southern Gothics
*The Catholic Dimension
*O'Connor's Irony

Flannery O'Connor: Stories

Good Country People
A Good Man Is Hard to Find
Everything That Rises Must Converge
The Life You Save May Be Your Own

*Writer Inspired by Flannery O'Connor

Mary Hood, How Far She Went

Flannery O'Connor: Essays and Letters

Critics on O'Connor

CHAPTER 6: A COLLECTION OF SHORT FICTION

*Sherman Alexis, Indian Education

*Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings

*Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson

*Charles Baxter, Gryphon

Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking Paths

TRANSLATED BY DONALD YATES

Raymond Carver, Cathedral

Anton Chekhov, The Kiss

TRANSLATED BY CONSTANCE GARNETT

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal

*F. Scott Fitzgerald, Winter Dreams

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

TRANSLATED BY GREGORY RABASSA

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown

*Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants

*Ha Jin, Taking a Husband

James Joyce, The Boarding House

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

*Alistair MacLeod, There is a Season

*Lorrie Moore, Community Life

*Alice Munro, Friend of My Youth

*Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried

*Frank O'Connor, My Oedipus Complex

Tilie Olson, I Stand Here Ironing

*Carol Shields, Dressing for the Carnival

Leslie Marmon Silko, Yellow Woman

Amy Tan, Rules of the Game

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

Eudora Welty, Why I live at the P.O.

*New Voices

Maile Meloy, Ranch Girl

Timothy A. Westmoreland, Darkening of the World

*Literature in the News

*Catcher in the Rye

*Bad Writing

*Oprah's Book Club

*The Best Book in the World

PART TWO: POETRY

CHAPTER 7: READING POEMS

The Experience of Poetry

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays
*Reading in Context

The Interpretation of Poetry

Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
*Reading in Context

The Evaluation of Poetry

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers

The Act of Reading Poetry

Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz

CHAPTER 8: TYPES OF POETRY

Narrative Poetry

Lyric Poetry

CHAPTER 9: ELEMENTS OF POETRY

Voice: Speaker and Tone

Stephen Crane, War Is Kind
Robert Browning, My Last Duchess
Muriel Stuart, In the Orchard
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Thou art indeed just, Lord
Anonymous, Western Wind
Henry Reed, Naming of Parts
Jacques Prevert, Family Portrait

Diction

William Wordsworth, I wandered lonely as a cloud
Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy
William Wordsworth, It is a beauteous evening
Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder
Adrienne Rich, Rape

Imagery

Elizabeth Bishop, First Death in Nova Scotia
William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree
Robert Browning, Meeting at Night
H. D. (Hilda Doolittle), Heat
Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

Figures of Speech: Simile and Metaphor

William Shakespeare, That time of year thou may'st in me behold
John Donne, Hymn to God the Father
Robert Wallace, The Double-Play
Louis Simpson, The Battle
Judith Wright, Woman to Child

Symbolism and Allegory

Peter Meinke, Advice to My Son
Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill
William Blake, A Poison Tree
Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken
George Herbert, Virtue
Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death

Syntax

John Donne, The Sun Rising
Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed
William Butler Yeats, An Irish Airman Foresees His Death
Robert Frost, The Silken Tent
E. E. Cummings, Me up at does
Stevie Smith, Mother Among the Dustbins

Sound: Rhyme, Alliteration, Assonance

Gerard Manley Hopkins, In the Valley of the Elwy
Thomas Hardy, During Wind and Rain
Alexander Pope, Sound and Sense
Bob McKenty, Adam's Song
May Swenson, The Universe
Helen Chasin, The Word Plum

Rhythm and Meter

Robert Frost, The Span of Life
George Gordon, Lord Byron The Destruction of Sennacherib
Anne Sexton, Her Kind
William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

Structure: Closed Form and Open Form

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
Walt Whitman, When I heard the learn'd astronomer
E. E. Cummings, el(a
E. E. Cummings, [Buffalo Bill's]
William Carlos Williams, The Dance
Denise Levertov, O Taste and See
Theodore Roethke, The Waking
C. P. Cavafy, The City

TRANSLATED BY EDMUND KEELEY AND PHILIP SHERRARD

Theme

Emily Dickinson, Crumbling is not an instant's Act

CHAPTER 10: TRANSFORMATIONS

Revisions

William Blake, London

William Butler Yeats, A Dream of Death

Emily Dickinson, The Wind begun to knead (rock) theGrass

D. H. Lawrence, Piano

Parodies

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say

Kenneth Koch, Variations on a Theme by William Carlos Williams

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Carrion Comfort

Gary Layne Hatch, Terrier Torment; or, Mr.Hopkins and His Dog

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer's day

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day

Robert Frost, Dust of Snow

Bob McKenty, Snow on Frost

Poems and Paintings

Vincent Van Gogh, The Starry Night

Anne Sexton, The Starry Night

Francesco de Goya, The Third of May, 1808

David Gewanter Goya's The Third of May, 1808

Pieter Breughel the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

William Carlos Williams, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Pieter Breughel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow

Joseph Langland, Hunters in the Snow

William Blake, The Sick Rose (watercolor)

William Blake, The Sick Rose (poem)

*Cathy Song, Girl Powdering Her Neck

*Kitagawa Utamaro, Girl Powdering Her Neck

Henri Matisse, Dance

Natalie Safir, Matisse's Dance

*Johannes Vermeer, Young Woman with a Water Jug

*Stephen Mitchell, Vermeer

*Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase

*X.J. Kennedy, Nude Descending a Staircase

Gustav Klimt, The Kiss

Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Short Story on a Painting of Gustav Klimt

*Romare Bearden, After Five O'Clock

*Federico Garcia Lorca, Lament for Ignacio Sanches Mejias (Part 2)

*John Everett Milais, Ophelia

*E.J. Bellocq, Ophelia

*Lun-Yi Tsai, Disbelief

*Lucille Clifton, Tuesday 9/11/01

CHAPTER 11: WRITING ABOUT POETRY

Reasons for Writing About Poetry

Informal Ways of Writing About Poetry

Annotation
Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays
Freewriting
Robert Graves, Symptoms of Love

Formal Ways of Writing About Poetry

Sylvia Plath, Mirror

Student Papers of Poetry

Questions for Writing about Poetry

Suggestions for Writing

CHAPTER 12: THREE POETS IN CONTEXT

Reading Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes in Depth

Questions for In-Depth Reading

*Emily Dickinson in Context

*The Nineteenth-Century New England Literary Scene
*Dickinson and Modern Poetry
*Dickinson and Christianity
Dickinson's Style

Emily Dickinson: Poems

Emily Dickinson, I cannot dance upon my Toes
Emily Dickinson, The Soul selects her own Society
199 I'm "wife"--I've finished that
214 I taste a liquor never brewed
241 I like a look of Agony
249 Wild Nights--Wild Nights!
258 There's a certain Slant of light
280 I felt a Funeral, in my Brain
328 Some keep the Sabbath going to Church
341 After great pain, a formal feeling comes
348 I dreaded that first Robin, so
419 We grow accustomed to the Dark
435 Much Madness is divinest Sense
449 I died for Beauty--but was scarce
465 I heard a Fly buzz--when I died
536 The Heart asks Pleasure--first
585 I like to see it lap the Miles
599 There is a pain--so utter
632 The brain is wider than the sky
650 Pain--has an element of Blank
675 Essentials Oils--are wrung--
744 Remorse--is Memory--awake
754 My Life had stood--a Loaded Gun
986 A narrow Fellow in the Grass
1068 Further in Summer than the Birds
1078 The Bustle in a House
1100 The last Night that She lived
1129 Tell all the Truth but tell it slant
1463 A Route of Evanescence
1624 Apparently with no surprise
1732 My life closed twice before its close

*Poets Inspired by Dickinson

*Jane Kenyon, Notes from the Other Side
*Jane Hirshfield, Three Times My Life Has Opened
*Billy Collins, Taking Off Emily Dickinson's Clothes
*Linda Pastan, Emily Dickinson
*Kay Ryan, Crash

*Dickinson on Herself and her First Poems

*Critics on Dickinson

*Robert Frost in Context

*Frost and Popularity
*Frost and Nature
*Frost and the Sonnet
*Frost's Voices

Robert Frost: Poems

Mowing
The Tuft of Flowers
Mending Wall
Birches
Home Burial
Hyla Brook
Putting in the Seed
Fire and Ice
For Once, Then Something
Two Look at Two
Once by the Pacific
Acquainted with the Night
Tree at my Window
Departmental
Desert Places
Design
Provide, Provide
The Most of It

*Poets Inspired Frost

*Edward Thomas, When First
*W.S. Merwin, Unknown Bird
*Seamus Heaney, The Forge
*Neal Bowers, Driving Lessons

Critical Comments by Frost

Critics on Frost

Langston Hughes in Context

*The Harlem Renaissance
*Hughes on Music
*Hughes's Influences
*Hughes's Style

Langston Hughes: Poems

Dream Deferred
Same in Blues
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
Mother to Son
I, Too
My People
The Weary Blues
Young Gal’s Blues
Morning After
Trumpet Player
Dream Boogie
Madam and the Rent Man
Theme for English #B
Aunt Sue’s Stories
Let America Be America Again

*Poets Inspired by Huges

*Rita Dove, Testimonial
*Michael Harper, Martin's BluesThe Ballad of Birmingham
*Kevin Young, Langston Hughes

*Hughes on Harlem, the Blues

*Critics on Hughes

CHAPTER 13: A COLLECTION OF POEMS

A Selection of Classic Poems

Anonymous, Barbara Allan
Anonymous, Edward, Edward
William Blake, The Clod & the Pebble
William Blake, The Lamb
William Blake, The Tyger
William Blake, The Garden of Love
Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How do I Love Thee?
Robert Burns, a Red, Red Rose
Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky
Samule Taylor Coleridge, Kuba Khan
John Donne, Song
John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidden Mourning
John Donne, The Flea
John Donnne, Death, be not proud
John Donne, Batter my heart
George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty
Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid
Thomas Hardy, Afterwards
George Herbert, The Altar
Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes
Robert Herrick, To the virgins, to make much of time
Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur
Gerard Manely Hopkins, The Windhover
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall: To a Young Child
A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty
A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young
Ben Jonson, On My First Son
Ben Jonson, Song: To Celia
John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be
John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci
John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale
John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent
John Milton, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont
Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen
Edgar Allan Poe, The Raven
Alexander Pope, from An Essay on Man
William Shakespeare, When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes
William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds
William Shakespeare, Th' expense of spirit in a waste of shame
William Shakespeare, My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias
Edmund Spenser, One day I wrote her name upon the strand
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle
Walt Whitman, One's Self I Sing
Walt Whitman, A noiseless patient spider
William Wordsworth, The worldis too much with us
William Wordworth, The Solitary Reaper
Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me

A Selection of Modern Poems

W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen
W.H. Auden, In Memory of W.B. Yeats
W.H. Auden, Funeral Blues
*W.H. Auden, September 1, 1939
Gwendolyn Brooks, We real cool
Gwendolyn Brooks, First fight. Then fiddle.
*Gwendolyn Brooks, Song in the Front Yard
Countee Cullen, Incident
e.e. cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town
e.e. cummings, I thank You God for this most amazing
Paul Laurence Dunbar, We wear the mask
T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits

D.H. Lawrence, Hummingbird
D.H. Lawrence, Snake
Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica
Claude McKay, The Tropics in New York
Marianne Moore, Poetry
Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est
Sylvia Plath, Blackberrying
Sylvia Plath, Metaphors
*Sylvia Plath, Morning Song
Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter
Ezra Pound, The Garden
John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece
Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane
*Siegfried Sassoon, They
Anne Sexton, Two Hands
William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark
Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird
Mary Swenson, Women
Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night
Jean Toomer, Reapers
William Carlos Williams, Spring and All
William Carlos Williams, Dance Russe
Richard Wilbur, The Death of a Toad
James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota
James Wright, A Blessing
William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming
William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan
William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium
William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old

A Selection of Contemporary Poems

*Diane Ackerman, Spiders
*Sherman Alexie, Indian Love Songs 1 and 2
Margaret Atwood, This is a Photograph of Me
Jimmy Santiago Baca, from Meditations on the South Valley XVII
*Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Ogun
Raymond Carver, Photograph of My Father in his Twenty-Second Year
Lucille Clifton, Homage to My Hips
*Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Game
*Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry
*Billy Collins, The History Lesson
*Billy Collins, Your Number
*Wendy Cope, The Ted Williams Villanelle
Gregory Corso, Marriage
*Mark Doty, Golden Retrievals
Rita Dove, Canary
Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways
Nikki Giovanni, Ego Tripping
Nikki Giovanni, Nikki Rosa
Donald Hall, My son, my executioner
Robert Hass, Meditation at Lagunitas
Seamus Heaney, Digging
Seamus Heaney, Mid-Term Break
*Michael Hogan, Kickoff
*Aron Keesbury, To Waist
*Jane Kenyon, Peonies at Dusk
*Jane Kenyon, Otherwise
*Jane Kenyon, Let Evening Come
Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It
*Michael Longley, The Butchers
Audre Lorde, Hanging Fire
*Paul Muldoon, Lag
Sharon Olds, Size and Sheer Will
*Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage
*Sharon Olds, 35/10
Linda Pastan, Ethics
Alberto Rios, A Dream of Husbands
Kraft Rompf, Waiting Table
Gertrude Schnackenberg, Signs
Cathy Song, Lost Sister
Gary Soto, Behind Grandma's House
*Krishna Tateneni, Blindness
*Baron Wormser, Friday Night

*Poetry of the World

*Yehuda Amichai (Israel), A Pity. We Were Such a Good Invention (Translated by Assia Gutmann)
*Cairil Anwar (Indonesia), At the Mosque (Translated by Burton Rafael)
*Matshuo Basho (Japan), Three Haiku (Translated by Robert Hass)
Rosario Castellanos (Mexico), Chess (Translated by Maureen Ahern)
*Bei Dao (China), Declaration (Translated by Bonnie McDougall)
*Zbigniew Herbert (Poland), Pebble (Translated by Czeslaw Milosz and Peter Dale Scott)
Osip Mandelstam (Russia), The Stalin Epigram (Translated by Clarence Brown and W.S. Merwin)
Czeslaw Milosz (Poland), A Song on the End of the World (Translated by Anthony Milosz)
Pablo Neruda (Chile), Ode to My Socks (Translated by Robert Bly)
Boris Pasternak (Russia), Hamlet (Translated by John Stallworthy and Peter France)
*A.K. Ramanujan (India), Pleasure
*Wole Soyinka (Nigeria), Hamlet
*Derek Walcott (Caribbean), Sea Grapes

*New Voices

*Kay Ryan
*Mockingbird
*Your Face Will Stick
*Blandeur
*All Shall Be Restored
*Simon Armitage
*Poem
*Zoom
*Drawing the Arctic Circle
*On and Owd Piktcha

*Literature in the News

*Billy Collins, The Bard of Simple Things
*Celebrating Poetry: National Poetry Day/Month
*September 11th: American Poets Respond

PART THREE: DRAMA

CHAPTER 14: READING PLAYS

The Experience of Drama

Isabella Augusta Persse, Lady Gregory

The Rising of the Moon

The Interpretation of Drama

The Evaluation of Drama

CHAPTER 15: TYPES OF DRAMA

Tragedy

Comedy

CHAPTER 16: ELEMENTS OF DRAMA

Plot

Character

Dialogue

*Subtext

Staging

Theme

CHAPTER 17: WRITING ABOUT DRAMA

Reasons for Writing about Drama

Informal Ways of Writing About Drama

Annotation
Double-Column Notebook

Formal Ways of Writing About Drama

Student Papers on Drama

Questions for Writing About Drama

Questions for In-Depth Reading

Suggestions for Writing

CHAPTER 18: THE GREEK THEATER: SOPHOCLES

Reading Sophocles in Context

*Athens in the Golden Age
*Greek Tragedy
*Sophocles and His Works
*Oedipus the King

Sophocles, Oedipus Rex (Translated by Fitts and Fitzgerald)

Critics on Sophocles

CHAPTER 19: THE ELIZABETHAN THEATER: SHAKESPEARE

Reading Shakespeare in Context

*London in the Age of Elizabeth
*The Arts in the Age of Elizabeth
*Stagecraft in the Elizabethan Age
*Shakespeare and His Works

William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Othello

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Critics on Shakespeare

CHAPTER 20: THE MODERN REALISTIC THEATER: IBSEN

Reading Ibsen in Context

Realism
Ibsen, Exile, and Change

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House Translated bt Rolf Fjelde

CHAPTER 21: A COLLECTION OF MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY PLAYS

*Anton Chekhov, A Marriage Proposal

Susan Glaspell, Trifles

Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun

*Eugene Ionesco, The Gap

Terrence McNally, Andre's Mother

Wendy Wasserstein, Tender Offer

*Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest

August Wilson, Fences

*New Voices

*Mary Gallagher

*Brother

*Warren Leight

*The Final Interrogation of Ceausescu's Dog

Elizabeth Wong

*Letters to a Student Revolutionary

PART FOUR: RESEARCH AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES

CHAPTER 22: WRITING WITH SOURCES

Why Do Research About Literature

Clarifying the Assignment

Selecting a Topic

Finding and Using Sources

Using Computerized Databases

Using the Internet for Research

Developing a Critical Perspective

Developing a Thesis

Drafting and Revising

Conventions

Documenting Sources

Documenting Electronic Sources

Alternative Documentation Style: Endnotes and Footnotes

A Student Essay Using One Source as a Stimulus

Sample Research Papers

CHAPTER 23: CRITICAL THEORY: APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF LITERATURE

Reading for Analysis

William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force (story)

Emily Dickinson, I'm "wife"- I've finished that (poem)

The Canon and the Curriculum

Formalist Perspectives

Biographical Perspectives

Historical Perspectives

Psychological Perspectives

Feminist and Marxist Perspectives

Reader-Response Perspectives

Mythological Perspectives

Structuralist Perspectives

Deconstructive Perspectives

Cultural Studies Perspectives

Using Critical Perspectives as Heuristics

Appendix: Poets' Lives

Glossary

Index



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