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Literature for Composition : Essays, Stories, Poems, and Plays,9780205743599

Literature for Composition : Essays, Stories, Poems, and Plays

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Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205743599

ISBN10:
0205743595
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/6/2010
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $110.00

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Literature for Composition : Essays, Stories, Poems, and Plays: 5 out of 5 stars based on 2 user reviews.

Summary

The new edition of Barnet's Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet's signature accessible style.

A new chapter one gives students a crash course on writing an effective essay. Six new student essays provide helpful models of student writing on a wide array of topics with nineteen essays in all. Two timely thematic units have been added: "The World Around Us" and "The Sporting Life." The new2009 MLA guidelines are included in an appendix for guidance on writing papers.

Literature for Composition is based on the assumption that students in composition or literature courses should encounter first-rate writing not simply competent prose but the powerful reports of experience that have been recorded by highly skilled writers of the past and present, reports of experiences that must be shared. Our view is not original.

A thousand years ago in Japan, Lady Murasaki (978'-1026) wrote a scene in The Tale of Genjiin which some of her characters talk about reading fiction, and one of them offers his opinion as to why an author writes: Again and again writers find something in their experience, or see something in the life around them, that seems so important they cannot bear to let it pass into oblivion. There must never come a time, the writer feels, when people do not know about this. We assume that you share our belief that the study of such writing offers pleasure and insight into life and also leads to increased skill in communicating.

The ninth edition focuses on argument and evaluation, not only in the case studies but also in the topics (headed "Joining the Conversation: Critical Thinking and Writing") that follow every reading. The authors emphasize the importance of questioning our assumptions--a key principle in critical thinking--and also emphasize the importance of providing evidence in the course of setting forth coherent, readable arguments.

The book is rich in photographs, paintings, and facsimiles of manuscripts. The images are chosen to enhance the student's understanding of particular works of literature. For example, we include photos of Buffalo Bill and a facsimile of a draft of E. E. Cummings's poem about Buffalo Bill (to our knowledge, never before published in a textbook). Similarly, we include previously unpublished typescript pages of Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily," thereby helping students to think about the kinds of choices and changes that a serious writer makes.

Table of Contents

Seledtions found in MyLiteratureLab are indicated with MLL

 

Contents by Genre xxii

List of Illustrations xxix

Preface to Instructors xxxi

Letter to Students xxxii

 

P A R T I

Getting Started: From Response to Argument 1

 

C H A P T E R 1

How to Write an Effective Essay:

A Crash Course 3

The Basic Strategy 3

Looking Closely: Approaching a First Draft 4

Revising: Achieving a Readable Draft 6

_ Checklist for Revising a Draft 9

Peer Review 9

Preparing the Final Version 9

 

C H A P T E R 2

The Writer as Reader 11

Reading and Responding 11

KATE CHOPIN • Ripe Figs 11

Reading as Re-creation 12

Collecting Evidence, Making Reasonable Inferences 13

Reading with Pen in Hand 14

Recording Your First Responses 14

Identifying Your Audience and Purpose 16

Your Turn: Arguing a Thesis in an Essay 16

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Images of Ripening in

Kate Chopin’s ‘Ripe Figs’” 17 MLL

The Argument Analyzed 19

Behind the Scenes: Tenori’s Essay, from Early Responses to

Final Version 20

Other Possibilities for Writing 22

Looking Closely at Two Contemporary Mini-Stories: Lydia Davis’s

“Childcare” and “City People” 22

LYDIA DAVIS • Childcare 22

LYDIA DAVIS • City People 24

A Story, with a Student’s Notes and Final Essay 24

RAY BRADBURY • August 2026: There Will Come Soft Rains 24

Student Essay with Preliminary Notes: Esther Daniels,

The Lesson of August 2026 29

Stories for Analysis 33

MICHELE SERROS • Senior Picture Day 33

GUY DE MAUPASSANT • The Necklace 38

 

C H A P T E R 3

The Reader as Writer 45

Developing a Thesis, Drafting, and Writing an Argument 45

Prewriting: Getting Ideas 45

Annotating a Text 45

More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story by Kate Chopin 45

KATE CHOPIN • The Story of an Hour 45 MLL

Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing 47

Focused Free Writing 48

Listing 48

Asking Questions 49

Keeping a Journal 50

Arguing with Yourself: Critical Thinking 51

Arguing a Thesis 52

_ Checklist: Thesis Sentence 53

Drafting Your Argument 53

A Sample Draft: “Ironies in an Hour” 54

Revising an Argument 56

Outlining an Argument 57

Soliciting Peer Review, Thinking about Counterarguments 58

Final Version of the Sample Essay: “Ironies of Life in Kate

Chopin’s ‘The Story of an Hour’” 59

A Brief Overview of the Final Version 61

Writing on Your Computer 62

_ Checklist: Writing with a Computer 62

Your Turn: Additional Stories for Analysis 63

KATE CHOPIN • Désirée’s Baby 63

A Student’s Analysis: Gus Hodges, “Race and Identity in

‘Désirée’s Baby’” 67

KATE CHOPIN • The Storm 71 MLL

JOHN STEINBECK • The Chrysanthemums 76

ANTON CHEKHOV • Misery 83 MLL

 

C H A P T E R 4

Reading Literature Closely: Argument 88

Beginning with Proverbs 88

Proverbs as Literature 88

Proverbs as Arguments 89

Are Proverbs True? Is Literature True? 90

Arguments in Lyric Poems 91

A. E. HOUSMAN • Loveliest of trees, the cherry now 92

JOHN DONNE • The Flea 93

Fables and Arguments 94

AESOP • The City Mouse and the Country Mouse 94

Thinking Further about “Messages” in Literature: Two Mini-Stories

and Two Poems 95

EMILY WU • The Lesson of the Master 96

JESSE LEE KERCHEVAL • Carpathia 98

ROBERT FROST • Design 99

LINDA PASTAN • Ethics 99

 

C H A P T E R 5

Reading Literature Closely: Explication 101

What Is Literature? 101

Literature and Form 101

Form and Meaning 102

ROBERT FROST • The Span of Life 103

Reading in Slow Motion 104

Explication 105

A Sample Explication 106

LANGSTON HUGHES • Harlem 106 MLL

Working Toward an Explication 107

Some Journal Entries 108

A Sample Essay by a Student (Final Version): “Langston Hughes’s ‘Harlem’”

109

Explication as Argument 112

_ Checklist: Drafting an Explication 113

Why Write? Purpose and Audience 114

Your Turn: Poems for Explication 115

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 73 (That time of year thou mayst

in me behold) 115 MLL

JOHN DONNE • Holy Sonnet XIV (Batter my heart, three-personed God) 116 MLL

EMILY BRONTË • Spellbound 117

LI-YOUNG LEE • I Ask My Mother to Sing 118

RANDALL JARRELL • The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 118

 

C H A P T E R 6

Reading Literature Closely: Analysis 120

Analysis 120

Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon 121

The Judgment of Solomon 121

Analyzing the Story 122

Other Possible Topics for Analysis 123

Analyzing a Story from the New Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son 124

The Parable of the Prodigal Son 125

Summary 126

Paraphrase 127

Comparison: An Analytic Tool 129

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Two New Women” 131

Looking at the Essay 135

_ Checklist: Revising a Comparison 135

Evaluation in Explication and Analysis 136

Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis in an Analytic Paper 137

Analyzing a Story 139

JAMES THURBER • The Secret Life of Walter Mitty 139

Working Toward a Thesis: Journal Entries 142

Developing the Thesis: Making Lists 143

Sample Draft by a Student: “Walter Mitty Is No Joke” 144

Developing an Argument 146

Introductory Paragraphs 146

Middle Paragraphs 148

Concluding Paragraphs 148

Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions 150

_ Checklist: Revising Paragraphs 150

Review: Writing an Analysis 151

A Note on Technical Terminology 151

A Lyric Poem and a Student’s Argument 152

APHRA BEHN • Song: Love Armed 152

Journal Entries 152

A Sample Essay by a Student: “The Double Nature of Love” 153

_ Checklist: Editing a Draft 156

Your Turn: Short Stories and Poems for Analysis 157

EDGAR ALLAN POE • The Cask of Amontillado 157

KATHERINE ANNE PORTER • The Jilting of Granny

Weatherall 163

JOSÉ ARMAS • El Tonto del Barrio 169

LESLIE MARMON SILKO • The Man to Send Rain Clouds 174

BILLY COLLINS • Introduction to Poetry 178

ROBERT FROST • The Road Not Taken 179 MLL

ROBERT HERRICK • To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 180

MARTÍN ESPADA • Bully 181

 

C H A P T E R 7

Arguing an Interpretation 183

Interpretation and Meaning 183

Is the Author’s Intention a Guide to Meaning? 183

What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation? 184

An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora’s “Immigrants” 185

PAT MORA • Immigrants 185

Thinking Critically about Responses to Literature 186

Two Interpretations by Students 187

ROBERT FROST • Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening 188 MLL

Sample Essay by a Student: “Stopping by Woods–and

Going On” 189

Sample Essay by a Student: “‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy

Evening’ as a Short Story” 193

Your Turn: Poems for Interpretation 197

ROBERT FROST • Mending Wall 197

T. S. ELIOT • The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 199 MLL

JOHN KEATS • Ode on a Grecian Urn 203 MLL

THOMAS HARDY • The Man He Killed 205

GWENDOLYN BROOKS • The Mother 206 MLL

Stories for Interpretation 207

EDGAR ALLAN POE • The Masque of the Red Death 207

WILLA CATHER • Paul’s Case 212

JOYCE CAROL OATES • Where Are You Going, Where Have

You Been? 225 MLL

Thinking Critically: Case Study on William Faulkner’s

“A Rose for Emily” 236

Overview of the Case Study 236

WILLIAM FAULKNER • A Rose for Emily 237 MLL

Typescript Showing Material Deleted from the Published Version 245

WILLIAM FAULKNER • Comments on the Story 250

Two Interpretations by Students, with Notes/Outlines 252

SALLY FREER • Why Miss Emily Grierson Killed

Homer Barron 252

JOHN DAREMO • Insight into Horror: The Role of the Narrator

in “A Rose for Emily” 258

 

C H A P T E R 8

Arguing an Evaluation 267

Criticism and Evaluation 267

Are There Critical Standards? 267

Morality and Truth as Standards 268

Other Ways of Thinking about Truth and Realism 269

Your Turn: Poems and Stories for Evaluation 271

SARAH N. CLEGHORN • The Golf Links 272

WILFRED OWEN • Dulce et Decorum Est 272

WILFRED OWEN • Anthem for Doomed Youth 273

HENRY REED • Naming of Parts 274

KATHERINE MANSFIELD • Miss Brill 275

W. SOMERSET MAUGHAM • The Appointment in Samarra 278

O. HENRY • The Ransom of Red Chief 279

AMBROSE BIERCE • An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 287

ISABEL ALLENDE • If You Touched My Heart 293

HELENA MARIA VIRAMONTES • The Moths 299

ARTHUR C. CLARKE • The Nine Billion Names of God 303

 

C H A P T E R 9

Research Writing with Sources 309

What Research Is, and What Research Is Not 309

Primary and Secondary Materials 310

Locating Materials: First Steps 310

Other Bibliographic Aids 312

Electronic Sources 312

Encyclopedias: Print and Electronic Versions 312

The Internet/World Wide Web 313

Evaluating Sources on the World Wide Web 313

What Does Your Own Institution Offer? 313

_ Checklist: Using the World Wide Web 314

Taking Notes 315

Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Computer 315

A Guide to Note-Taking 315

Drafting the Paper 317

Focus on Primary Sources 318

Avoiding Plagiarism 318

 

P A R T I I

Up Close: Thinking Critically about Literary

Works and Literary Forms 321

 

C H A P T E R 10

Critical Thinking: Arguing with Oneself, Asking

Questions, and Making Comparisons 323

What Is Critical Thinking? 323

Asking and Answering Questions 323

Comparing and Contrasting 324

Analyzing and Evaluating Evidence 326

Thinking Critically: Arguing with Oneself, Asking Questions

and Comparing–E. E. Cummings’s “Buffalo Bill ’s” 327

E. E. CUMMINGS • Buffalo Bill ’s 327

A Short-Short Story, and Its Revised Version 330

RAYMOND CARVER • Mine 331

RAYMOND CARVER • Little Things 331

Your Turn: Writing an Argument about Carver’s Two Stories 333

 

C H A P T E R 11

A Brief Guide: Writing about Literature 334

Standing Back: Kinds of Writing 334

Getting Close: Drafting the Essay 335

Generating Ideas 335

Revising a Draft 337

_ Checklist: Reviewing the Basics 338

Contents xi

 

C H A P T E R 12

Reading and Writing about Essays 339

Types of Essays 339

The Essayist’s Persona 340

Voice 340

Tone 341

Prewriting: Identifying the Topic and Thesis 342

BRENT STAPLES • Black Men and Public Space 342

Summary and Analysis 344

Preparing a Summary 345

Stating the Thesis of an Essay 346

Drafting a Summary 347

_ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Essays 349

Your Turn: Essays for Analysis 351

LANGSTON HUGHES • Salvation 351

LAURA VANDERKAM • Hookups Starve the Soul 353

 

C H A P T E R 13

Reading and Writing about Stories 355

Stories True and False 355

GRACE PALEY • Samuel 355

Elements of Fiction 358

Plot and Character 358

Foreshadowing 359

Setting and Atmosphere 360

Symbolism 360

Narrative Point of View 362

Style and Point of View 364

Theme 364

Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Stories 365

Your Turn: Stories for Analysis 368

LOUISE ERDRICH • The Red Convertible 368

OSCAR CASARES • Yolanda 374

GABRIEL GÁRCÍA MÁRQUEZ • A Very Old Man with Enormous

Wings: A Tale for Children 380

JOHN UPDIKE • A & P 385

DIANA CHANG • The Oriental Contingent 389

GISH JEN • Who’s Irish? 394

 

C H A P T E R 14

Thinking Critically: A Case Study

about Flannery O’Connor 403

FLANNERY O’CONNOR • A Good Man Is Hard to Find 404

FLANNERY O’CONNOR • Revelation 414

Remarks from Essays and Letters 428

From “The Fiction Writer and His Country” 428

From “Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction” 428

From “The Nature and Aim of Fiction” 428

From “Writing Short Stories” 429

On Interpreting “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” 429 MLL

“A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable” 430

 

C H A P T E R 15

Reading and Writing about Plays 434

Types of Plays 434

Tragedy 434

Comedy 435

Elements of Drama 436

Theme 436

Plot 437

Gestures 438

Setting 439

Characterization and Motivation 439

Organizing an Analysis of a Character 440

First Draft 440

Revised Draft 441

_ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Plays 443

Reviewing a Dramatic Production 444

A Sample Review by a Student: “An Effective Macbeth” 445

The Review Reviewed 447

Thinking about a Filmed Version of a Play 448

Getting Ready to Write 448

_ Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play 449

Your Turn: Plays for Analysis 450

DAVID IVES • Sure Thing 450

A Note on Greek Tragedy 458

SOPHOCLES • Antigonê 460 MLL

 

C H A P T E R 16

 Reading and Writing about Poems 488

Elements of Poetry 488

The Speaker and the Poet 488

EMILY DICKINSON • I’m Nobody! Who are you? 488

EMILY DICKINSON • Wild Nights–Wild Nights 489 MLL

The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone 490

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 146 (Poor soul, the

center of my sinful earth) 491

Writing about the Speaker 492

ROBERT FROST • The Telephone 492

Journal Entries 493

Figurative Language 495

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 130 (My mistress’

eyes are nothing like the sun) 497

DANA GIOIA • Money 498

ROBERT FROST • The Hardship of Accounting 499

ANONYMOUS • Thirty Days Hath September 499

Imagery and Symbolism 499

EDMUND WALLER • Song (Go, lovely rose) 500

WILLIAM BLAKE • The Sick Rose 501

LINDA PASTAN • Jump Cabling 501

Verbal Irony and Paradox 502

Structure 502

ROBERT HERRICK • Upon Julia’s Clothes 503

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Herrick’s Julia, Julia’s Herrick” 503

The Argument Analyzed 506

CHRISTINA ROSSETTI • In an Artist’s Studio 506

Explication 507

An Example 508

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS • The Balloon of the Mind 508

Annotations and Journal Entries 508

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Explication of W. B. Yeats’s

‘The Balloon of the Mind’” 509

_ Checklist: Explication 511

Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference 512

Meter 513

Patterns of Sound 515

Stanzaic Patterns 516

BILLY COLLINS • Sonnet 518

Blank Verse and Free Verse 519

_ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Poems 519

Your Turn: Poems about People 521

ROBERT BROWNING • My Last Duchess 521 MLL

E. E. CUMMINGS • anyone lived in a pretty how town 523 MLL

SYLVIA PLATH • Daddy 524

GWENDOLYN BROOKS • We Real Cool 527 MLL

ETHERIDGE KNIGHT • For Malcolm, a Year After 528

ANNE SEXTON • Her Kind 529

JAMES WRIGHT • Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy’s Farm

in Pine Island, Minnesota 530

 

C H A P T E R 17

Thinking Critically about Poems:

Two Case Studies 532

A Case Study about Emily Dickinson 532

EMILY DICKINSON • I heard a Fly buzz–when I died– 534 MLL

EMILY DICKINSON • The Soul selects her own Society 534

EMILY DICKINSON • These are the days when Birds come back 535

EMILY DICKINSON • Papa above! 535

EMILY DICKINSON • There’s a certain Slant of light 535 MLL

EMILY DICKINSON • This World is not Conclusion 536 MLL

EMILY DICKINSON • I got so I could hear his name– 536

EMILY DICKINSON • Those—dying, then 537

EMILY DICKINSON • Apparently with no surprise 537

EMILY DICKINSON • Tell all the Truth but tell it slant 538

A Sample Argument by a Student: “Religion and Religious

Imagery in Emily Dickinson” 538

Word and Image 543

JANE FLANDERS • Van Gogh’s Bed 544

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS • The Great Figure 547

ADRIENNE RICH • Mourning Picture 548

CATHY SONG • Beauty and Sadness 551

MARY JO SALTER • The Rebirth of Venus 552

ANNE SEXTON • The Starry Night 555

W. H. AUDEN • Musée des Beaux Arts 557

X. J. KENNEDY • Nude Descending a Staircase 559

GREG PAPE • American Flamingo 560

CARL PHILLIPS • Luncheon on the Grass 562

JOHN UPDIKE • Before the Mirror 564

WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA • Brueghel’s Two Monkeys 566

A Case Study on Comparing Poems and Pictures 567

A Sample Argument by a Student: “Two Ways of Looking

at a Starry Night” 567

 

P A R T I I I

Standing Back: A Thematic Anthology 571

 

C H A P T E R 18

The World Around Us 573

Short Views 573

Essays 575

HENRY DAVID THOREAU • The Battle of the Ants 575

BILL MCKIBBEN • Now or Never 577

Stories 582

AESOP • The Ant and the Grasshopper 582

AESOP • The North Wind and the Sun 583

JACK LONDON • To Build a Fire 583

SARAH ORNE JEWETT • A White Heron 594

Poems 600

MATTHEW ARNOLD • In Harmony with Nature 600

THOMAS HARDY • Transformations 602

Contents xv

JOHN KEATS • To Autumn 603

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS • God’s Grandeur 604

WALT WHITMAN • A Noiseless Patient Spider 605

EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY • Mindful of you the sodden

earth in spring 606

EMILY DICKINSON • “Nature” is what we see 607

EMILY DICKINSON • A narrow Fellow in the Grass 608

Thinking Critically: Case Study about Robert Frost 609

ROBERT FROST • The Pasture 609 MLL

ROBERT FROST • Mowing 610

ROBERT FROST • The Wood-Pile 611

ROBERT FROST • The Oven Bird 612

ROBERT FROST • The Need of Being Versed in Country Things 612

ROBERT FROST • The Most of It 613

ROBERT FROST • The Figure a Poem Makes 614

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 19

Journeys 617

Short Views 617

Essays 619

JOAN DIDION • On Going Home 619

MONTESQUIEU • Persian Letters 622

Stories 623

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE • Young Goodman Brown 624 MLL

EUDORA WELTY • A Worn Path 632

TONI CADE BAMBARA • The Lesson 638

AMY HEMPEL • Today Will Be a Quiet Day 644

BOBBIE ANN MASON • Shiloh 648

JAMES JOYCE • Eveline 659

Poems 662

JOHN KEATS • On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer 662

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY • Ozymandias 663

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON • Ulysses 664

COUNTEE CULLEN • Incident 666

WILLIAM STAFFORD • Traveling Through the Dark 667

ADRIENNE RICH • Diving into the Wreck 667

DEREK WALCOTT • A Far Cry from Africa 670

SHERMAN ALEXIE • On the Amtrak from Boston to

New York City 671

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS • Sailing to Byzantium 673

CHRISTINA ROSSETTI • Uphill 675

EMILY DICKINSON • Because I could not stop for Death 676 MLL

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

xvi Contents

 

C H A P T E R 20

Love and Hate 678

Short Views 678

Essay 680

JUDITH ORTIZ COFER • I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened 680

Stories 684

ERNEST HEMINGWAY • Cat in the Rain 684

A Student’s Notes and Journal Entries on “Cat in the Rain” 686

Asking Questions about a Story 687

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Hemingway’s American Wife” 689

A Second Example: An Essay Drawing on Related Material in the Chapter 693

A Sample Essay by a Student: “Hemingway’s Unhappy Lovers” 694

ZORA NEALE HURSTON • Sweat 698 MLL

BEL KAUFMAN • Sunday in the Park 706

RAYMOND CARVER • Cathedral 709 MLL

Poems 719

ANONYMOUS • Western Wind 719

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE • The Passionate Shepherd to His Love 719

SIR WALTER RALEIGH • The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd 720

JOHN DONNE • The Bait 721

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 29 (When, in

disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes) 723

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 116 (Let me not

to the marriage of true minds) 724 MLL

JOHN DONNE • A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 725

ANDREW MARVELL • To His Coy Mistress 726

WILLIAM BLAKE • The Garden of Love 728

WILLIAM BLAKE • A Poison Tree 728

EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY • Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink 730

ROBERT FROST • The Silken Tent 731

ADRIENNE RICH • Novella 732

ADRIENNE RICH • XI (from Twenty-One Love Poems) 732

ROBERT PACK • The Frog Prince 733

JOSEPH BRODSKY • Love Song 734

NIKKI GIOVANNI • Love in Place 735

Play 736

TERRENCE MCNALLY • Andre’s Mother 736

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 21

 Making Men and Women 740

Short Views 740

Essays 741

STEVEN DOLOFF • The Opposite Sex 741

GRETEL EHRLICH • About Men 743

Stories 745

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN • The Yellow Wallpaper 746 MLL

RICHARD WRIGHT • The Man Who Was Almost a Man 757

GLORIA NAYLOR • The Two 766

ALICE MUNRO • Boys and Girls 772

Poems 781

ANONYMOUS • What Are Little Boys Made Of 781

ANONYMOUS • Higamus, Hogamus 782

DOROTHY PARKER • General Review of the Sex Situation 783

LOUISE BOGAN • Women 783

RITA DOVE • Daystar 784

ROBERT HAYDEN • Those Winter Sundays 785

THEODORE ROETHKE • My Papa’s Waltz 786

SHARON OLDS • Rites of Passage 787

FRANK O’HARA • Homosexuality 788

JULIA ALVAREZ • Woman’s Work 790

MARGE PIERCY • Barbie Doll 791

Play 792

HENRIK IBSEN • A Dollhouse 792

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 22

Innocence and Experience 843

Short Views 843

Essay 844

GEORGE ORWELL • Shooting an Elephant 844

Stories 849

HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN • The Emperor’s

New Clothes 849

JAMAICA KINCAID • Girl 853

DANIEL OROZCO • Orientation 854

JAMES BALDWIN • Sonny’s Blues 858

JAMES JOYCE • Araby 879 MLL

ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER • The Son from America 883

Poems 888

WILLIAM BLAKE • Infant Joy 889

WILLIAM BLAKE • Infant Sorrow 890

WILLIAM BLAKE • The Echoing Green 890

WILLIAM BLAKE • The Lamb 891

WILLIAM BLAKE • The Tyger 892

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS • Spring and Fall 893

E. E. CUMMINGS • in Just- 894

LOUISE GLÜCK • The School Children 895

LOUISE GLÜCK • Gretel in Darkness 896

Play 897

Thinking Critically: A Case Study about Shakespeare’s Hamlet 897

A Note on the Elizabethan Theater 897

A Note on Hamlet on the Stage 898

A Note on the Text of Hamlet 902

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 908

ERNEST JONES • Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex 1013

ANNE BARTON • The Promulgation of Confusion 1015

STANLEY WELLS • On the First Soliloquy 1018

ELAINE SHOWALTER • Representing Ophelia 1020

CLAIRE BLOOM • Playing Gertrude on Television 1021

BERNICE W. KLIMAN • The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production 1022

WILL SARETTA • Branagh’s Film of Hamlet 1024

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 23

The Sporting Life 1027

Short Views 1027

Essay 1028

JAMES MICHENER • Sports in America 1028

Stories 1035

SHERWOOD ANDERSON • I Want to Know Why 1035

RALPH ELLISON • Battle Royal 1041

MARY ROBISON • Coach 1052

TOBIAS WOLFF • Powder 1062

Poems 1065

LINDA PASTAN • Baseball 1065

LILLIAN MORRISON • The Sidewalker Racer, or On the Skateboard 1066

DIANE ACKERMAN • Pumping Iron 1067

A. E. HOUSMAN • To an Athlete Dying Young 1067

Play 1069

JANE MARTIN • Rodeo 1069

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 24

Identity in America 1073

Short Views 1073

Essays 1074

ANNA LISA RAYA • It’s Hard Enough Being Me 1075

ANDREW LAM • Who Will Light Incense When Mother’s Gone? 1077

Stories 1079

AMY TAN • Two Kinds 1079

ALICE WALKER • Everyday Use 1087 MLL

xviii Contents

Contents xix

KATHERINE MIN • Courting a Monk 1093

Poems 1103

EMMA LAZARUS • The New Colossus 1104

THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH • The Unguarded Gates 1105

JOSEPH BRUCHAC III • Ellis Island 1106

AURORA LEVINS MORALES • Child of the Americas 1107

GLORIA ANZALDÚA • To Live in the Borderlands Means You 1109

JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA • So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs

from Americans 1110

LANGSTON HUGHES • Theme for English B 1112

PAT PARKER • For the White Person Who Wants to

Know How to be my friend 1113

MITSUYE YAMADA • To the Lady 1115

NILA NORTHSUN • Moving Camp Too Far 1116

Play 1117

LUIS VALDEZ • Los Vendidos 1118

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 25

 American Dreams and Nightmares 1184

Short Views 1184

Essays 1186

CHIEF SEATTLE • My People 1187

ELIZABETH CADY STANTON • Declaration of Sentiments

and Resolutions 1190

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. • I Have a Dream 1193

STUDS TERKEL • Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Dream 1197

Stories 1199

KURT VONNEGUT JR. • Harrison Bergeron 1199

LANGSTON HUGHES • One Friday Morning 1204

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS • The Use of Force 1210

SHIRLEY JACKSON • The Lottery 1214

GRACE PALEY • A Man Told Me the Story of His Life 1220

TIM O’BRIEN • The Things They Carried 1221

Poems 1232

ANONYMOUS • Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel 1233

ROBERT HAYDEN • Frederick Douglass 1234

LORNA DEE CERVANTES • Refugee Ship 1235

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON • Richard Cory 1236

W. H. AUDEN • The Unknown Citizen 1237

ALLEN GINSBERG • A Supermarket in California 1238

MARGE PIERCY • To be of use 1240

MARGE PIERCY • What’s That Smell in the Kitchen? 1240

YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA • Facing It 1241

BILLY COLLINS • The Names 1243 MLL

GWENDOLYN BROOKS • The Bean Eaters 1245

DOROTHY PARKER • Résumé 1246

Play 1246

LORRAINE HANSBERRY • A Raisin in the Sun 1247 MLL

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 000

 

C H A P T E R 26

Law and Disorder 1292

Short Views 1292

Essays 1293

ZORA NEALE HURSTON • A Conflict of Interest 1293

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. • Letter from Birmingham Jail 1296

Stories  1309

ELIZABETH BISHOP • The Hanging of the Mouse 1309

URSULA K. LE GUIN • The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 1311

WILLIAM FAULKNER • Barn Burning 1315

Poems 1327

ANONYMOUS • Birmingham Jail 1328

A. E. HOUSMAN • The Carpenter’s Son 1330

A. E. HOUSMAN • Oh who is that young sinner 1331

CLAUDE MCKAY • If We Must Die 1332

JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA • Cloudy Day 1333

CAROLYN FORCHÉ • The Colonel 1335

Play  1336

SUSAN GLASPELL • Trifles 1336

Overviews: Looking Backward/Looking Forward  1346

 

A P P E N D I X A

Writing about Literature:

An Overview of Critical Strategies 1347

The Nature of Critical Writing 1347

Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence 1348

Some Critical Strategies 1349

Formalist Criticism (New Criticism) 1349

Deconstruction 1351

Reader-Response Criticism 1351

Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism) 1352

Historical Criticism 1353

Biographical Criticism 1354

Marxist Criticism 1354

New Historical Criticism 1355

Psychological or Psychoanalytic Criticism 1355

Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism 1356

Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work 1360

 

A P P E N D I X B

Remarks about Manuscript Form 1362

Basic Manuscript Form 1362

Quotations and Quotation Marks 1363

Quotation Marks or Italics? 1365

A Note on the Possessive 1365

Documentation: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works

Cited (MLA Format)1366

Internal Parenthetical Citations 1366

Parenthetical Citations and List of Works Cited 1367

Forms of Citation in Works Cited 1369

Citing Sources on the World Wide Web 1375

Checklist: Citing Sources on the Web 1376

 

A P P E N D I X C

How Much Do You Know about Citing

Sources? A Quiz with Answers 1379

Literary Credits 1386

Photo Credits 1394

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems 1397

Index of Terms 1410

 



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