9780321971661

Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing

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  • ISBN13:

    9780321971661

  • ISBN10:

    0321971663

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/5/2015
  • Publisher: Pearson
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For introductory courses in Literature.

Cultivate a Love of Literature…
X.J. Kennedy & Dana Gioia developed Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Thirteenth Edition with two major goals in mind: to introduce college students to the appreciation and experience of literature in its major forms and to develop the student’s ability to think critically and communicate effectively through writing.  The book is built on the assumption that great literature can enrich and enlarge the lives it touches. Both editors, literary writers themselves, believe that textbooks should be not only informative and accurate but also lively, accessible, and engaging.
 
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This title is also available with MyLiteratureLab – an online resource that works with our literature anthologies to provide engaging experiences to instructors and students.
 
Students can access new content that fosters an understanding of literary elements, which provides a foundation for stimulating class discussions. This simple and powerful tool offers state-of-the-art audio and video resources along with practical tools and flexible assessment. The Literature Collection eText within MyLiteratureLab includes more than 700 selections and valuable multimedia resources–including professional performances, biographies of key authors, contextual videos, and interactive student papers–that bring literature to life.

 

Author Biography

X. J. Kennedy , after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy (“Actually, I was pretty eighth class”). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children.

 

Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher. He was appointed as California Poet Laureate for a two-year term. Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a corporate vice presidency to write. He has published four collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award, and Pity the Beautiful (2012); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry’s place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College. From 2003-2009 he served as the Chairman of the National Endowments for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active literary reading by creating The Big Read, which helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He is currently the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California.

Table of Contents

 

Preface

To the Instructor  

About the Authors  

      

Fiction  

Talking with Amy Tan 

 

1. READING A STORY

THE ART OF FICTION

TYPES OF SHORT FICTION  

Sufi Legend, Death Has an Appointment in Samarra  

Aesop, The North Wind and the Sun

Bidpai, The Tortoise and the Geese

Chuang Tzu, Independence  

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Godfather Death  

PLOT  

THE SHORT STORY  

John Updike, A & P  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Wilhelm Grimm on Writing, On the Nature of Fairy Tales

THINKING ABOUT PLOT  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Plot  

TOPICS FOR WRITING on plot  

TERMS FOR REVIEW

 

2. POINT OF VIEW  

IDENTIFYING POINT OF VIEW  

TYPES OF NARRATORS  

how much does a narrator know?  

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS  

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily  

Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart

Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.  

James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

James Baldwin on Writing, Race and the African American Writer  

THINKING ABOUT POINT OF VIEW  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Point of View  

topics for writing ON POINT OF VIEW  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

3. CHARACTER

CHARACTERIZATION

MOTIVATION 

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall  

Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 

Neil Gaiman, How to Talk to Girls at Parties

Raymond Carver, Cathedral  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Raymond Carver on Writing, Commonplace but Precise Language  

THINKING ABOUT CHARACTER  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Character  

TOPICS FOR REVIEW ON CHARACTER  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

4. SETTING 

ELEMENTS OF SETTING  

HISTORICAL FICTION  

REGIONALISM  

NATURALISM  

Kate Chopin, The Storm  

Jack London, To Build a Fire  

ZZ Packer, Brownies

Amy Tan, A Pair of Tickets  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Amy Tan on Writing, Developing a Setting

THINKING ABOUT SETTING  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Setting  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SETTING  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

5. TONE AND STYLE

TONE  

STYLE  

DICTION  

Ernest Hemingway, A Clean, Well-Lighted Place  

William Faulkner, Barn Burning  

IRONY  

O. Henry, The Gift of the Magi  

Alice Munro, How I Met My Husband 

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Ernest Hemingway on Writing, The Direct Style  

THINKING ABOUT TONE AND STYLE  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone and Style  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE AND STYLE  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

6. THEME

PLOT VERSUS THEME  

SUMMARIZING THE THEME  

FINDING THE THEME  

Stephen Crane, The Open Boat  

Sandra Cisneros, The House on Mango Street 

Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son  

Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Harrison Bergeron  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing, The Themes of Science Fiction  

THINKING ABOUT THEME  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Theme  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON THEME  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

7. SYMBOL

ALLEGORY  

SYMBOLS  

RECOGNIZING SYMBOLS  

John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums  

Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas  

Shirley Jackson, The Lottery  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Shirley Jackson on Writing, Biography of a Story  

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols  

Sample Student Paper on Symbols , An Analysis of the Symbolism in Steinbeck’s “The Chrysanthemums”  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLS  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

8. READING LONG STORIES AND NOVELS

ORIGINS OF THE NOVEL  

NOVELISTIC METHODS  

READING NOVELS  

Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych  

Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Franz Kafka on Writing, Discussing The Metamorphosis  

THINKING ABOUT LONG STORIES AND NOVELS  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Long Stories and Novels  

TOPICS FOR WRITING on long stories and novels  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

9 GENRE FICTION  

ROMANCE VERSUS REALISM  

WHAT IS GENRE?  

TYPES OF GENRE FICTION  

GENRE AND POPULAR CULTURE 

Ray Bradbury,A Sound of Thunder 

Ursula K. Le Guin, The Wife’s Story 

H. P. Lovecraft, The Outsider                                                             

Dashiell Hammett, One Hour

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Ray Bradbury on Writing, Fall in Love at the Library 

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

10. LATIN AMERICAN FICTION

“EL BOOM”  

MAGIC REALISM  

AFTER THE BOOM  

Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark  

Gabriel García Márquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings  

Juan Rulfo, Tell Them Not to Kill Me!                  

Inés Arredondo, The Shunammite  

Writing effectively  

Jorge Luis Borges on Writing, On Storytelling 

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

11   CRITICAL CASEBOOK Flannery O’Connor   

FLANNERY O’CONNOR   

A Good Man Is Hard to Find  

Revelation  

Parker’s Back  

FLANNERY O’CONNOR ON WRITING  

Insights into “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”  

On Her Catholic Faith  

CRITICS ON FLANNERY O’CONNOR  

J. O. Tate, A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit  

Louise S. Cowan, The Character of Mrs. Turpin in “Revelation”  

Damian J. Ference, from “No Vague Believer”

Dean Flower, Listening to Flannery O’Connor  

Lucinda Williams, Meeting Flannery O’Connor

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING

 

12   CRITICAL CASEBOOK    Three Stories in Depth     

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE 

Young Goodman Brown

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE ON WRITING

Reflections on Truth and Clarity in Literature

The Obscurest Man in American Letters 

CRITICS ON HAWTHORNE

Herman Melville Excerpt from a Review of Mosses from an Old Manse 

Edgar Allan Poe , The Genius of Hawthorne’s Short Stories 

CRITICS ON “YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN” 000

Richard H. Fogle,  Ambiguity in “Young Goodman Brown” 

Paul J. Hurley , Evil Wherever He Looks 

Nancy Bunge , Complacency and Community 

Charlotte Perkins Gilman   

The Yellow Wallpaper  

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN ON WRITING  

Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper”  

Whatever Is  

The Nervous Breakdown of Women  

CRITICS ON “THE YELLOW WALLPAPER”  

Juliann Fleenor, Gender and Pathology in “The Yellow Wallpaper”  

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement  

ALICE WALKER   

Everyday Use  

ALICE WALKER ON WRITING  

Reflections on Writing and Women’s Lives  

CRITICS ON “EVERYDAY USE”  

Barbara T. Christian, “Everyday Use” and the Black Power Movement  

Mary Helen Washington, “Everyday Use” as a Portrait of the Artist  

Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker, Stylish vs. Sacred in “Everyday Use”  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

 

13 STORIES FOR FURTHER READING  

Chinua Achebe, Dead Men’s Path  

Sherman Alexie, This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona  

Isabel Allende, The Judge’s Wife

Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings  

Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge  

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake  

Willa Cather, Paul’s Case  

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour  

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal  

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat  

Ha Jin, Saboteur

James Joyce, Araby  

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl  

Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies  

D. H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner  

Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill

Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace 

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried  

Daniel Orozco, Orientation  

David Foster Wallace, Everything Is Green

Virginia Woolf, A Haunted House  

 

Poetry

Talking with Kay Ryan  

 

14  READING A POEM  

POETRY OR VERSE  

HOW TO READ A POEM  

Paraphrase  

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree  

Lyric Poetry  

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays  

Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers  

Narrative Poetry  

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spence  

Robert Frost, “Out, Out—”  

DRAMATIC POETRY  

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess  

DIDACTIC POETRY  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Adrienne Rich on Writing, Recalling “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”  

THINKING ABOUT PARAPHRASING  

William Stafford, Ask Me  

William Stafford, A Paraphrase of “Ask Me”  

CHECKLIST: Writing a Paraphrase  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARAPHRASING  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

15  LISTENING TO A VOICE  

TONE  

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz  

Stephen Crane, The Wayfarer

Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book  

Walt Whitman, To a Locomotive in Winter  

Emily Dickinson, I like to see it lap the Miles  

Gwendolyn Brooks, Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward  

Weldon Kees, For My Daughter  

THE SPEAKER IN THE POEM  

Natasha Trethewey, White Lies  

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Luke Havergal  

Anonymous, Dog Haiku  

William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud  

Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal Entry  

Charlotte Mew, The Farmer’s Bride

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow  

IRONY  

Robert Creeley, Oh No  

W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen  

Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage  

Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links  

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Second Fig  

Thomas Hardy, The Workbox  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper  

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta  

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Wilfred Owen on Writing, War Poetry  

THINKING ABOUT TONE  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Tone  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TONE  

Sample Student Paper, Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz”  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

16  WORDS  

LITERAL MEANING: WHAT A POEM SAYS FIRST  

William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say  

DICTION  

John Masefield, Cargoes

Robert Graves, Down, Wanton, Down!  

John Donne, Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You  

THE VALUE OF A DICTIONARY  

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Aftermath  

J. V. Cunningham, Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead  

Samuel Menashe, Bread  

Carl Sandburg, Grass  

WORD CHOICE AND WORD ORDER  

Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes  

Kay Ryan, Blandeur  

Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid  

Richard Eberhart, The Fury of Aerial Bombardment  

Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town  

Billy Collins, The Names  

Anonymous, Carnation Milk  

Gina Valdés, English con Salsa  

William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold 

William Wordsworth, Mutability

Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Lewis Carroll, Humpty Dumpty Explicates “Jabberwocky”  

THINKING ABOUT DICTION  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Diction  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON WORD CHOICE  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

17  SAYING AND SUGGESTING  

DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION  

William Blake, London  

Wallace Stevens, Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock  

E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i  

Maria Hummel, The Tree

Timothy Steele, Epitaph  

Diane Thiel, The Minefield  

H. D. , Sea Rose

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears  

Anne-Marie Thompson, Audiation

Richard Wilbur, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Richard Wilbur on Writing, Concerning “Love Calls Us to the Things of This World”  

THINKING ABOUT DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION  

CHECKLIST: Writing About What a Poem Says and Suggests  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

18 IMAGERY  

Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro  

Taniguchi Buson, The piercing chill I feel  

IMAGERY  

T. S. Eliot, The winter evening settles down  

Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar  

Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish  

Emily Dickinson, A Route of Evanescence  

Jean Toomer, Reapers  

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty  

ABOUT HAIKU  

Arakida Moritake, The falling flower  

Matsuo Basho, Heat-lightning streak  

Matsuo Basho, In the old stone pool  

Taniguchi Buson, On the one-ton temple bell  

Taniguchi Buson, Moonrise on mudflats  

Kobayashi Issa, only one guy  

Kobayashi Issa, Cricket  

HAIKU FROM JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS  

Suiko Matsushita, Rain shower from mountain  

Suiko Matsushita, Cosmos in bloom  

Hakuro Wada, Even the croaking of frogs  

Neiji Ozawa, The war—this year  

CONTEMPORARY HAIKU  

Nick Virgilio, The Old Neighborhood

Lee Gurga, Visitor’s Room

Penny Harter, broken bowl  

Jennifer Brutschy, Born Again  

Adelle Foley, Learning to Shave  

Garry Gay, Hole in the ozone  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

John Keats, Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art  

Walt Whitman, The Runner  

H. D., Heat  

William Carlos Williams, El Hombre  

Billy Collins, Embrace  

Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter  

Chana Bloch, Tired Sex  

Gary Snyder, Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain Lookout  

Kevin Prufer, Pause, Pause  

Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Ezra Pound on Writing, The Image  

THINKING ABOUT IMAGERY  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Imagery  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON IMAGERY  

Sample Student Paper, Faded Beauty: Elizabeth Bishop’s Use of Imagery in “The Fish”  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

19  FIGURES OF SPEECH  

WHY SPEAK FIGURATIVELY?  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Eagle  

William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?  

Howard Moss, Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?  

METAPHOR AND SIMILE  

Emily Dickinson, My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Flower in the Crannied Wall  

William Blake, To see a world in a grain of sand  

Sylvia Plath, Metaphors  

N. Scott Momaday, Simile  

Emily Dickinson, It dropped so low – in my Regard  

Jill Alexander Essbaum, The Heart  

Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home  

OTHER FIGURES OF SPEECH  

James Stephens, The Wind  

Robinson Jeffers, Hands  

Margaret Atwood, You fit into me  

George Herbert, The Pulley  

Dana Gioia, Money  

Carl Sandburg, Fog  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

Jane Kenyon, The Suitor  

Robert Frost, The Secret Sits  

Kay Ryan, Turtle  

Emily Brontë, Love and Friendship  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Robert Frost on Writing, The Importance of Poetic Metaphor  

THINKING ABOUT METAPHORS  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Metaphors  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON FIGURES OF SPEECH  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

20 SONG  

SINGING AND SAYING  

Ben Jonson, To Celia  

James Weldon Johnson, Sence You Went Away  

William Shakespeare, Fear no more the heat o’ the sun  

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory  

Paul Simon, Richard Cory  

BALLADS  

Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan  

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham  

BLUES  

Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams, Jailhouse Blues  

W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues  

RAP  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

Neko Case , This Tornado Loves You

Bob Dylan, The Times They Are a-Changin’  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Bob Dylan on Writing, Rhythm, Rime, and Songwriting from the Outside

THINKING ABOUT POETRY AND SONG  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Song Lyrics  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SONG LYRICS  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

21  SOUND  

SOUND AS MEANING  

Alexander Pope, True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance  

William Butler Yeats, Who Goes with Fergus?  

Edgar Allan Poe, from Ulalume

William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal  

Aphra Behn, When maidens are young  

ALLITERATION AND ASSONANCE  

Frances Cornford, The Watch

James Joyce, All day I hear  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The splendor falls on castle walls  

RIME  

William Cole, On my boat on Lake Cayuga  

Hilaire Belloc, The Hippopotamus  

Bob Kaufman, No More Jazz at Alcatraz  

William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan  

Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur  

How to read a POEM ALOUD  

Michael Stillman, In Memoriam John Coltrane  

William Shakespeare, When Daisies Pied and Violets Blue

T. S. Eliot, Virginia  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

T. S. Eliot on Writing, The Music of Poetry  

THINKING ABOUT A POEM’S SOUND  

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Poem’s Sound  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOUND  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

22  RHYTHM  

STRESSES AND PAUSES  

STRESS AND MEANING  

LINE ENDINGS

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break  

George Gordon, Lord Byron,   So We’ll Go No More a-Roving

Dorothy Parker, Résumé  

METER  

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Counting-out Rhyme  

Edith Sitwell, Mariner Man  

A. E. Housman, When I was one-and-twenty  

William Carlos Williams, Smell!  

Walt Whitman, Beat! Beat! Drums!  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing, Hearing “We Real Cool”  

THINKING ABOUT RHYTHM  

CHECKLIST: Scanning a Poem  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON RHYTHM  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

23  CLOSED FORM  

THE VALUE OF FORM

FORMAL PATTERNS  

Ernest Dowson, “Days of Wine and Roses”

John Donne, Song (“Go and catch a falling star”)  

Thomas M. Disch, Zewhyexary

THE SONNET  

William Shakespeare, Let me not to the marriage of true minds  

Michael Drayton, Since there’s no help, come let us kiss and part  

Edna St. Vincent Millay, What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why  

Kim Addonizio, First Poem for You  

Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded                                                             

A. E. Stallings, Aftershocks

Amit Majmudar, Rites to Allay the Dead  

R. S. Gwynn, Shakespearean Sonnet  

Sherman Alexie, The Facebook Sonnet

Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

THE EPIGRAM  

Sir John Harrington, Of Treason  

William Blake, To H—  

Langston Hughes, Two Somewhat Different Epigrams  

Dorothy Parker, The Actress  

John Frederick Nims, Contemplation  

Hilaire Belloc, Fatigue  

Wendy Cope, Variation on Belloc’s “Fatigue”  

Anonymous, Epitaph On A Dentist

OTHER FORMS  

Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night  

Robert Bridges, Triolet  

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

A. E. Stallings on Writing, On Form and Artifice  

THINKING ABOUT A SONNET  

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Sonnet  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON closed form

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

24  OPEN FORM  

Denise Levertov, Ancient Stairway  

FREE VERSE  

E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s  

W. S. Merwin, For the Anniversary of My Death  

William Carlos Williams, The Dance  

Stephen Crane, The Heart  

Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford  

Ezra Pound, Salutation  

Wallace Stevens, Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird  

PROSE POETRY  

Charles Simic, The Magic Study of Happiness  

Gertrude Stein, from Tender Buttons

VISUAL POETRY  

George Herbert, Easter Wings  

John Hollander, Swan and Shadow  

CONCRETE POETRY  

Dorthi Charles, Concrete Cat  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

E. E. Cummings, in Just-  

Francisco X. Alarcón, Frontera / Border  

Carole Satyamurti, I Shall Paint My Nails Red  

Naomi Shihab Nye, The Traveling Onion      

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Walt Whitman on Writing, The Poetry of the Future  

THINKING ABOUT FREE VERSE  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Line Breaks  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON OPEN FORM  

TERMS FOR REVIEW

  

25  SYMBOL  

THE MEANINGS OF A SYMBOL  

T. S. Eliot, The Boston Evening Transcript  

Emily Dickinson, The Lightning is a yellow Fork  

THE SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT  

IDENTIFYING SYMBOLS  

Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones  

ALLEGORY  

Matthew, The Parable of the Good Seed  

George Herbert, Redemption  

Edwin Markham, Outwitted  

Suji Kwock Kim, Occupation  

Antonio Machado, Proverbios y Cantares (XXIX)  

Translated by Dana Gioia, Traveler  

Christina Rossetti, Up-Hill  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

William Carlos Williams, The Young Housewife  

Ted Kooser, Carrie  

Mary Oliver, Wild Geese  

Tami Haaland, Lipstick  

Lorine Niedecker, Popcorn-can cover  

Wallace Stevens, The Snow Man  

Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar  

William Blake, The Tyger                                                        

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

William Butler Yeats on Writing, Poetic Symbols  

THINKING ABOUT SYMBOLS  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Symbols  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SYMBOLISM  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

26  MYTH AND NARRATIVE  

THE SUBJECTS AND USES OF MYTH  

ORIGINS OF MYTH  

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay  

William Wordsworth, The world is too much with us  

H. D., Helen  

Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen  

ARCHETYPE  

Louise Bogan, Medusa  

John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci  

PERSONAL MYTH  

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming  

Diane Thiel, Memento Mori in Middle School

MYTH AND POPULAR CULTURE  

Charles Martin, Taken Up  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY

A. E. Stallings, First Love: A Quiz  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses 

Anne Sexton, Cinderella  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Diane Thiel on Writing, Map of Myth

THINKING ABOUT MYTH  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Myth  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON MYTH  

Sample Student Paper, The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.’s “Helen” 

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

27  POETRY AND PERSONAL IDENTITY  

CONFESSIONAL POETRY  

Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus  

IDENTITY POETICS  

Rhina Espaillat, Bilingual/Bilingüe  

CULTURE, RACE, AND ETHNICITY  

Claude McKay, America  

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Riding into California  

Francisco X. Alarcón, The X in My Name  

Judith Ortiz Cofer, Quinceañera  

Sherman Alexie, The Powwow at the End of the World  

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It  

GENDER  

Anne Stevenson, The Victory  

Rafael Campo, For J. W.  

James Wright, Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio

Adrienne Rich, Women  

FOR REVIEW AND FURTHER STUDY  

Brian Turner, The Hurt Locker  

Philip Larkin, Aubade  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Rhina Espaillat on Writing, Being a Bilingual Writer  

THINKING ABOUT POETIC VOICE AND IDENTITY  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Voice and Personal Identity  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PERSONAL IDENTITY  

TERMS FOR REVIEW 

 

28  TRANSLATION  

IS POETIC TRANSLATION POSSIBLE?  

WORLD POETRY  

Li Po, Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text)  

Li Po, Yue Xia Du Zhuo (phonetic Chinese transcription)  

Li Po, Moon-beneath Alone Drink (literal translation)  

Translated by Arthur Waley, Drinking Alone by Moonlight  

COMPARING TRANSLATIONS  

Horace, “Carpe Diem” Ode (Latin text)  

Horace, “Carpe Diem” Ode (literal translation)  

Translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, Horace to Leuconoë  

Translated by A. E. Stallings, A New Year’s Toast  

TRANSLATING FORM  

Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (Persian text)  

Omar Khayyam, Rubai XII (literal translation)  

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, A Book of Verses underneath the Bough  

Translated by Dick Davis, I Need a Bare Sufficiency  

Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat  

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring  

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Some for the Glories of this World  

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, I sometimes think that never blows so red

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, The Moving Finger writes  

Translated by Edward FitzGerald, Ah Love! could you and I with Him conspire  xxx

PARODY  

Anonymous, We four lads from Liverpool are  

Andrea Patterson, Because I Could Not Dump

Francis Heaney, We Long Bony Dorks

Aaron Abeyta, thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Arthur Waley on Writing, The Method of Translation  

THINKING ABOUT PARODY  

CHECKLIST: Writing a Parody  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON PARODY  

TERMS FOR REVIEW

 

29  POETRY IN SPANISH: LITERATURE OF LATIN AMERICA  

Sor Juana, Presente en que el Cariño Hace Regalo la Llaneza  

Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection  

Pablo Neruda, Muchos Somos  

Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many  

Jorge Luis Borges, On his blindness  

Translated by Robert Mezey, On His Blindness  

Octavio Paz, Con los ojos cerrados  

Translated by Eliot Weinberger, With eyes closed  

SURREALISM IN LATIN AMERICAN POETRY  

Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas  

César Vallejo, La cólera que quiebra al hombre en niños  

Translated by Thomas Merton, Anger  

CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN POETRY  

José Emilio Pacheco, Alta Traición  

Translated by Alastair Reid, High Treason  

Elva Macías, Comí los frutos elegidos                                                          

Translated by Kimberly Gooden, I Ate the Fruits Chosen by the Wind

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Alastair Reid on Writing, Translating Neruda  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SPANISH POETRY  

 

30  RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE  

Anonymous, O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face  

Emily Dickinson, A Dying Tiger – moaned for Drink  

SENTIMENTALITY  

Rod McKuen, Thoughts on Capital Punishment  

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark  

RECOGNIZING EXCELLENCE  

William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium  

Arthur Guiterman, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness  

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias  

Robert Hayden, The Whipping  

Elizabeth Bishop, One Art  

Langston Hughes, I, Too

John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale  

Dylan Thomas, In My Craft or Sullen Art  

Walt Whitman, O Captain! My Captain!  

Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus  

Edgar Allan Poe, Annabel Lee  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Edgar Allan Poe on Writing, A Long Poem Does Not Exist  

THINKING ABOUT EVALUATING A POEM  

CHECKLIST: Writing an Evaluation  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATING A POEM  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

31  WHAT IS POETRY?  

SOME DEFINITIONS OF POETRY

Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, José Garcia Villa, Christopher Fry, Elizabeth Bishop, Joy Harjo, Octavio Paz, Denise Levertov, Lucille Clifton, Charles Simic

 

32  THREE CRITICAL CASEBOOKS Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes, and Robert Frost  

EMILY DICKINSON   

Success is counted sweetest  

I taste a liquor never brewed  

Wild Nights — Wild Nights!  

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain  

I’m Nobody! Who are you?  

The Soul selects her own Society  

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church  

Much Madness is divinest Sense  

This is my letter to the World  

I heard a Fly buzz — when I died  

I started Early — Took my Dog  

Because I could not stop for Death  

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant  

EMILY DICKINSON ON WRITING

Recognizing Poetry  

Self-Description   

CRITICS ON EMILY DICKINSON  

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Meeting Emily Dickinson  

Thomas H. Johnson, The Discovery of Emily Dickinson’s Manuscripts

Richard Wilbur, The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson  

Cynthia Griffin Wolff, Dickinson and Death (A Reading of “Because I could not stop for Death”)  

Judith Farr, A Reading of “My Life had stood — a Loaded Gun”  

LANGSTON HUGHES   

The Negro Speaks of Rivers  

The Negro

My People  

Song for a Banjo Dance

Mother to Son  

Song for a Dark Girl  

Prayer  

Luck

Theme for English B  

Nightmare Boogie  

Harlem [Dream Deferred]  

Ballad of Booker T. 

Homecoming  

LANGSTON HUGHES ON WRITING  

The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain  

The Harlem Renaissance  

CRITICS ON LANGSTON HUGHES  

Arnold Rampersad, Hughes as an Experimentalist  

Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson, The Voices in Langston Hughes  

Darryl Pinckney, Black Identity in Langston Hughes  

Peter Townsend, Langston Hughes and Jazz  

Onwuchekwa Jemie, A Reading of “Dream Deferred”  

ROBERT FROST                                                                                                             

Mowing                                                

Mending Wall                                                      

After Apple-picking                                                            

The Road Not Taken                                         

Birches                                                  

Design                   

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening                      

Fire and Ice                                                          

Acquainted with the Night                                                                

Desert Places                                                       

The Silken Tent                                                                   

Home Burial                                                        

ROBERT FROST ON WRITING 

The Sound of Sense                                                           

The Figure a Poem Makes

“There Are Two Types of Realist”: An Interview with Robert Frost                                                  

CRITICS ON ROBERT FROST 

Katherine Kearns, On “Mending Wall”                                                                                         

Ezra Pound, An Honest Writer                                                                                        

Rhina Espaillat, Translating Frost into Spanish                                                                          

William H. Pritchard, from “Forms of Guardedness”                                               

Dana Gioia, Robert Frost’s Dramatic Narratives         

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

 

33 CRITICAL CASEBOOK  T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”  

T. S. ELIOT   

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock  

PUBLISHING “PRUFROCK”  

THE REVIEWERS ON PRUFROCK   

Unsigned, Review from Times Literary Supplement  

Unsigned, Review from Literary World  

Conrad Aiken, from “Divers Realists,” The Dial  

Babette Deutsch, from “Another Impressionist,” The New Republic  

Marianne Moore, from “A Note on T. S. Eliot’s Book,” Poetry  

May Sinclair, from “Prufrock and Other Observations: A Criticism,” The Little Review  

T. S. ELIOT ON WRITING  

Poetry and Emotion  

The Objective Correlative  

The Difficulty of Poetry  

CRITICS ON “PRUFROCK”  

Denis Donoghue, One of the Irrefutable Poets  

Christopher Ricks, What’s in a Name?  

Philip R. Headings, The Pronouns in the Poem: “One,” “You,” and “I”  

Maud Ellmann, Will There Be Time?  

Burton Raffel, “Indeterminacy” in Eliot’s Poetry  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

 

34  POEMS FOR FURTHER READING  

Julia Alvarez, By Accident 

Anonymous (Scottish ballad), Lord Randall  

Anonymous (Navajo chant), Last Words of the Prophet  

Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach  

John Ashbery, At North Farm  

W. H. Auden, As I Walked Out One Evening  

W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts  

Jimmy Santiago Baca, Spliced Wire  

Elizabeth Bishop, Filling Station  

William Blake, The Sick Rose  

Gwendolyn Brooks, the mother  

Gwendolyn Brooks, the rites for Cousin Vit  

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways  

Robert Browning, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister  

Charles Bukowski, Dostoevsky  

Geoffrey Chaucer, Merciless Beauty  

G.K. Chesterton, The Donkey

John Ciardi, Most Like an Arch This Marriage  

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan  

Billy Collins, Care and Feeding  

Hart Crane, My Grandmother’s Love Letters  

E. E. Cummings, somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond  

Marisa de los Santos, Perfect Dress  

Michael Donaghy, Our Life Stories 

John Donne, Death be not proud  

John Donne, The Flea  

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning  

T. S. Eliot, Journey of the Magi  

Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California  

Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain  

Thomas Hardy, Hap  

Seamus Heaney, Digging  

William Ernest Henley, Invictus 

George Herbert, Love  

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time  

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall 

Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover  

A. E. Housman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now  

A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young  

Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner  

Robinson Jeffers, Fire on the Hills

Ha Jin, Missed Time  

Ben Jonson, On My First Son  

Donald Justice, On the Death of Friends in Childhood  

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn  

John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be  

Ted Kooser, Abandoned Farmhouse  

Philip Larkin, Home is so Sad  

Philip Larkin, Poetry of Departures  

D. H. Lawrence, Piano  

Li-Young Lee, Out of Hiding

Denise Levertov, O Taste and See  

Shirley Geok-lin Lim, Learning to love America  

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour  

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress  

David Mason, Ballade at 3 AM

Claude McKay, The Harlem Dancer

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo  

John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent  

Marianne Moore, Poetry  

Marilyn Nelson, A Strange Beautiful Woman  

Lorine Niedecker, Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves  

Sylvia Plath, Daddy  

Alexander Pope, A little Learning is a dang’rous Thing  

Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter  

John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece  

Henry Reed, Naming of Parts  

Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin  

Edwin Arlington Robinson, Miniver Cheevy  

Christina Rossetti, When I am dead, my dearest

Kay Ryan, That Will to Divest

William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes  

William Shakespeare, When to the sessions of sweet silent thought  

William Shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun  

Charles Simic, Butcher Shop  

Christopher Smart, For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry  

Cathy Song, Stamp Collecting  

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream  

Jonathan Swift, A Description of the Morning  

Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill  

Amy Uyematsu, Deliberate

Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes  

Edmund Waller, Go, Lovely Rose  

Walt Whitman, from Song of the Open Road  

Walt Whitman, I Hear America Singing  

Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn’d Astonomer

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All  

William Carlos Williams, Queen-Anne’s-Lace  

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge  

Mary Sidney Wroth, In this strange labyrinth  

Sir Thomas Wyatt, They flee from me that sometime did me sekë  

William Butler Yeats, He wishes for the Cloths of heaven

William Butler Yeats, The Magi  

William Butler Yeats, When You Are Old  

 

Drama

Talking with David Ives  

 

35  READING A PLAY  

INTERPRETING PLAYS

THEATRICAL CONVENTIONS  

ELEMENTS OF A PLAY

Susan Glaspell, Trifles  

ANALYZING TRIFLES

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Susan Glaspell on Writing, Creating Trifles  

THINKING ABOUT A PLAY  

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Play  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON TRIFLES

Sample Student Paper, Outside Trifles  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

36  MODES OF DRAMA Tragedy and Comedy  

TRAGEDY  

Christopher Marlowe, Scene from Doctor Faustus (Act x, Scene x)  

COMEDY  

Oscar Wilde, Scene from The Importance of Being Earnest (Act 1, Scene 1—Lady Bracknell Interviews Her Daughter’s Suitor) 

David Ives, Soap Opera  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

David Ives on Writing, On the One-Act Play  

THINKING ABOUT COMEDY  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Comedy  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT TRAGEDY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ABOUT COMEDY  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

37  CRITICAL CASEBOOK Sophocles  

THE THEATER OF SOPHOCLES  

THE CIVIC ROLE OF GREEK DRAMA  

ARISTOTLE’S CONCEPT OF TRAGEDY  

SOPHOCLES  

THE ORIGINS OF OEDIPUS THE KING  

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (Translated by David Grene)  

THE BACKGROUND OF ANTIGONÊ  

Sophocles, Antigone (Translated by David Grene)  

CRITICS ON SOPHOCLES  

Aristotle, Defining Tragedy  

Sigmund Freud, The Destiny of Oedipus  

A. E. Haigh, The Irony of Sophocles  

David Wiles, The Chorus as Democrat  

Jean Anouihl, Tragic Destiny 

Patricia M. Lines, What Is Antigone’s Tragic Flaw?  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

A. E. Haigh on Writing, The Style of Sophocles 

THINKING ABOUT GREEK TRAGEDY  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Greek Drama  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SOPHOCLES  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

38  CRITICAL CASEBOOK Shakespeare  

THE THEATER OF SHAKESPEARE  

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE  

A NOTE ON OTHELLO  

PICTURING OTHELLO  

William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice  

THE BACKGROUND OF HAMLET  

PICTURING HAMLET  

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark  

THE BACKGROUND OF A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM  

PICTURING A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream  

CRITICS ON SHAKESPEARE  

Anthony Burgess, An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare  

W. H. Auden, Iago as a Triumphant Villain  

Maud Bodkin, Lucifer in Shakespeare’s Othello  

Virginia Mason Vaughan, Black and White in Othello  

A. C. Bradley, Hamlet’s Melancholy  

Rebecca West, Hamlet and Ophelia  

Edgar Allan Poe, Hamlet as a Fictional Character  

Samuel Johnson, Shakespeare’s Universality 

Clare Asquith, Shakespeare’s Language as a Hidden Political Code  

Germaine Greer, Shakespeare’s “Honest Mirth”  

Linda Bamber, Female Power in A Midsummer Night’s Dream  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

Ben Jonson on Writing, On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare  

UNDERSTANDING SHAKESPEARE  

CHECKLIST: Writing About Shakespeare  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON SHAKESPEARE

Sample Student Paper, Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera?  

 

39  THE MODERN THEATER  

REALISM  

NATURALISM  

SYMBOLISM AND EXPRESSIONISM  

AMERICAN MODERNISM  

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp, revised by Viktoria Michelsen)

Henrik Ibsen on Writing, Correspondence on the Final Scene of A Doll’s House  

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie  

Tennessee Williams on Writing, How to Stage The Glass Menagerie  

 TRAGICOMEDY AND THE ABSURD  

RETURN TO REALISM  

EXPERIMENTAL DRAMA  

Milcha Sanchez-Scott, The Cuban Swimmer  

Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Writing, Writing The Cuban Swimmer  

DOCUMENTARY DRAMA  

Anna Deavere Smith, Scenes from Twilight: Los Angeles

Anna Deavere Smith on Writing, On Documentary Theater

 WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

THINKING ABOUT DRAMATIC REALISM  

CHECKLIST: Writing About a Realist Play  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON REALISM  

Sample Student Paper, Helmer vs. Helmer  

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

 

40  EVALUATING A PLAY  

WRITING EFFECTIVELY  

JUDGING A PLAY  

CHECKLIST: Evaluating a Play  

TOPICS FOR WRITING ON EVALUATION  

 

41  Plays for Further Reading  

David Henry Hwang, The Sound of a Voice  

David Henry Hwang on Writing, Multicultural Theater  

Edward Bok Lee, El Santo Americano  

Edward Bok Lee on Writing, On Being a Korean American Writer  

Jane Martin, Pomp and Circumstance  

Brighde Mullins, Click  

Brighde Mullins on Writing, Advice for Young Playwrights  

August Wilson, Fences  

August Wilson on Writing, A Look into Black America  

 

Writing  

 

42  WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE  

READ ACTIVELY  

Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay  

PLAN YOUR ESSAY  

PREWRITING: GENERATE IDEAS AND ISSUES  

Sample Student Prewriting Exercises  

DEVELOP YOUR ARGUMENT  

STRENGTHEN YOUR ARGUMENT: RHETORICAL APPEALS  

Logical Argumentation and Evidence  

Emotional Argumentation 

Credibility: Tone, Balance, and Organization   

CHECKLIST: Developing an Argument  

DRAFT YOUR ARGUMENT  

Sample Student Paper, Rough Draft  

REVISE YOUR ARGUMENT  

CHECKLIST: Revising Your Argument  

FINAL ADVICE ON REWRITING  

SAMPLE STUDENT ARGUMENT PAPER   

Sample Student Paper, Argument

DOCUMENT SOURCES TO AVOID PLAGIARISM  

THE FORM OF YOUR FINISHED PAPER  

SPELL-CHECK AND GRAMMAR-CHECK PROGRAMS  

Anonymous (after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar), A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers  

 

43  WRITING ABOUT A STORY  

READ ACTIVELY  

THINK ABOUT THE STORY  

PREWRITING: generate ideas and issues

Sample Student Prewriting Exercises   

DRAFT YOUR ARGUMENT

CHECKLIST: Drafting Your Argument

REVISE YOUR DRAFT  

CHECKLIST: Revising Your Argument  

WHAT’S YOUR PURPOSE? COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT FICTION  

Explication  

Sample Student Paper, Explication  

Analysis  

Sample Student Paper, Analysis  

The Card Report   

Sample Student Card Report  

Comparison and Contrast   

Sample Student Paper, Comparison and Contrast  

Response Paper

Sample Student Response Paper

TOPICS FOR WRITING 

 

44  WRITING ABOUT A POEM  

READ ACTIVELY  

Robert Frost, Design  

THINK ABOUT THE POEM  

PREWRITING: generate ideas and issues

Sample Student Prewriting Exercises    

DRAFT YOUR ARGUMENT

CHECKLIST: Drafting your Argument  

REVISE YOUR DRAFT  

CHECKLIST: Revising Your Draft  

COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT POETRY  

Explication  

Sample Student Paper, Explication  

A Critic’s Explication of Frost’s “Design”  

Analysis   

Sample Student Paper, Analysis  

Comparison and Contrast   

Abbie Huston Evans , Wing-Spread  

Sample Student Paper, Comparison and Contrast  

HOW TO QUOTE A POEM  

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

Robert Frost, In White

  

45  WRITING ABOUT A PLAY  

READ CRITICALLY  

COMMON APPROACHES TO WRITING ABOUT DRAMA  

Explication   

Analysis   

Comparison and Contrast   

Card Report   

Sample Student Card Report  

A Drama Review   

Sample Student Drama Review  

HOW TO QUOTE A PLAY  

TOPICS FOR WRITING  

 

46  WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER  

BROWSE THE RESEARCH  

CHOOSE A TOPIC  

BEGIN YOUR RESEARCH  

Reliable Web Sources  

Print Resources  

Online Databases  

CHECKLIST: Finding Reliable Sources  

Visual Images  

CHECKLIST: Using Visual Images  

EVALUATE YOUR SOURCES  

Trustworthy Resources Build Your Paper’s Credibility  

CHECKLIST: Evaluating Your Sources  

ORGANIZE YOUR RESEARCH

CREATE AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

REFINE YOUR THESIS  

ORGANIZE YOUR PAPER  

WRITE AND REVISE

MAINTAIN ACADEMIC INTEGRITY  

What Is Plagiarism?  

Papers for Sale Are Papers that “Fail”  

A Warning Against Internet Plagiarism  

ACKNOWLEDGE ALL SOURCES  

Using Quotations  

Citing Ideas  

DOCUMENT SOURCES USING MLA STYLE  

List of Sources  

Parenthetical References  

Works-Cited List  

Citing Print Sources in MLA Style  

Citing Web Sources in MLA Style  

Sample List of Works Cited  

ENDNOTES AND FOOTNOTES  

Adding Footnotes 

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS  

WRITING ASSIGNMENT FOR A RESEARCH PAPER  

Sample Student Research Paper   

Sample Student Research Paper  

Reference Guide for mla Citations  

 

47  WRITING AS DISCOVERY Keeping a Journal   

THE REWARDS OF KEEPING A JOURNAL  

Sample Journal Entry  

Sample Student Journal  

 

48  WRITING AN ESSAY EXAM  

CHECKLIST: Taking an Essay Exam  

  

49  CRITICAL APPROACHES TO LITERATURE  

FORMALIST CRITICISM  

Cleanth Brooks , The Formalist Critic  

Michael Clark, Light and Darkness in “Sonny’s Blues”  

BIOGRAPHICAL CRITICISM  

Brett C. Millier, On Elizabeth Bishop’s “One Art”  

Emily Toth , The Source for Alcée Laballière in “The Storm”  

HISTORICAL CRITICISM  

Hugh Kenner, Imagism  

Seamus Deane, Joyce’s Vision of Dublin  

PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITICISM 

Sigmund Freud, The Nature of Dreams  

Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in “The Tell-Tale Heart”  

MYTHOLOGICAL CRITICISM  

Carl Jung, The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes  

Edmond Volpe, Myth in Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”  

SOCIOLOGICAL CRITICISM  

Georg Lukacs, Content Determines Form  

Daniel P. Watkins, Money and Labor in “The Rocking-Horse Winner”  

GENDER CRITICISM  

Nina Pelikan Straus , Transformations in The Metamorphosis  

Richard R. Bozorth , “Tell Me the Truth About Love”  

READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM  

Stanley Fish, An Eskimo “A Rose for Emily”  

Robert Scholes, “How Do We Make a Poem?”  

CULTURAL STUDIES  

Mark Bauerlein , What Is Cultural Studies?  

Camille Paglia, A Reading of William Blake’s “The Chimney Sweeper”  

 

TERMS FOR REVIEW  

  

Glossary of Literary Terms  

Literary Credits  

Photo Credits  

Index of Major Themes  

Index of First Lines of Poetry  

Index of Authors and Titles  

Index of Literary Terms  

 

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