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Literature : An Introduction to Reading and Writing,9780131732780
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Literature : An Introduction to Reading and Writing

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131732780

ISBN10:
0131732781
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

How important is writing in your course? When Edgar Roberts taught literature and composition, a large part of his courses involved essay-writing assignments. He dedicated a substantial amount of his class time to explaining how students should prepare their writing assignments. He discovered that the more he described to his students what he wanted, and the more time he spent explaining things, the better the final essays turned out to be. There was a direct correlation between the way he made his assignments and the quality of student work he received. Professor Roberts started to hand out directions to his students, saving him valuable classroom and preparation time. Over the years, he tested each assignment in his own classes. To meet the needs of the literature and composition course, Professor Roberts seamlessly integrated writing-about-literature instruction with a comprehensive literature anthology. The result is the book you hold in your hands. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing is founded on the principles of writing about literature. It is not an afterthought and it is not treated as a separate chapter or appendix; but rather, it is the carefully integrated philosophy of Professor Robertsrs" approach to teaching literature and composition. Also available in a briefer paperback version. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, Compact Third Edition (c) 2006 1648 pp. ISBN 0-13-153435-1

Table of Contents

Topical and Thematic Contents liii
Preface to the Eighth Edition lxix
Introduction: The Process of Reading, Responding to, and Writing About Literature
1(52)
What Is Literature, and Why Do We Study It?
2(1)
Types of Literature: The Genres
2(2)
Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively
4(8)
Guy de Maupassant - The Necklace
4(8)
Reading and Responding in a Notebook or Computer File
12(2)
Writing Essays on Literary Topics
14(1)
Writing Does Not Come Easily---for Anyone
15(1)
The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought
15(1)
Three Major Stages in Thinking and Writing: Discovering Ideas, Making Initial Drafts, and Completing the Essay
16(1)
Discovering Ideas (``Brainstorming'')
17(5)
Assembling Materials and Beginning to Write
22(3)
Drafting Your Essay
25(3)
Writing a First Draft
28(2)
Developing an Outline
30(1)
The Use of References and Quotations in Writing About Literature
31(4)
Illustrative Student Essay (First Draft): How Setting in ``The Necklace'' Is Related to the Character of Mathilde
35(2)
Developing and Strengthening Your Essay Through Revision
37(4)
Checking Development and Organization
41(2)
Using Exact, Comprehensive, and Forceful Language
43(1)
Illustrative Student Essay (Revised Draft): How Maupassant Uses Setting in ``The Necklace'' to Show the Character of Mathilde
44(5)
Essay Commentaries
49(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About the Writing Process
49(4)
READING AND WRITING ABOUT FICTION
Fiction: An Overview
53(59)
Modern Fiction
54(1)
The Short Story
55(1)
Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnee
56(1)
Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme
57(3)
Elements of Fiction III: The Writer's Tools
60(4)
Stories for Study
64(40)
Raymond Carver - Neighbors
65(4)
Edwidge Danticat - Night Talkers
69(12)
William Faulkner - A Rose for Emily
81(6)
Tim O'Brien - The Things They Carried
87(11)
Alice Walker - Everyday Use
98(6)
Plot: The Motivation and Causality of Fiction
104(2)
Writing About the Plot of a Story
106(1)
Illustrative Student Essay: Plot in William Faulkner's ``A Rose for Emily''
107(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Plot in Fiction
111(1)
Structure: The Organization of Stories
112(41)
Formal Categories of Structure
112(2)
Formal and Actual Structure
114(1)
Stories for Study
115(33)
Laurie Colwin - An Old-Fashioned Story
116(9)
Ralph Ellison - Battle Royal
125(9)
Katherine Mansfield - Miss Brill
134(4)
Eudora Welty - A Worn Path
138(5)
Tom Whitecloud - Blue Winds Dancing
143(5)
Writing About Structure in a Story
148(1)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Structure of Eudora Welty's ``A Worn Path''
149(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Structure
152(1)
Characters: The People in Fiction
153(56)
Character Traits
154(1)
How Authors Disclose Character in Literature
155(2)
Types of Characters: Round and Flat
157(2)
Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude
159(1)
Stories for Study
160(41)
William Faulkner - Barn Burning
160(12)
Susan Glaspell - A Jury of Her Peers
172(13)
Joyce Carol Oates - Shopping
185(9)
Amy Tan - Two Kinds
194(7)
Writing About Character
201(3)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Character of the Mother in Amy Tan's ``Two Kinds''
204(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Character
207(2)
Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Work's Narrator or Speaker
209(49)
An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident
210(2)
Conditions That Affect Point of View
212(1)
Determining a Work's Point of View
212(4)
Mingling Points of View
216(1)
Summary: Guidelines for Point of View
216(2)
Stories for Study
218(32)
Alice Adams - The Last Lovely City
218(9)
Ambrose Bierce - An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
227(6)
Ellen Gilchrist - The Song of Songs
233(4)
Shirley Jackson - The Lottery
237(6)
Jamaica Kincaid - What I Have Been Doing Lately
243(2)
Lorrie Moore - How to Become a Writer
245(5)
Writing About Point of View
250(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Bierce's Control over Point of View in ``An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge''
252(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Point of View
256(2)
Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories
258(37)
What Is Setting?
258(1)
The Literary Uses of Setting
259(3)
Stories for Study
262(26)
Sandra Cisneros - The House on Mango Street
262(2)
Walter Van Tilburg Clark - The Portable Phonograph
264(5)
James Joyce - Araby
269(4)
Cynthia Ozick - The Shawl
273(3)
Irwin Shaw - Act of Faith
276(12)
Writing About Setting
288(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Interaction of Story and Setting in James Joyce's ``Araby''
290(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Setting
294(1)
Style: The Words That Tell the Story
295(41)
Diction: The Writer's Choice and Control of Words
296(3)
Rhetoric: The Writer's Choice of Effective Arrangements and Forms
299(2)
Style in General
301(1)
Stories for Study
302(26)
Ernest Hemingway - Soldier's Home
302(5)
Alice Munro - The Found Boat
307(7)
Frank O'Connor - First Confession
314(6)
Mark Twain - Luck
320(3)
John Updike - A & P
323(5)
Writing About Style
328(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Mark Twain's Blending of Style and Purpose in Paragraphs 14 and 15 of ``Luck''
330(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Style
334(2)
Tone: The Expression of Attitude in Fiction
336(44)
Tone and Attitudes
337(1)
Tone and Humor
338(1)
Tone and Irony
339(3)
Stories for Study
342(31)
Kate Chopin - The Story of an Hour
342(2)
Americo Paredes - The Hammon and the Beans
344(4)
Leslie Marmon Silko - Lullaby
348(6)
Mary Yukari Waters - Aftermath
354(7)
Edith Wharton - The Other Two
361(12)
Writing About Tone
373(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Kate Chopin's Use of Irony in ``The Story of an Hour''
375(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Tone
379(1)
Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning
380(58)
Symbolism
380(2)
Allegory
382(2)
Fable, Parable, and Myth
384(1)
Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory
385(1)
Stories for Study
385(39)
Aesop - The Fox and the Grapes
385(1)
Anonymous - The Myth of Atalanta
386(2)
Anita Scott Coleman - Unfinished Masterpieces
388(2)
Gabriel Garcia Marquez - A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings
390(5)
Nathaniel Hawthorne - Young Goodman Brown
395(9)
Franz Kafka - A Hunger Artist
404(5)
St. Luke - The Parable of the Prodigal Son
409(2)
Katherine Anne Porter - The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
411(6)
John Steinbeck - The Chrysanthemums
417(7)
Writing About Symbolism or Allegory
424(3)
Illustrative Student Essay (Symbolism): Symbols of Light and Darkness in ``The Jilting of Granny Weatherall''
427(5)
Illustrative Student Essay (Allegory): The Allegory of Hawthorne's ``Young Goodman Brown''
432(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Symbolism and Allegory
436(2)
Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction
438(62)
Ideas and Assertions
438(1)
Ideas and Issues
439(1)
Ideas and Values
439(1)
The Place of Ideas in Literature
440(1)
How to Find Ideas
441(2)
Stories for Study
443(50)
Toni Cade Bambara - The Lesson
444(5)
Anton Chekhov - The Lady with the Dog
449(10)
Ernest J. Gaines - The Sky Is Gray
459(19)
D. H. Lawrence - The Horse Dealer's Daughter
478(11)
Irene Zabytko - Home Soil
489(4)
Writing About a Major Idea in Fiction
493(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Toni Cade Bambara's Idea of Justice and Economic Equality in ``The Lesson''
495(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Ideas
498(2)
A Career in Fiction: Edgar Allan Poe
500(50)
Poe's Life and Career
500(2)
Poe's Work as a Journalist and Writer of Fiction
502(1)
Poe's Reputation
503(1)
Bibliographical Sources
504(2)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Poe
506(1)
Four Stories by Edgar Allan Poe (in Chronological Order)
506(26)
The Fall of the House of Usher (1839)
507(11)
The Masque of the Red Death (1842)
518(4)
The Black Cat (1843)
522(6)
The Cask of Amontillado (1846)
528(4)
Edited Selections from Criticism of Poe's Stories
532(18)
Poe's Irony
532(1)
The Narrators of ``The Cask of Amontillado'' and ``The Fall of the House of Usher''
533(1)
``The Fall of the House of Usher''
534(1)
``The Black Cat'' and ``The Tell-Tale Heart''
535(1)
``The Masque of the Red Death''
535(1)
Symbolism in ``The Masque of the Red Death''
536(1)
``The Masque of the Red Death'' as Representative of a ``Diseased Age''
536(1)
Sources and Analogues of ``The Cask of Amontillado''
537(6)
Poe's Idea of Unity and ``The Fall of the House of Usher''
543(1)
The Narrators of ``The Cask of Amontillado'' and ``The Black Cat''
544(2)
Poe, Women, and ``The Fall of the House of Usher''
546(2)
The Deceptive Narrator of ``The Black Cat''
548(2)
Ten Stories for Additional Enjoyment and Study
550(73)
Robert Olen Butler - Snow
550(6)
John Chioles - Before the Firing Squad
556(4)
Stephen Crane - The Blue Hotel
560(17)
Stephen Dixon - All Gone
577(7)
Andre Dubus - The Curse
584(4)
Charlotte Perkins Gilman - The Yellow Wallpaper
588(10)
Flannery O'Connor - A Good Man Is Hard to Find
598(10)
Tillie Olsen - I Stand Here Ironing
608(5)
Gaius Petronius Arbiter (Petronius) - The Widow of Ephesus (from The Satyricon, Chs. 108--13)
613(3)
Joy Williams - Taking Care
616(7)
Writing About Literature with the Aid of Research: Writing and Documenting Research Essays on Fiction using extra resources for Understanding
623(36)
Selecting a Topic
624(1)
Setting up a Bibliography
625(2)
Online Library Services
627(2)
Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material
629(8)
Documenting Your Work
637(4)
Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay
641(2)
Illustrative Student Research Essay: The Structure of Mansfield's ``Miss Brill''
643(13)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About How to Undertake Research Essays
656(3)
READING AND WRITING ABOUT POETRY
Meeting Poetry: An Overview
659(29)
The Nature of Poetry
659(4)
Billy Collins - Schoolsville
659(2)
Lisel Mueller - Hope
661(2)
Robert Herrick - Here a Pretty Baby Lies
663(1)
Preliminary Thoughts to Help the Understanding of Poetry
663(1)
Poetry of the English Language
664(1)
How to Read a Poem
665(1)
Studying Poetry
666(3)
Anonymous - Sir Patrick Spens
667(2)
Poems for Study
669(11)
Emily Dickinson - Because I Could Not Stop for Death (J712, F479)
670(1)
Robert Francis - Catch
671(1)
Robert Frost - Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
672(1)
Thomas Hardy - The Man He Killed
673(1)
Joy Harjo - Eagle Poem
674(1)
Randall Jarrell - The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
674(1)
Emma Lazarus - The New Colossus
675(1)
Louis MacNeice - Snow
676(1)
Jim Northrup - Ogichidag
676(1)
Naomi Shihab Nye - Where Children Live
677(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 55: Not Marble, nor the Gilded Monuments
678(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley - To--- (``Music, when Soft Voices Die'')
679(1)
Elaine Terranova - Rush Hour
679(1)
Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem
680(1)
Illustrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy's ``The Man He Killed''
681(1)
Writing an Explication of a Poem
682(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy's ``The Man He Killed''
684(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About the Nature of Poetry
687(1)
Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry
688(36)
Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract
688(1)
Levels of Diction
689(1)
Special Types of Diction
690(3)
Syntax
693(1)
Denotation and Connotation
694(3)
Robert Graves - The Naked and the Nude
695(2)
Poems for Study
697(20)
William Blake - The Lamb
697(1)
Robert Burns - Green Grow the Rashes, O
698(1)
Lewis Carroll - Jabberwocky
699(2)
Hayden Carruth - An Apology for Using the Word ``Heart'' in Too Many Poems
701(1)
E. E. Cummings - next to of course god america i
702(1)
John Donne - Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God
702(1)
Richard Eberhart - The Fury of Aerial Bombardment
703(1)
Bart Edelman - Chemistry Experiment
704(1)
Thomas Gray - Sonnet on the Death of Richard West
705(1)
Jane Hirshfield - The Lives of the Heart
706(1)
A. E. Housman - Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now
707(1)
Carolyn Kizer - Night Sounds
708(1)
Maxine Kumin - Hello, Hello Henry
709(1)
Denise Levertov - Of Being
710(1)
Sylvia Plath - Tulips
711(1)
Henry Reed - Naming of Parts
712(1)
Edwin Arlington Robinson - Richard Cory
713(1)
Theodore Roethke - Dolor
714(1)
Stephen Spender - I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great
715(1)
Wallace Stevens - Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock
716(1)
Mark Strand - Eating Poetry
717(1)
Writing About Diction and Syntax in Poetry
717(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Diction and Character in Robinson's ``Richard Cory''
719(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About the Words of Poetry
722(2)
Characters and Setting: Who, What, Where, and When in Poetry
724(34)
Characters in Poetry
724(6)
Anonymous - Western Wind, When Will Thou Blow?
725(1)
Anonymous - Bonny George Campbell
726(2)
Ben Jonson - Drink to Me, Only, with Thine Eyes
728(1)
Ben Jonson - To the Reader
729(1)
Setting and Character in Poetry
730(1)
Poems for Study
731(20)
Matthew Arnold - Dover Beach
732(1)
William Blake - London
733(1)
Elizabeth Brewster - Where I Come From
733(1)
Robert Browning - My Last Duchess
734(2)
William Cowper - The Poplar Field
736(1)
Louise Gluck - Snowdrops
737(1)
Thomas Gray - Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
737(4)
Thomas Hardy - The Ruined Maid
741(1)
Dorianne Laux - The Life of Trees
742(1)
C. Day Lewis - Song
743(1)
Christopher Marlowe - The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
744(1)
Lisel Mueller - Visiting My Native Country with My American-Born Husband
744(1)
Joyce Carol Oates - Loving
745(1)
Marge Piercy - Wellfleet Sabbath
746(1)
Sir Walter Ralegh - The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd
747(1)
Christina Rossetti - A Christmas Carol
748(1)
Jane Shore - A Letter Sent to Summer
749(1)
James Wright - A Blessing
750(1)
Writing About Character and Setting in Poetry
751(3)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Character of the Duke in Browning's ``My Last Duchess''
754(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Character and Setting in Poetry
757(1)
Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses
758(32)
Responses and the Writer's Use of Detail
758(1)
The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes
759(1)
Types of Imagery
760(5)
John Masefield - Cargoes
760(1)
Wilfred Owen - Anthem for Doomed Youth
761(2)
Elizabeth Bishop - The Fish
763(2)
Poems for Study
765(18)
William Blake - The Tyger
766(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning - Sonnets from the Portuguese, Number 14: If Thou Must Love Me
767(1)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge - Kubla Khan
767(2)
Ray Durem - I Know I'm Not Sufficiently Obscure
769(1)
T. S. Eliot - Preludes
770(2)
Susan Griffin - Love Should Grow Up Like a Wild Iris in the Fields
772(1)
Thomas Hardy - Channel Firing
773(1)
George Herbert - The Pulley
774(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins - Spring
775(1)
A. E. Housman - On Wenlock Edge
776(1)
Denise Levertov - A Time Past
777(1)
Thomas Lux - The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently
778(1)
Micheal O'Siadhail - Abundance
779(1)
Ezra Pound - In a Station of the Metro
780(1)
Friedrich Ruckert - If You Love for the Sake of Beauty
780(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 130: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun
781(1)
James Tate - Dream On
781(2)
Writing About Imagery
783(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Imagery in T. S. Eliot's ``Preludes''
785(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Imagery in Poetry
789(1)
Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry
790(38)
Metaphors and Similes: The Major Figures of Speech
791(1)
Characteristics of Metaphorical Language
792(2)
John Keats - On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
793(1)
Other Figures of Speech
794(4)
John Keats - Bright Star
795(2)
John Gay - Let Us Take the Road
797(1)
Poems for Study
798(20)
Jack Agueros - Sonnet for You, Familiar Famine
799(1)
Robert Burns - A Red, Red Rose
800(1)
John Donne - A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
800(2)
Abbie Huston Evans - The Iceberg Seven-Eighths Under
802(1)
Thomas Hardy - The Convergence of the Twain
802(2)
Joy Harjo - Remember
804(1)
Langston Hughes - Harlem
805(1)
John Keats - To Autumn
806(1)
Maurice Kenny - Legacy
807(1)
Jane Kenyon - Let Evening Come
808(1)
Henry King - Sic Vita
809(1)
Judith Minty - Conjoined
810(1)
Marge Piercy - A Work of Artifice
811(1)
Sylvia Plath - Metaphors
812(1)
Muriel Rukeyser - Looking at Each Other
812(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?
813(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 30: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought
814(1)
Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I - On Monsieur's Departure
815(1)
Mona Van Duyn - Earth Tremors Felt in Missouri
815(1)
Walt Whitman - Facing West from California's Shores
816(1)
William Wordsworth - London, 1802
817(1)
Sir Thomas Wyatt - I Find No Peace
818(1)
Writing About Figures of Speech
818(3)
Illustrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth's Use of Overstatement in ``London, 1802''
821(1)
Illustrative Student Essay: Personification in Hardy's ``The Convergence of the Twain''
822(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Figures of Speech in Poetry
826(2)
Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry
828(40)
Tone, Choice, and Response
829(1)
Cornelius Whur - The First-Rate Wife
829(1)
Tone and the Need for Control
830(2)
Wilfred Owen - Dulce et Decorum Est
830(2)
Tone and Common Grounds of Assent
832(1)
Tone and Irony
832(4)
Thomas Hardy - The Workbox
834(2)
Tone and Satire
836(1)
Alexander Pope - Epigram from the French
836(1)
Alexander Pope - Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog Which I Gave to His Royal Highness
837(1)
Poems for Study
837(24)
William Blake - On Another's Sorrow
838(1)
Jimmy Carter - I Wanted to Share My Father's World
839(1)
Lucille Clifton - homage to my hips
840(1)
Billy Collins - The Names
841(1)
E. E. Cummings - she being Brand /-new
842(2)
Bart Edelman - Trouble
844(1)
Mari Evans - I Am a Black Woman
845(1)
Seamus Heaney - Mid-Term Break
846(1)
William Ernest Henley - When You Are Old
847(1)
Langston Hughes - Theme for English B
847(2)
X. J. Kennedy - John While Swimming in the Ocean
849(1)
Abraham Lincoln - My Childhood's Home
849(1)
Sharon Olds - The Planned Child
850(1)
Robert Pinsky - Dying
851(1)
Alexander Pope - From Epilogue to the Satires, Dialogue I, lines 131--72
852(2)
Salvatore Quasimodo - Auschwitz
854(1)
Anne Ridler - Nothing Is Lost
855(1)
Theodore Roethke - My Papa's Waltz
856(1)
Jonathan Swift - A Description of the Morning
857(1)
David Wagoner - My Physics Teacher
858(1)
C. K. Williams - Dimensions
859(1)
William Butler Yeats - When You Are Old
860(1)
Writing About Tone in Poetry
861(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Confident Tone of ``Theme for English B'' by Langston Hughes
863(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Tone in Poetry
866(2)
Prosody: Sound, Rhythm, and Rhyme in Poetry
868(55)
Important Definitions for Studying Prosody
868(2)
Segments: Individually Meaningful Sounds
870(1)
Poetic Rhythm
871(1)
The Major Metrical Feet
872(3)
Substitution
875(1)
Accentual, Strong-Stress, and ``Sprung'' Rhythms
876(1)
The Caesura: The Pause Creating Variety and Natural Rhythms in Poetry
876(2)
Segmental Poetic Devices
878(1)
Rhyme: The Duplication and Similarity of Sounds
879(1)
Rhyme and Meter
880(3)
Rhyme Schemes
883(1)
Poems for Study
884(28)
Gwendolyn Brooks - We Real Cool
884(1)
Robert Browning - Porphyria's Lover
885(2)
Emily Dickinson - To Hear an Oriole Sing
887(1)
John Donne - The Sun Rising
888(1)
T. S. Eliot - Macavity: The Mystery Cat
889(1)
Ralph Waldo Emerson - Concord Hymn
890(1)
Isabella Gardner - At a Summer Hotel
891(1)
Robert Herrick - Upon Julia's Voice
892(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins - God's Grandeur
892(1)
Langston Hughes - Let America Be America Again
893(2)
John Hall Ingham - George Washington
895(1)
Philip Levine - A Theory of Prosody
896(1)
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - The Sound of the Sea
897(1)
Herman Melville - Shiloh: A Requiem
897(1)
Ogden Nash - Very Like a Whale
898(2)
Edgar Allan Poe - Annabel Lee
900(1)
Edgar Allan Poe - The Bells
901(3)
Alexander Pope - From An Essay on Man, Epistle I, lines 17--90
904(2)
Wyatt Prunty - March
906(1)
Edwin Arlington Robinson - Miniver Cheevy
906(2)
Percy Bysshe Shelley - Ode to the West Wind
908(2)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson - From Idylls of the King: The Passing of Arthur, lines 344--93
910(1)
David Wagoner - March for a One-Man Band
911(1)
Writing About Prosody
912(4)
Illustrative Student Essay: Rhyme, Rhythm, and Sound in Browning's ``Porphyria's Lover''
916(5)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Rhythm and Rhyme in Poetry
921(2)
Form: The Shape of the Poem
923(44)
Closed-Form Poetry
923(8)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson - The Eagle
925(4)
Anonymous - Spun in High, Dark Clouds
929(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds
930(1)
Open-Form Poetry
931(2)
Walt Whitman - Reconciliation
932(1)
Visual and Concrete Poetry
933(2)
George Herbert - Easter Wings
934(1)
Poems for Study
935(25)
Elizabeth Bishop - One Art
936(1)
Billy Collins - Sonnet
937(1)
E. E. Cummings - Buffalo Bill's Defunct
938(1)
John Dryden - To the Memory of Mr. Oldham
938(1)
Carolyn Forche - The Colonel
939(1)
Robert Frost - Desert Places
940(1)
Allen Ginsberg - A Supermarket in California
941(1)
Nikki Giovanni - Nikki-Rosa
942(1)
Robert Hass - Museum
943(1)
George Herbert - Virtue
944(1)
William Heyen - Mantle
945(1)
John Hollander - Swan and Shadow
946(1)
John Keats - Ode to a Nightingale
947(2)
Claude McKay - In Bondage
949(1)
John Milton - On His Blindness (When I Consider How My Light Is Spent)
950(1)
Dudley Randall - Ballad of Birmingham
951(1)
Theodore Roethke - The Waking
952(1)
George William Russell (``Æ'') - Continuity
953(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 73: That Time of Year Thou May'st in Me Behold
954(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley - Ozymandias
955(1)
May Swenson - Women
956(1)
Dylan Thomas - Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
957(1)
Jean Toomer - Reapers
957(1)
Charles Harper Webb - The Shape of History
958(1)
Phyllis Webb - Poetics Against the Angel of Death
959(1)
William Carlos Williams - The Dance
960(1)
Writing About Form in Poetry
960(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Form and Meaning in George Herbert's ``Virtue''
962(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Poetic Form
966(1)
Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning
967(40)
Symbolism and Meanings
967(3)
Virginia Scott - Snow
969(1)
The Function of Symbolism in Poetry
970(2)
Allusions and Meaning
972(1)
Studying for Symbols and Allusions
973(1)
Poems for Study
974(26)
Emily Bronte - No Coward Soul Is Mine
975(1)
Amy Clampitt - Beach Glass
976(2)
Arthur Hugh Clough - Say Not the Struggle Nought Availeth
978(1)
Peter Davison - Delphi
979(1)
John Donne - The Canonization
980(1)
Stephen Dunn - Hawk
981(1)
Isabella Gardner - Collage of Echoes
982(1)
Louise Gluck - Celestial Music
983(1)
Jorie Graham - The Geese
984(1)
Thomas Hardy - In Time of ``The Breaking of Nations''
985(1)
George Herbert - The Collar
986(1)
Josephine Jacobsen - Tears
987(2)
Robinson Jeffers - The Purse-Seine
989(1)
John Keats - La Belle Dame Sans Merci: A Ballad
990(2)
X. J. Kennedy - Old Men Pitching Horseshoes
992(1)
Ted Kooser - Year's End
993(1)
David Lehman - Venice Is Sinking
993(1)
Andrew Marvell - To His Coy Mistress
994(2)
Mary Oliver - Wild Geese
996(1)
Judith Viorst - A Wedding Sonnet for the Next Generation
996(1)
Walt Whitman - A Noiseless Patient Spider
997(1)
Richard Wilbur - Year's End
998(1)
William Butler Yeats - The Second Coming
999(1)
Writing About Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry
1000(3)
Illustrative Student Essay: Symbolism and Allusion in Yeats's ``The Second Coming''
1003(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry
1006(1)
Myths: Systems of Symbolic Allusion in Poetry
1007(40)
Mythology as an Explanation of How Things Are
1007(3)
Mythology and Literature
1010(5)
William Butler Yeats - Leda and the Swan
1012(1)
Mona Van Duyn - Leda
1013(2)
Six Poems Related to the Myth of Odysseus
1015(1)
Poems for Study
1015(6)
Louise Gluck - Penelope's Song
1015(1)
W. S. Merwin - Odysseus
1016(1)
Dorothy Parker - Penelope
1017(1)
Linda Pastan - The Suitor
1018(1)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson - Ulysses
1018(2)
Peter Ulisse - Odyssey: 20 Years Later
1020(1)
Six Poems Related to the Myth of Icarus
1021(1)
Poems for Study
1022(5)
Brian Aldiss - Flight 063
1022(1)
W. H. Auden - Musee des Beaux Arts
1023(1)
Edward Field - Icarus
1024(1)
Muriel Rukeyser - Waiting for Icarus
1025(1)
Anne Sexton - To a Friend Whose Work Has Come to Triumph
1025(1)
William Carlos Williams - Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
1026(1)
Four Poems Related to the Myth of Orpheus
1027(1)
Poems for Study
1028(5)
Edward Hirsch - The Swimmers
1028(1)
Rainer Maria Rilke - The Sonnets to Orpheus: I.19
1029(1)
Mark Strand - Orpheus Alone
1030(1)
Ellen Bryant Voigt - Song and Story
1031(2)
Three Poems Related to the Myth of the Phoenix
1033(1)
Poems for Study
1033(3)
Amy Clampitt - Berceuse
1033(1)
Denise Levertov - Hunting the Phoenix
1034(1)
May Sarton - The Phoenix Again
1035(1)
Two Poems Related to the Myth of Oedipus
1036(1)
Poems for Study
1036(2)
Muriel Rukeyser - Myth
1037(1)
John Updike - On the Way to Delphi
1037(1)
Two Poems Related to the Myth of Pan
1038(1)
Poems for Study
1038(2)
E. E. Cummings - in Just
1039(1)
John Chipman Farrar - Song for a Forgotten Shrine to Pan
1040(1)
Writing About Myths in Poetry
1040(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Myth and Meaning in Dorothy Parker's ``Penelope''
1042(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Myths in Poetry
1045(2)
Meaning: Idea and Theme in Poetry
1047(112)
Meaning, Power, and Poetic Thought
1047(2)
Issues in Determining the Meaning of Poems
1049(1)
Meaning and Poetic Techniques
1050(4)
Judith Viorst - True Love
1053(1)
Poems for Study
1054(69)
Robert Creeley - ``Do you think . . .''
1055(1)
Carl Dennis - The God Who Loves You
1056(1)
John Dryden - A Song for St. Cecilia's Day
1057(2)
Donald Hall - Whip-poor-will
1059(1)
Robert Herrick - To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time
1060(1)
Langston Hughes - The Negro Speaks of Rivers
1061(1)
Ben Jonson - To Celia
1062(1)
Donald Justice - On the Death of Friends in Childhood
1062(1)
John Keats - Ode on a Grecian Urn
1063(2)
Philip Larkin - Next, Please
1065(50)
The Bustle in a House (J1078, F1108)
1115(1)
The Heart Is the Capital of the Mind (J1354, F1381)
1115(1)
I Cannot Live with You (J640, F706)
1115(1)
I Died for Beauty -- but Was Scarce (J449, F448)
1116(1)
I Dwell in Possibility (F466, J657)
1117(1)
I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (J280, F340)
1117(1)
I Heard a Fly Buzz -- When I Died (J465, F591)
1117(1)
I Like to See It Lap the Miles (J585, F383)
1118(1)
I'm Nobody! Who Are You? (J288, F260)
1118(1)
I Never Lost as Much but Twice (J49, F39)
1119(1)
I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed (J214, F207)
1119(1)
Much Madness Is Divinest Sense (J435, F620)
1119(1)
My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (J1732, F1773)
1120(1)
My Triumph Lasted Till the Drums (J1227, F1212)
1120(1)
One Need Not Be a Chamber -- To Be Haunted (J670, F407)
1120(1)
Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers (J216, F124)
1121(1)
Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church (J324, F236)
1121(1)
The Soul Selects Her Own Society (J303, F409)
1121(1)
Success Is Counted Sweetest (J67, F112)
1122(1)
Tell All the Truth but Tell It Slant (J1129, F1263)
1122(1)
There's a Certain Slant of Light (J258, F320)
1122
To Hear an Oriole Sing (J526, F402) (in Chapter 19)
887(236)
Wild Nights -- Wild Nights! (J249, F269)
1123(1)
Edited Selections from Criticism of Dickinson's Poems
1123(20)
From ``The Flower, the Bee, and the Spider''
1123(3)
From ``Orthodox Modernisms''
1126(5)
From ``The Landscape of the Spirit''
1131(3)
From ``The American Plain Style''
1134(2)
From ``The Histrionic Imagination''
1136(2)
From ``The Gothic Mode: `Tis so appalling -- it exhilarates --' ``
1138(5)
Robert Frost (1874--1963)
1143(5)
Life and Work
1143(3)
Poetic Characteristics
1146(1)
Poetic Subjects
1147(1)
Bibliographic Sources
1147(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Robert Frost
1148(1)
Eighteen Poems by Robert Frost (in Chronological Order)
1148(2)
A Line-Storm Song (1913)
1149(1)
The Tuft of Flowers (1913)
1150(1)
Mending Wall (1914)
1151(1)
Birches (1915)
1152(1)
The Road Not Taken (1915)
1153(1)
``Out, Out---'' (1916)
1153(1)
The Oven Bird (1916)
1154(1)
Fire and Ice (1920)
1154
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923) (in Chapter 13)
672(483)
Misgiving (1923)
1155(1)
Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923)
1155(1)
Acquainted with the Night (1928)
1155
Desert Places (1936) (in Chapter 20)
940(216)
Design (1936)
1156(1)
The Silken Tent (1936)
1156(1)
The Gift Outright (1941)
1156(1)
A Considerable Speck (1942)
1157(1)
Take Something Like a Star (1943)
1158(1)
One Hundred Twenty-Three Poems for Additional Enjoyment and Study
1159(97)
Maya Angelou - My Arkansas
1162(1)
Anonymous - Barbara Allan
1163(1)
Anonymous (Navajo) - Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant
1164(1)
Anonymous - Lord Randal
1164(1)
Anonymous - The Three Ravens
1165(1)
Margaret Atwood - Variation on the Word Sleep
1166(1)
W. H. Auden - The Unknown Citizen
1167(1)
Wendell Berry - Another Descent
1168(1)
Louise Bogan - Women
1168(1)
Arna Bontemps - A Black Man Talks of Reaping
1169(1)
Anne Bradstreet - To My Dear and Loving Husband
1169(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks - Primer for Blacks
1170(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning - Sonnets from the Portuguese: Number 43, How Do I Love Thee?
1171(1)
Robert Browning - Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister
1172(2)
William Cullen Bryant - To Cole, the Painter, Departing for Europe
1174(1)
George Gordon, Lord Byron - The Destruction of Sennacherib
1174(1)
Lucille Clifton - this morning (for the girls of eastern high school)
1175(1)
Lucille Clifton - the poet
1176(1)
Leonard Cohen - ``The killers that run . . .''
1176(1)
Billy Collins - Days
1177(1)
Frances Cornford - From a Letter to America on a Visit to Sussex: Spring 1942
1177(1)
Stephen Crane - Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind
1178(1)
E. E. Cummings - if there are any heavens
1179(1)
James Dickey - Kudzu
1179(2)
James Dickey - The Lifeguard
1181(2)
James Dickey - The Performance
1183(1)
John Donne - The Good Morrow
1184(1)
John Donne - Holy Sonnet 10: Death Be Not Proud
1185(1)
John Donne - A Hymn to God the Father
1185(1)
Paul Laurence Dunbar - Sympathy
1186(1)
T. S. Eliot - The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
1186(4)
James Emanuel - The Negro
1190(1)
Lynn Emanuel - Like God
1190(1)
Chief Dan George - The Beauty of the Trees
1191(1)
Nikki Giovanni - Woman
1192(1)
Marilyn Hacker - Sonnet Ending with a Film Subtitle
1192(1)
John Haines - Little Cosmic Dust Poem
1193(1)
Donald Hall - Scenic View
1193(1)
Daniel Halpern - Snapshot of Hue
1194(1)
Daniel Halpern - Summer in the Middle Class
1194(1)
H. S. (Sam) Hamod - Leaves
1195(1)
Frances E. W. Harper - She's Free!
1196(1)
Michael S. Harper - Called
1197(1)
Robert Hass - Spring Rain
1198(1)
Robert Hayden - Those Winter Sundays
1198(1)
George Herbert - Love (III)
1199(1)
William Heyen - The Hair: Jacob Korman's Story
1199(1)
A. D. Hope - Advice to Young Ladies
1200(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins - Pied Beauty
1201(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins - The Windhover
1201(1)
Carolina Hospital - Dear Tia
1202(1)
Julia Ward Howe - Battle Hymn of the Republic
1202(1)
Langston Hughes - Negro
1203(1)
Robinson Jeffers - The Answer
1204(1)
Galway Kinnell - After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
1204(1)
Irving Layton - Rhine Boat Trip
1205(1)
Li-Young Lee - A Final Thing
1205(2)
Alan P. Lightman - In Computers
1207(1)
Liz Lochhead - The Choosing
1207(1)
Audre Lorde - Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem
1208(1)
Amy Lowell - Patterns
1209(2)
Heather McHugh - Lines
1211(1)
Claude McKay - The White City
1212(1)
W. S. Merwin - Listen
1212(1)
Edna St. Vincent Millay - What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, and Where, and Why
1213(1)
N. Scott Momaday - The Bear
1213(1)
Lisel Mueller - Alive Together
1214(1)
Howard Nemerov - Life Cycle of Common Man
1215(1)
Jim Northrup - wahbegan
1216(1)
Mary Oliver - Ghosts
1217(1)
Simon Ortiz - A Story of How a Wall Stands
1218(1)
Linda Pastan - Marks
1219(1)
Marge Piercy - The Secretary Chant
1219(1)
Marge Piercy - Will We Work Together?
1220(1)
Sylvia Plath - Mirror
1221(1)
Edgar Allan Poe - The Raven
1221(3)
Katha Pollitt - Archaeology
1224(1)
John Crowe Ransom - Bells for John Whiteside's Daughter
1225(1)
John Raven - Assailant
1225(1)
Adrienne Rich - Diving into the Wreck
1226(2)
Alberto Rios - The Vietnam Wall
1228(1)
Theodore Roethke - The Light Comes Brighter
1229(1)
Luis Omar Salinas - In a Farmhouse
1229(1)
Sonia Sanchez - rite on: white america
1230(1)
Carl Sandburg - Chicago
1231(1)
Siegfried Sassoon - Dreamers
1231(1)
Gjertrud Schnackenberg - The Paperweight
1232(1)
Alan Seeger - I Have a Rendezvous with Death
1232(1)
Brenda Serotte - My Mother's Face
1233(1)
William Shakespeare - Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun
1234(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes
1234(1)
William Shakespeare - Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth
1235(1)
Karl Shapiro - Auto Wreck
1235(1)
Leslie Marmon Silko - Where Mountain Lion Lay Down with Deer
1236(1)
Dave Smith - Bluejays
1237(1)
Stevie Smith - Not Waving but Drowning
1237(1)
W. D. Snodgrass - These Trees Stand . . .
1238(1)
Gary Soto - Oranges
1238(2)
Gary Soto - Kearney Park
1240(1)
William Stafford - Traveling Through the Dark
1240(1)
Gerald Stern - Burying an Animal on the Way to New York
1241(1)
Wallace Stevens - The Emperor of Ice-Cream
1241(1)
May Swenson - Question
1242(1)
Dylan Thomas - A Refusal to Mourn the Death, by Fire, of a Child in London
1242(1)
Daniel Tobin - My Uncle's Watch
1243(1)
Chase Twichell - Blurry Cow
1244(1)
John Updike - Perfection Wasted
1244(1)
Tino Villanueva - Day-Long Day
1245(1)
Shelly Wagner - The Boxes
1246(1)
Alice Walker - Revolutionary Petunias
1247(1)
Edmund Waller - Go, Lovely Rose
1248(1)
Robert Penn Warren - Heart of Autumn
1248(1)
Bruce Weigl - Song of Napalm
1249(1)
Phillis Wheatley - On Being Brought from Africa to America
1250(1)
Walt Whitman - Beat! Beat! Drums!
1250(1)
Walt Whitman - Dirge for Two Veterans
1251(1)
Walt Whitman - Full of Life Now
1252(1)
Walt Whitman - I Hear America Singing
1252(1)
John Greenleaf Whittier - The Bartholdi Statue
1252(1)
Richard Wilbur - April 5, 1974
1253(1)
William Carlos Williams - The Red Wheelbarrow
1254(1)
William Butler Yeats - The Wild Swans at Coole
1254(1)
Paul Zimmer - The Day Zimmer Lost Religion
1255(1)
Writing About Literature with the Aid of Research: Writing Research Essays on Poetry: Using Extra Resources for Understanding
1256(9)
Topics to Discover in Research
1256(2)
Illustrative Student Research Essay: ``Beat! Beat! Drums!'' and ``I Hear America Singing'': Two Whitman Poems Spanning the Civil War
1258(7)
READING AND WRITING ABOUT DRAMA
The Dramatic Vision: An Overview
1265(81)
Drama as Literature
1265(7)
Performance: The Unique Aspect of Drama
1272(4)
Drama from Ancient Times to Our Own: Tragedy, Comedy, and Additional Forms
1276(6)
Anonymous - The Visit to the Sepulcher (Visitatio Sepulchri)
1278(4)
Reading Plays
1282(1)
Plays for Study
1283(54)
Edward Albee - The Sandbox
1283(7)
Susan Glaspell - Trifles
1290(11)
Betty Keller - Tea Party
1301(5)
Eugene O'Neill - Before Breakfast
1306(7)
The ``Wakefield Master'' ~ The Second Shepherds' Play
1313(24)
Writing About the Elements of Drama
1337(4)
Illustrative Student Essay: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Negative Descriptions and Stage Directions in Before Breakfast as a Means of Revealing Character
1341(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About the Elements of Drama
1344(2)
The Tragic Vision: Affirmation Through Loss
1346(233)
The Origins of Tragedy
1347(2)
The Ancient Competitions in Tragedy
1349(2)
Aristotle and the Nature of Tragedy
1351(5)
Irony in Tragedy
1356(1)
The Ancient Athenian Audience and Theater
1357(3)
Ancient Greek Tragic Actors and Their Costumes
1360(1)
Performance and the Formal Organization of Greek Tragedy
1360(2)
Plays for Study
1362(37)
Sophocles - Oedipus the King
1362(37)
Renaissance Drama and Shakespeare's Theater
1399(105)
William Shakespeare - The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
1403(101)
Tragedy from Shakespeare to Arthur Miller
1504(66)
Arthur Miller - Death of a Salesman
1505(65)
Writing About Tragedy
1570(1)
An Essay About a Problem
1570(3)
Illustrative Student Essay: The Problem of Hamlet's Apparent Delay
1573(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Tragedy
1577(2)
The Comic Vision: Restoring the Balance
1579(117)
The Origins of Comedy
1579(3)
Comedy from Roman Times to the Renaissance
1582(1)
The Patterns, Characters, and Language of Comedy
1583(2)
Types of Comedy
1585(2)
Plays for Study
1587(55)
William Shakespeare - A Midsummer Night's Dream
1588(54)
The Theater of Moliere
1642(20)
Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) - Love Is the Doctor (L'Amour Medecin)
1644(18)
Comedy from Moliere to the Present
1662(26)
Anton Chekhov - The Bear, A Joke in One Act
1663(10)
Beth Henley - Am I Blue
1673(15)
Writing About Comedy
1688(3)
Illustrative Student Essay: Setting as Symbol and Comic Structure in A Midsummer Night's Dream
1691(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Comedy
1694(2)
Visions of Dramatic Reality and Nonreality: Varying the Idea of Drama as Imitation
1696(147)
Realism and Nonrealism in Drama
1696(3)
Elements of Realistic and Nonrealistic Drama
1699(2)
Plays for Study
1701(135)
Langston Hughes - Mulatto
1702(24)
Tennessee Williams - The Glass Menagerie
1726(48)
Lorraine Hansberry - A Raisin in the Sun
1774(62)
Writing About Realistic and Nonrealistic Drama
1836(2)
Illustrative Student Essay: Realism and Nonrealism in Tom's Triple Role in The Glass Menagerie
1838(3)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Dramatic Reality and Nonreality
1841(2)
Dramatic Vision and the Motion Picture Camera: Drama on the Silver Screen, Television Set, and Computer Monitor
1843(24)
A Thumbnail History of Film
1843(1)
Stage Plays and Film
1844(2)
The Aesthetics of Film
1846(1)
The Techniques of Film
1846(5)
Two Film Scenes for Study
1851(10)
Orson Welles and Herman J. Mankiewicz - Shot 71 of the Shooting Script of Citizen Kane
1851(4)
Arthur Laurents - A Scene from The Turning Point
1855(6)
Writing About Film
1861(1)
Illustrative Student Essay: Welles's Citizen Kane: Whittling a Giant Down to Size
1862(4)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Film
1866(1)
A Career in Drama: Henrik Ibsen
1867(128)
Ibsen's Life and Early Work
1867(1)
Ibsen's Prose Plays
1868(1)
Two of Ibsen's Most Significant Realistic Prose Plays
1869(1)
Ibsen and the ``Well-Made Play''
1870(1)
Ibsen's Timeliness and Dramatic Power
1871(1)
Bibliographic Studies
1872(1)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Ibsen
1873(1)
Two Plays by Henrik Ibsen (in Chronological Order)
1873(103)
A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem) (1879)
1873(49)
An Enemy of the People (En Folkefiende) (1882)
1922(54)
Edited Selections from Criticism of Ibsen's Drama
1976(19)
Freedom, Truth, and Society---Rhetoric and Reality
1977(4)
The Story Behind An Enemy of the People
1981(4)
Ibsen's Feminist Characters
1985(4)
From ``A Marxist Approach to A Doll House''
1989(2)
The Character of Dr. Stockmann in An Enemy of the People
1991(4)
Writing About Literature with the Aid of Research: Writing Research Essays on Drama: Using Extra Resources for Understanding
1995(16)
Topics to Discover in Research
1995(2)
Illustrative Student Research Essay: The Ghost in Hamlet
1997(14)
SPECIAL WRITING TOPICS ABOUT LITERATURE
Critical Approaches Important in the Study of Literature
2011(23)
Moral/Intellectual
2012(2)
Topical/Historical
2014(2)
New Critical/Formalist
2016(2)
Structuralist
2018(3)
Feminist Criticism/Gender Studies/Queer Theory
2021(2)
Economic Determinist/Marxist
2023(2)
Psychological/Psychoanalytic
2025(2)
Archetypal/Symbolic/Mythic
2027(2)
Deconstructionist
2029(2)
Reader-Response
2031(3)
Comparison-Contrast and Extended Comparison-Contrast: Learning by Seeing Literary Works Together
2034(17)
Guidelines for the Comparison-Contrast Method
2035(3)
The Extended Comparison-Contrast Essay
2038(1)
Writing a Comparison-Contrast Essay
2039(2)
Illustrative Student Essay (Two Works): The Treatment of Responses to War in Amy Lowell's ``Patterns'' and Wilfred Owen's ``Anthem for Doomed Youth''
2041(4)
Illustrative Student Essay (Extended Comparison-Contrast): Literary Treatments of the Conflicts Between Private and Public Life
2045(5)
Special Topics for Writing and Argument About Comparison and Contrast
2050(1)
Writing Examinations on Literature
2051(11)
Answer the Questions That Are Asked
2051(2)
Systematic Preparation
2053(3)
Two Basic Types of Questions About Literature
2056(6)
Appendix A: MLA Recommendations for Documenting Sources 2062(6)
Appendix B: Brief Biographies of the Poets in Part III 2068(37)
A Glossary of Important Literary Terms 2105(26)
Credits 2131(10)
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines 2141


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