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Literature and the Writing Process

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131891029

ISBN10:
0131891022
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $83.80

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Summary

A literature anthology, rhetoric, and handbook in one. Every chapter of this anthology includes coverage of the writing process to help students write more successfully about literature. The process-oriented instruction shows students how to use writing as a way of studying literature and provides students with the tools to analyze literature on their own. New to this edition: bull; New photographs and images chosen to enhance understanding and appreciation of literature Expanded, updated discussion of researched writing (Chapter 17) Further instruction on the elements of argument and arguing an interpretation (Chapter 2) A new casebook on the poetry and prose of Langston Hughes

Table of Contents

Contents by Genre xxvii
Thematic Contents xxxiii
Preface xxxix
Part I Composing: An Overview
1(54)
The Prewriting Process
3(14)
Reading for Writing
3(4)
James Joyce, ``Eveline''
3(4)
Who Are My Readers?
7(1)
Analyze the Audience
7(1)
Prewriting Exercise
7(1)
Why Am I Writing?
8(1)
Reasons for Writing
8(1)
Prewriting Exercise
8(1)
What Ideas Should I Use?
9(1)
Reading and Thinking Critically
9(1)
Discovering and Developing Ideas
10(5)
Self-Questioning
10(1)
Directed Freewriting
11(1)
Figure 1-1 Directed Freewriting
12(1)
Problem Solving
13(1)
Clustering
13(1)
Figure 1-2 Clustering
14(1)
What Point Should I Make?
15(1)
Relate a Part to the Whole
15(1)
How Do I Find the Theme?
15(2)
Stating the Thesis
16(1)
The Writing Process
17(15)
How Should I Organize My Ideas?
17(1)
Arguing Your Interpretation
17(4)
The Elements of Good Argument
17(2)
Building an Effective Argument
19(1)
Arranging the Ideas
20(1)
Chart 2-1 Checklist for Arguing an Interpretation
20(1)
Developing with Details
21(1)
Questions for Consideration
21(1)
Maintaining a Critical Focus
22(1)
Distinguishing Critical Comments from Plot Details
22(1)
How Should I Begin?
22(2)
Postpone If Nothing Comes
23(1)
Write an Appealing Opening
23(1)
State the Thesis
23(1)
How Should I End?
24(1)
Relate the Discussion to Theme
24(1)
Postpone or Write Ahead
24(1)
Write an Emphatic Final Sentence
24(1)
Composing the First Draft
25(1)
Pausing to Rescan
25(1)
Quoting from Your Sources
25(1)
Sample Student Paper: First Draft
26(4)
Suggestions for Writing
30(1)
Ideas for Writing
31(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
31(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
31(1)
The Rewriting Process
32(23)
What Is Revision?
32(1)
Getting Feedback: Peer Review
33(2)
Revising in Peer Groups
33(1)
Chart 3-1 Peer Evaluation Checklist for Revision
34(1)
What Should I Add or Take Out?
35(3)
Outlining After the First Draft
35(1)
Making the Outline
35(1)
Checking the Outline
35(1)
Sample After-Writing Outline
36(1)
Examining the Sample Outline
37(1)
Outlining Exercise
37(1)
What Should I Rearrange?
38(1)
Does It Flow?
39(1)
What Is Editing?
40(1)
What Sentences Should I Combine?
40(3)
Chart 3-2 Transitional Terms for All Occasions
41(1)
Chart 3-3 Revising Checklist
41(1)
Combining for Conciseness
41(1)
Sentence Combining Exercise
42(1)
Rearranging for Emphasis and Variety
43(1)
Varying the Pattern
43(1)
Exercise on Style
44(1)
Which Words Should I Change?
44(4)
Check Your Verbs
44(1)
Exercise on Word Choice
45(1)
Use Active Voice Most of the Time
45(1)
Use Passive If Appropriate
46(1)
Exercise on Passive Voice
46(1)
Feel the Words
46(1)
Attend to Tone
47(1)
Use Formal Language
47(1)
What Is Proofreading?
48(1)
Try Reading It Backward
48(1)
Look for Your Typical Errors
48(1)
Chart 3-4 Proofreading Checklist
49(1)
Read the Paper Aloud
49(1)
Find a Friend to Help
49(1)
Sample Student Paper: Final Draft
49(6)
Part II Writing About Short Fiction
55(97)
How Do I Read Short Fiction?
57(6)
Notice the Structure
57(1)
Subplots
58(1)
Consider Point of View and Setting
58(1)
Study the Characters
59(1)
Foils
59(1)
Look for Specialized Literary Techniques
60(1)
Examine the Title
60(1)
Investigate the Author's Life and Times
61(1)
Continue Questioning to Discover Theme
61(2)
Chart 4-1 Critical Questions for Reading the Short Story
61(2)
Writing About Structure
63(18)
What Is Structure?
63(1)
How Do I Discover Structure?
64(1)
Looking at Structure
64(12)
Tim O'Brien, ``The Things They Carried''
64(12)
Prewriting
76(1)
Finding Patterns
76(1)
Writing
77(1)
Grouping Details
77(1)
Relating Details to Theme
78(1)
Ideas for Writing
78(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
78(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
78(1)
For Further Reading and Research
79(1)
Rewriting
79(2)
Integrating Quotations Gracefully
79(1)
Exercise on Integrating Quotations
80(1)
Writing About Imagery and Symbolism
81(23)
What Are Images?
81(1)
What Are Symbols?
82(1)
Archetypal Symbols
82(1)
Phallic and Yonic Symbols
82(1)
How Will I Recognize Symbols?
83(1)
Reference Works on Symbols
83(1)
Looking at Images and Symbols
83(6)
Shirley Jackson, ``The Lottery''
83(6)
Prewriting
89(1)
Interpreting Symbols
89(1)
Writing
90(1)
Producing a Workable Thesis
90(1)
Exercise on Thesis Statements
90(1)
Ideas for Writing
91(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
91(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
91(1)
For Further Reading and Research
92(1)
Rewriting
92(1)
Sharpening the Introduction
92(1)
Sample Student Papers: Second and Final Drafts
93(11)
Writing About Point of View
104(12)
What Is Point of View?
104(2)
Describing Point of View
105(1)
Looking at Point of View
106(6)
Alice Walker, ``Everyday Use''
106(6)
Prewriting
112(1)
Analyzing Point of View
113(1)
Writing
113(1)
Relating Point of View to Theme
113(1)
Ideas for Writing
114(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
114(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
114(1)
For Further Reading and Research
114(1)
Rewriting
115(1)
Sharpening the Conclusion
115(1)
Writing About Setting and Atmosphere
116(17)
What Are Setting and Atmosphere?
116(1)
Looking at Setting and Atmosphere
117(10)
Tobias Wolff, ``Hunters in the Snow''
117(10)
Prewriting
127(1)
Prewriting Exercise
127(1)
Writing
128(1)
Discovering an Organization
128(1)
Ideas for Writing
129(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
129(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
129(1)
For Further Reading and Research
129(1)
Rewriting: Organization and Style
130(3)
Checking Your Organization
130(1)
Improving the Style: Balanced Sentences
130(1)
Sentence Modeling Exercise
131(2)
Writing About Theme
133(19)
What Is Theme?
133(1)
Looking at Theme
134(13)
Flannery O'Connor, ``Good Country People''
134(13)
Prewriting
147(1)
Figuring Out Theme
147(1)
Stating the Theme
147(1)
Writing
148(1)
Choosing Supporting Details
148(1)
Ideas for Writing
149(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
149(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
149(1)
For Further Reading and Research
149(1)
Rewriting
150(1)
Achieving Coherence
150(1)
Checking for Coherence
150(1)
Editing: Improving Connections
150(2)
Repeat Words and Synonyms
150(1)
Try Parallel Structure
151(1)
CASEBOOK Joyce Carol Oates's ``Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?''
152(17)
Joyce Carol Oates (1938-- ), ``Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?''
152(12)
The Story's Origins
164(1)
Four Critical Interpretations
165(4)
Topics for Discussion and Writing
167(1)
For Further Reading and Research
168(1)
Anthology of Short Fiction
169(224)
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804--1864)
``The Birthmark''
169(10)
Edgar Allan Poe (1809--1849)
``The Cask of Amontillado''
179(5)
Kate Chopin (1851--1904)
``Desiree's Baby''
184(4)
``The Story of an Hour''
188(2)
Edith Wharton (1862--1937)
``Roman Fever''
190(9)
Willa Cather (1873--1947)
``Paul's Case''
199(13)
Sherwood Anderson (1876--1941)
``Hands''
212(4)
James Joyce (1882--1941)
``Araby''
216(4)
D. H. Lawrence (1885--1930)
``The Rocking-Horse Winner''
220(10)
Katherine Anne Porter (1890--1980)
``The Jilting of Granny Weatherall''
230(7)
Zora Neale Hurston (c. 1891--1960)
``The Gilded Six-Bits''
237(8)
William Faulkner (1897--1962)
``A Rose for Emily''
245(6)
Ernest Hemingway (1899--1961)
``Hills Like White Elephants''
251(4)
John Steinbeck (1902--1968)
``The Chrysanthemums''
255(7)
Frank O'Connor (1903--1966)
``My Oedipus Complex''
262(8)
Richard Wright (1908--1960)
``The Man Who Was Almost a Man''
270(8)
Ann Petry (1908--1997)
``Like a Winding Sheet''
278(6)
Eudora Welty (1909--2001)
``A Worn Path''
284(6)
Irwin Shaw (1913--1984)
``The Girls in Their Summer Dresses''
290(4)
Tillie Olsen (1913-- )
``I Stand Here Ironing''
294(6)
Hisaye Yamamoto (1921-- )
``Seventeen Syllables''
300(8)
Flannery O'Connor (1925--1964)
``A Good Man Is Hard to Find''
308(10)
Ursula K. Le Guin (1929-- )
``The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas''
318(5)
Chinua Achebe (1930-- )
``Dead Men's Path''
323(2)
Alice Munro (1931-- )
``An Ounce of Cure''
325(8)
John Updike (1932-- )
``A & P''
333(4)
Raymond Carver (1938--1988)
``What We Talk About When We Talk About Love''
337(8)
Toni Cade Bambara (1939--1995)
``The Lesson''
345(6)
Bharati Mukherjee (1940-- )
``A Father''
351(7)
Isabel Allende (1942-- )
``The Judge's Wife''
358(5)
Sandra Cisneros (1954-- )
``Geraldo No Last Name''
363(1)
Louise Erdrich (1954-- )
``The Red Convertible''
364(7)
Ha Jin (1956-- )
``The Bridegroom''
371(13)
Sherman Alexie (1966-- )
``This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona''
384(9)
Part III Writing About Poetry
393(33)
How Do I Read Poetry?
395(4)
Get the Literal Meaning First: Paraphrase
395(1)
Make Associations for Meaning
396(3)
Chart 10-1 Critical Questions for Reading Poetry
397(2)
Writing About Persona and Tone
399(17)
Who Is Speaking?
399(1)
What Is Tone?
400(1)
Recognizing Verbal Irony
400(1)
Describing Tone
400(1)
Looking at Persona and Tone
401(3)
``My Papa's Waltz''
401(1)
Theodore Roethke
``The Ruined Maid''
401(1)
Thomas Hardy
``The Unknown Citizen''
402(1)
W. H. Auden
``Go, Lovely Rose''
403(1)
Edmund Waller
``One Perfect Rose''
404(1)
Dorothy Parker
Prewriting
404(4)
Asking Questions About the Speaker in ``My Papa's Waltz''
404(1)
Devising a Thesis
405(1)
Describing the Tone in ``The Ruined Maid''
406(1)
Discovering a Thesis
406(1)
Describing the Tone in ``The Unknown Citizen''
407(1)
Discovering a Thesis
407(1)
Discovering the Tone in ``Go, Lovely Rise''
408(1)
Discovering the Tone in ``One Perfect Rise''
408(1)
Writing
408(1)
Explicating and Analyzing
408(1)
Ideas for Writing
409(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
409(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
410(1)
For Further Reading and Research
410(1)
Editing
410(2)
Quoting Poetry in Essays
411(1)
Sample Student Paper: Poetry
412(4)
Analyzing the Student Essay
415(1)
Writing About Poetic Language
416(10)
What Do the Words Suggest?
416(3)
Connotation and Denotation
416(1)
Figures of Speech
416(1)
Metaphor and Simile
417(1)
Personification
418(1)
Imagery
418(1)
Symbol
418(1)
Paradox
418(1)
Oxymoron
419(1)
Looking at Poetic Language
419(3)
Walt Whitman, ``A Noiseless Patient Spider''
419(1)
William Shakespeare, ``Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?''
420(1)
H. D., ``Heat''
420(1)
Hayden Carruth, ``In the Long Hall''
421(1)
Donald Hall, ``My Son My Executioner''
421(1)
Prewriting
422(1)
Examining Poetic Language
422(1)
Writing
422(1)
Comparing and Contrasting
423(1)
Ideas for Writing
423(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
423(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
423(1)
For Further Reading and Research
424(1)
Rewriting: Style
424(2)
Choosing Vivid, Descriptive Terms
424(1)
Finding Lively Words
425(1)
Exercise on Diction
425(1)
CASEBOOK Love Poetry
426(33)
Sappho (ca. 612--ca. 580 B.C.), ``With His Venom''
426(1)
Anonymous, ``Western Wind''
426(1)
John Donne (1572--1631), ``A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning''
427(1)
Andrew Marvell (1621--1678), ``To His Coy Mistress''
428(1)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806--1861), ``How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways?''
429(1)
Emily Dickinson (1830--1886), ``Wild Nights---Wild Nights!''
429(1)
Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892--1950), ``What Lips My Lips Have Kissed''
430(1)
Adrienne Rich (1929-- ), ``Living in Sin''
430(1)
Sharon Olds (1942-- ), ``Topography''
431(1)
Topics for Discussion and Writing
432(1)
For Further Reading and Research
432(1)
Sample Student Papers: Second and Final Drafts
433(8)
Comparison Exercise
433(8)
Writing About Poetic Form
441(18)
What Are the Forms of Poetry?
441(4)
Rhythm and Rhyme
441(1)
Chart 13-1 Rhythm and Meter in Poetry
442(1)
Alliteration, Assonance, and Consonance
443(1)
Exercise on Poetic Form
443(1)
Stanzas: Closed and Open Form
443(1)
Poetic Syntax
444(1)
Looking at the Forms of Poetry
445(4)
``We Real Cool''
445(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks
``Eight O'Clock''
445(1)
A. E. Housman
``anyone lived in a pretty how town''
446(1)
E. E. Cummings
``Telephone Conversation''
447(1)
Wole Soyinka
``Nuns Fret Not''
448(1)
William Wordsworth
``Sonnet''
448(1)
Billy Collins
Prewriting
449(2)
Experimenting with Poetic Forms
449(2)
Writing
451(1)
Relating Form to Meaning
451(1)
Ideas for Writing
452(2)
Ideas for Expressive Writing
452(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
453(1)
For Further Reading and Research
454(1)
Rewriting: Style
454(2)
Finding the Exact Word
454(1)
Exercises on Diction
454(2)
Sample Published Essay on Poetic Form: David Huddle, ``The `Banked Fire' of Robert Hayden's `Those Winter Sundays'''
456(2)
Dorthi Charles (1963-- )
``Concrete Cat''
458(1)
CASEBOOK The Poetry and Prose of Langston Hughes
459(98)
Langston Hughes: A Brief Biography
459(2)
Poetry
461(6)
``The Negro Speaks of Rivers''
461(1)
``Mother to Son''
462(1)
``The Weary Blues''
462(1)
``Saturday Night''
463(1)
``Trumpet Player''
464(1)
``Harlem (A Dream Deferred)''
465(1)
``Theme for English B''
465(1)
Considering the Poems
466(1)
Prose
467(7)
``Salvation''
467(1)
``On the Road''
468(3)
``Thank You, M'am''
471(3)
Considering the Prose
474(1)
Critial Commentaries
474(5)
``Hughes and the Black Controversy''
474(1)
Onwuchekwa Jemie
``A Poet for the People''
474(1)
Margaret Larkin
``Forerunner and Ambassador''
475(1)
Richard Wright
``Do Right to Write Right: Langston Hughes's Aesthetics of Simplicity''
476(1)
Karen Jackson Ford
``Jazz and Langston Hughes's Poetry''
477(1)
Peter Townsend
``Harlem Rent Parties''
478(1)
Langston Hughes
Ideas for Writing About Langston Hughes
479(1)
For Further Reading and Research
479(1)
Anthology of Poetry
Thomas Wyatt (1503--1542)
``They Flee from Me''
480(1)
William Shakespeare (1564--1616)
``When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes''
480(1)
``Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds''
481(1)
``That Time of Year Thou Mayst in Me Behold''
481(1)
``My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun''
482(1)
John Donne (1572--1631)
``Death, Be Not Proud''
482(1)
Ben Jonson (1572--1637)
``On My First Son''
482(1)
Richard Lovelace (1618--1657)
``To Lucasta, on Going to the Wars''
483(1)
William Blake (1757--1827)
``The Lamb''
483(1)
``The Tyger''
484(1)
``The Sick Rose''
485(1)
``London''
486(1)
William Wordsworth (1770--1850)
``The World Is Too Much with Us''
486(1)
George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)
``She Walks in Beauty''
487(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792--1822)
``Ozymandias''
487(1)
John Keats (1795--1821)
``On First Looking into Chapman's Homer''
488(1)
``Ode on a Grecian Urn''
488(1)
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809--1892)
``The Eagle''
489(1)
Walt Whitman (1819--1892)
``When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer''
490(1)
``One's-Self I Sing''
490(1)
Matthew Arnold (1822--1888)
``Dover Beach''
490(1)
Emily Dickinson (1830--1886)
``Success Is Counted Sweetest''
491(1)
``I'm Nobody! Who Are You?''
492(1)
``Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers''
492(1)
``He Put the Belt Around My Life''
492(1)
``Much Madness Is Divinest Sense''
493(1)
``Because I Could Not Stop for Death''
493(1)
``Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church''
494(1)
Thomas Hardy (1840--1928)
``Channel Firing''
494(1)
Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844--1889)
``Pied Beauty''
495(1)
``Spring and Fall''
495(1)
A. E. Housman (1859--1936)
``To an Athlete Dying Young''
496(1)
``Loveliest of Trees''
497(1)
William Butler Yeats (1865--1939)
``The Second Coming''
497(1)
Stephen Crane (1871--1900)
``A Man Said to the Universe''
498(1)
``War Is Kind''
498(1)
Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872--1906)
``We Wear the Mask''
499(1)
Robert Frost (1874--1963)
``Mending Wall''
499(1)
``Birches''
500(2)
``'Out, Out---'''
502(1)
``Fire and Ice''
502(1)
``Design''
503(1)
Carl Sandburg (1878--1967)
``Fog''
503(1)
``Grass''
503(1)
``Chicago''
504(1)
Wallace Stevens (1879--1955)
``The Emperor of Ice Cream''
505(1)
``Anecdote of the Jar''
505(1)
William Carlos Williams (1883--1963)
``Danse Russe''
505(1)
``The Red Wheelbarrow''
506(1)
D. H. Lawrence (1885--1930)
``Piano''
506(1)
``Snake''
507(2)
T. S. Eliot (1888--1965)
``The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock''
509(3)
Claude McKay (1890--1948)
``America''
512(1)
Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892--1950)
``Oh, Oh, You Will Be Sorry for That Word''
512(1)
``First Fig''
513(1)
Wilfred Owen (1893--1918)
``Dulce et Decorum Est''
513(1)
E. E. Cummings (1894--1962)
``in Just-''
514(1)
``next to of course god america i''
515(1)
``she being Brand''
515(1)
``pity this busy monster, manunkind''
516(1)
Jean Toomer (1894--1967)
``Reapers''
516(1)
Stevie Smith (1902--1971)
``Not Waving But Drowning''
517(1)
Countee Cullen (1903--1946)
``Incident''
517(1)
Pablo Neruda (1904--1973)
``The United Fruit Co.''
518(1)
``Sweetness, Always''
519(1)
W. H. Auden (1907--1973)
``Funeral Blues''
520(1)
Theodore Roethke (1908--1963)
``Dolor''
521(1)
``I Knew a Woman''
521(1)
Elizabeth Bishop (1911--1979)
``One Art''
522(1)
May Sarton (1912--1995)
``AIDS''
522(1)
Robert Hayden (1913--1980)
``Those Winter Sundays''
523(1)
Karl Shapiro (1913--2000)
``Auto Wreck''
524(1)
Randall Jarrell (1914--1965)
``The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner''
525(1)
Octavio Paz (1914--1998)
``The Street''
525(1)
Dudley Randall (1914--2000)
``To the Mercy Killers''
525(1)
Dylan Thomas (1914--1953)
``The Force That Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower''
526(1)
``Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night''
527(1)
Gwendolyn Brooks (1917--2000)
``Sadie and Maud''
527(1)
``The Bean Eaters''
528(1)
Howard Nemerov (1920--1991)
``The Goose Fish''
528(1)
Richard Wilbur (1921-- )
``Love Calls Us to the Things of This World''
529(1)
Philip Larkin (1922--1985)
``Home Is So Sad''
530(1)
James Dickey (1923--1997)
``The Leap''
530(2)
Wislawa Szymborska (1923-- )
``End and Beginning''
532(1)
Lisel Mueller (1924-- )
``Things''
533(1)
Maxine Kumin (1925-- )
``Woodchucks''
533(1)
Allen Ginsberg (1926--1997)
``A Supermarket in California''
534(1)
James Wright (1927--1980)
``Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio''
535(1)
Anne Sexton (1928--1974)
``You All Know the Story of the Other Woman''
535(1)
Adrienne Rich (1929-- )
``Aunt Jennifer's Tigers''
536(1)
Adrian Henri (1932--2000)
``Any Prince to Any Princess''
536(2)
Sylvia Plath (1932--1963)
``Mirror''
538(1)
``Daddy''
538(2)
John Updike (1932-- )
``Ex-Basketball Player''
540(1)
Linda Pastan (1932-- )
``Ethics''
541(1)
``Marks''
542(1)
Imamu Amiri Baraka (1934-- )
``Biography''
542(1)
Audre Lorde (1934--1992)
``Hanging Fire''
543(1)
Marge Piercy (1936-- )
``Barbie Doll''
544(1)
``The Woman in the Ordinary''
544(1)
Seamus Heaney (1939-- )
``Digging''
545(1)
John Lennon (1940--1980) and Paul McCartney (1942-- )
``Eleanor Rigby''
546(1)
Sharon Olds (1942-- )
``The Death of Marilyn Monroe''
547(1)
``Sex Without Love''
547(1)
Nikki Giovanni (1943-- )
``Dreams''
548(1)
Gina Valdes (1943-- )
``My Mother Sews Blouses''
549(1)
Yusef Komunyakaa (1947-- )
``Facing It''
549(1)
``My Father's Love Letters''
550(1)
Rita Dove (1952-- )
``Daystar''
551(1)
Alberto Rios (1952-- )
``In Second Grade Miss Lee I Promised Never to Forget You and I Never Did''
552(1)
Jimmy Santiago Baca (1952-- )
``There Are Black''
553(1)
Judith Ortiz Cofer (1952-- )
``Latin Women Pray''
554(1)
Cornelius Eady (1954-- )
``The Supremes''
554(1)
Louise Erdrich (1954-- )
``Indian Boarding School: The Runaways''
555(1)
Martin Espada (1957-- )
``Coca-Cola and Coco Frio''
556(1)
``Liberating a Pillar of Tortillas''
556(1)
Paired Poems for Comparison
557(11)
Christopher Marlowe (1564--1593)
``The Passionate Shepherd to His Love''
558(1)
Sir Walter Raleigh (1552?--1618)
``The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd''
558(1)
Robert Browning (1812--1889)
``My Last Duchess''
559(1)
Gabriel Spera (1966-- )
``My Ex-Husband''
560(2)
Thomas Hardy (1840--1928)
``The Convergence of the Twain''
562(1)
David R. Slavitt (1935-- )
``Titanic''
563(1)
Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869--1935)
``Richard Cory''
564(1)
Paul Simon (1942-- )
``Richard Cory''
564(1)
Robert Frost (1874--1963)
``The Road Not Taken''
565(1)
Blanche Farley (1937-- )
``The Lover Not Taken''
566(1)
William Stafford (1914--1993)
``Traveling Through the Dark''
566(1)
Mary Oliver (1935-- )
``The Black Snake''
567(1)
Poets' Profiles
568(15)
Part IV Writing About Drama
583(103)
How Do I Read a Play?
585(5)
Listen to the Lines
585(1)
Visualize the Scene
586(1)
Envision the Action
587(1)
Drama on Film
588(2)
Chart 14-1 Critical Questions for Reading Plays
589(1)
Writing About Dramatic Structure
590(49)
What Is Dramatic Structure?
590(1)
Looking at Dramatic Structure
591(36)
Sophocles, Antigone
592(35)
Prewriting
627(1)
Analyzing Dramatic Structure
627(1)
Writing
628(2)
Discovering a Workable Argumentative Thesis
628(1)
Quoting from a Play
629(1)
Ideas for Writing
630(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
630(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
630(1)
For Further Reading and Research
631(1)
Rewriting
631(1)
Avoiding Unclear Language
631(1)
Sample Student Paper: Drama
632(7)
Questions for Discussion
638(1)
Writing About Character
639(47)
What Is the Modern Hero?
639(1)
The Classical Tragic Hero
639(1)
The Modern Tragic Hero
640(1)
Looking at the Modern Hero
640(42)
Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie
640(42)
Prewriting
682(1)
Analyzing the Characters
682(1)
Writing
682(1)
Choosing a Structure
683(1)
Ideas for Writing
683(1)
Ideas for Responsive Writing
683(1)
Ideas for Critical Writing
684(1)
For Further Reading and Research
684(1)
Rewriting
684(2)
Developing Paragraphs Specifically
685(1)
Exercise on Providing Quotations
685(1)
CASEBOOK The Glass Menagerie: Interpreting Amanda
686(90)
Review of The Glass Menagerie
687(1)
Burton Rasco
``Diverse, Unique Amanda''
687(1)
Howard Taubman
``Tennessee Williams' Gallery of Feminine Characters''
688(1)
Durant Da Ponte
``Entering The Glass Menagerie''
688(1)
C.W.E. Bigsby
``Amanda''
689(3)
Marc Robinson
Responding to the Critics
691(1)
For Further Reading and Research
691(1)
Drama for Writing: The Research Paper
692(84)
What Is Cultural Analysis?
692(46)
Looking at Cultural Issues
693(1)
David Henry Hwang, M. Butterfly
693(45)
Using Library Sources in Your Writing
738(1)
A Student Researcher's Process
738(1)
Prewriting
739(8)
Finding a Thesis
739(1)
Figure 17-1 Reading Notes
740(1)
Locating Sources
741(1)
The Online Catalog
741(1)
Indexes and Databases
742(1)
Using the Internet
742(1)
Chart 17-1 Internet Sources for Literature
743(2)
Evaluating Online Sources
745(1)
Reference Works in Print
745(1)
Chart 17-2 Selected Reference Works in Literature
746(1)
Taking Notes
747(1)
Writing
747(3)
Developing a Plan
747(1)
Writing Before Researching
748(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
749(1)
Introducing Quotations
750(1)
Ideas for Researched Writing
750(2)
About Short Stories
750(1)
About Poetry
751(1)
About Drama
752(1)
Rewriting
752(1)
Citing Sources
752(1)
Including Informational Notes
753(1)
Editing
753(1)
Chart 17-3 Checklist for Accurate Documentation
754
Sample Documented Students Papers
753(2)
Paper on Drama: Final Draft
755(9)
Paper on a Short Story: Final Draft
764(4)
Explanation of the MLA Documentation Style
768(8)
Sample Entries for a Works Cited List
770(4)
Citing Electronic Publications
774(2)
Anthology of Drama
776(283)
Sophocles (ca. 496 -- ca. 405 B.C.)
Oedipus the King
776(42)
William Shakespeare (1564--1616)
Othello, the Moor of Venice
818(86)
Henrik Ibsen (1828--1906)
A Doll's House
904(50)
Susan Glaspell (1882--1948)
Trifles
954(10)
Edward Albee (1928-- )
The Sandbox
964(4)
Lorraine Hansberry (1930--1965)
A Raisin in the Sun
968(54)
Luis Valdez (1940-- )
Los Vendidos
1022(8)
David Ives (1950-- )
Sure Thing
1030(7)
Wendy Wasserstein (1950-- )
Tender Offer
1037(6)
Harvey Fierstein (1954-- )
On Tidy Endings
1043(16)
Part V The Editing Process
1059(2)
A Handbook for Correcting Errors
1061(29)
Proofreading
1061(1)
Correcting Sentence Boundary Errors
1061(5)
Phrases and Clauses
1061(1)
Fragments
1061(1)
Chart A Examples of Phrases and Clauses
1062(1)
Chart B Kinds of Phrases
1063(1)
Chart C Kinds of Clauses
1064(1)
Comma Splices
1065(1)
Run-On Sentences
1066(1)
Clearing Up Confused Sentences
1067(1)
Solving Faulty Predication Problems
1067(1)
Fixing Subject-Verb Agreement Errors
1068(2)
Fixing Pronoun Errors
1070(3)
Correcting Shifts in Person
1073(1)
Correcting Shifts in Tense
1074(1)
Finding Modifier Mistakes
1075(1)
Coping with Irregular Verbs
1076(1)
Getting Verbs Right
1076(1)
Writing in Active Voice
1077(1)
Solving Punctuation Problems
1077(2)
Using Necessary Commas Only
1079(1)
Using Apostrophes
1080(2)
Distinguishing Hyphens from Dashes
1082(1)
Integrating Quotations Gracefully
1082(1)
Quoting from a Story: Crediting Sources
1082(1)
Quoting from a Poem
1083(1)
Quoting from a Play
1084(1)
Punctuating Quoted Material
1084(3)
Writing Smooth Transitions
1087(1)
Catching Careless Mistakes
1088(2)
Appendix: Critical Approaches for Interpreting Literature
1090(6)
Formalism
1090(1)
Historical Approaches
1091(1)
Biographical
1091(1)
Cultural
1091(1)
Marxist
1092(1)
Psychological Approaches
1092(1)
Mythological and Archetypal Approaches
1093(1)
Gender Focus
1093(1)
Reader Response
1094(1)
Deconstruction
1094(1)
Where Do You Stand?
1095(1)
Glossary of Literary and Rhetorical Terms 1096(10)
Credits 1106(5)
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poetry 1111(8)
Subject Index 1119

Excerpts

This book grew out of our long-standing interest in the possibilities of integrating the study of literature with the practice of composition. Many of our students have learned to write perceptively and well using literature as their subject matter. Great literature is always thought-provoking, always new. Why not utilize it to sharpen critical thinking and improve writing skills? Toward that end, we have combined an introduction to literature anthology with detailed instruction in the writing process. Our Purpose Literature and the Writing Process,Seventh Edition, presents literary selections as materials for students to read, analyze, and write about, not as models for them to emulate. The text is designed to guide students through the allied processes of active reading and critical writing. In order to provide a wide range of options for writing, we have included in each chapter both responsive writing topics and critical writing topics, plus researched writing topics, new to this edition. Our Organization The writing instruction, presented concurrently with the literary study, follows the widely accepted order of beginning with larger questions of content and organization and proceeding to particular matters, such as word choice, sentence structure, and manuscript form. On the challenging tasks of devising a sound thesis and discovering theme in a literary work, we provide detailed guidance. At the end of the instruction on each literary genre appears a generous anthology of literary selections in that genre--first short stories, next poems, and then plays. We also include a section called "Paired Poems for Comparison," composed of six poems, each followed by a response written by another poet. In theInstructor's Manualwe have included class discussion questions and additional writing topics for each selection in the three anthologies, as well as in the casebooks and the "Paired Poems." Student Writing Samples To promote a clear understanding of writing as process, we provide as illustrations throughout Part I the complete protocol that one of our students followed in preparing an essay--samples of her prewriting, drafting, postwriting outlining, revising, editing, and final draft. There are many other aids. In Chapter 17 on researched writing, we include another student's summary of the steps she followed in preparing her research paper on a contemporary play. Her reading notes show how she arrived at a thesis for her documented paper, which appears in full in its final raft. Five additional student essays are included: one illustrates the incorporation of library resources in analyzing a short story; one offers an unusual response to a poem; another uses gender theory in developing an interpretation; two more demonstrate visually the revising process by showing annotated first drafts, followed by the finished versions. New to This Edition As always, we have been guided by the advice of our reviewers in revising this edition. Besides updating the anthologies, we have significantly increased and updated our coverage of researched writing and have added a comprehensive casebook on Langston Hughes. Here is a list of the major changes. Pedagogical features An expanded and updated discussion of researched writing, with detailed coverage on the use and documentation of electronic sources (Chap. 17) Topics "For Further Reading and Research" in all chapters and casebooks. Further instruction on the elements of argument and about arguing an interpretation (Chap. 2) Expanded discussion of critical reading and writing skills (Chap. 1) New topics for discussion and writing linked to current critical strategies in all chapters and casebooks Additional prewriting activities encouraging students to read and respond more imaginatively Revised and expanded discussions of structure (Cha


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