9780134586335

The Little Brown Handbook, MLA Update Edition

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780134586335

  • ISBN10:

    0134586336

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 7/22/2016
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

For courses in English Composition. 
This version of The Little, Brown Handbook has been updated to reflect the 8th Edition of the MLA Handbook (April 2016)* 


The gold standard of handbooks--unmatched in accuracy, currency, and reliability
The Little, Brown Handbook is an essential reference tool designed to help readers find the answers they need quickly and easily. While keeping pace with rapid changes in writing and its teaching, it offers the most comprehensive research and documentation available--with grammar coverage that is second to none.
 
With detailed discussions of critical reading, media literacy, academic writing, and argument, as well as writing as a process, writing in the disciplines, and writing beyond the classroom, the 13th Edition of this handbook addresses writers of varying experience and in varying fields.
 

* The 8th Edition introduces sweeping changes to the philosophy and details of MLA works cited entries. Responding to the “increasing mobility of texts,” MLA now encourages writers to focus on the process of crafting the citation, beginning with the same questions for any source. These changes, then, align with current best practices in the teaching of writing which privilege inquiry and critical thinking over rote recall and rule-following.

Table of Contents

Preface for Students: Using This Book   
Preface for Instructors     

PART 1: The Process of Writing    

1    Assessing the Writing Situation    
    a. Understanding how writing happens      
    b. Analyzing the writing situation    
    c. Discovering and limiting a subject      
    d. Defining a purpose  
    e. Considering the audience
    f. Understanding genres        
    
2    Discovering and Shaping Ideas   
    a. Discovering ideas   
    b. Developing a thesis   
    c. Organizing ideas   
        SAMPLE INFORMATIVE ESSAY  

3    Drafting, Revising, and Editing   
    a. Writing the first draft   
    b. Revising a draft   
    c. Giving and receiving comments  
d. Examining a sample revision   
e. Editing the revised draft         
    f. Preparing and proofreading the final draft   
    g. SAMPLE FINAL DRAFT (RESPONSE ESSAY)     
    h. Preparing a writing portfolio   

4    Writing and Revising Paragraphs  
    a. Relating paragraphs in the essay     
b. Maintaining paragraph unity   
    c. Achieving paragraph coherence   
    d. Developing the paragraph      
    e. Writing special kinds of paragraphs      
   
5    Presenting Writing   
    a. Formatting academic writing  
        SAMPLE MARKETING REPORT   
    b. Using visuals and other media in multimodal writing  
    c. Presenting writing on the Web  
                   SAMPLE WEB SITE 
                   SAMPLE LITERACY NARRATIVE POSTED TO A BLOG  
    d. Making oral presentations   
                   SAMPLE POWERPOINT SLIDES   

PART 2: Reading and Writing in and out of College   

6    Writing in Academic Situations   
a. Determining purpose and audience
b. Using an academic genre
c. Choosing structure and content   
d. Using sources with integrity
e. Using academic language   
f. Communicating with instructors and classmates

7    Critical Reading and Writing   
    a. Using techniques of critical reading
    b. Summarizing
    c. Developing a critical response   
    d. Viewing visuals critically  
e. Writing critically
f. Examining sample critical analyses
    SAMPLE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF A TEXT   
            SAMPLE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF AN IMAGE   

8    Reading Arguments Critically   
    a. Recognizing the elements of argument   
    b. Testing claims       
    c. Weighing evidence   
    d. Discovering assumptions       
    e. Watching language, hearing tone        
    f. Judging reasonableness     
    g. Recognizing fallacies   
    h. Reading visual arguments  

9    Writing an Argument   
    a. Finding a subject   
    b. Conceiving a thesis statement       
    c. Analyzing your purpose and your audience   
    d. Using reason       
    e. Using evidence       
f. Reaching your readers   
    g. Organizing your argument
    h. Revising your argument       
i. SAMPLE PROPOSAL ARGUMENT   

10   Taking Essay Exams   
             a. Preparing for an essay examination     
            b. Planning your time and your answer  
             c. Starting the essay       
              d. Developing the essay    
              e. Rereading the essay   

11    Public Writing   
          a. Writing on social media
b. Writing business letters and memos
    SAMPLE LETTER AND MEMO   
c. Writing a job application
    SAMPLE LETTER AND RESUMES   
d. Writing business reports and proposals
    SAMPLE REPORT AND PROPOSAL   
e. Writing for community work   
    SAMPLE NEWSLETTER, ONLINE POST
   
PART 3: Grammatical Sentences  

12    Understanding Sentence Grammar      
    a. Understanding the basic sentence  
    b. Expanding the basic sentence with single words      
    c. Expanding the basic sentence with word groups      
    d. Compounding words, phrases, and clauses      
    e. Changing the usual word order      
    f. Classifying sentences      

13      Case of Nouns and Pronouns      
    a. Compound subjects and complements       
    b. Compound objects  
    c. We or us with a noun      
    d. Appositives      
    e. Pronoun after than or as in a comparison  
    f. Subjects and objects of infinitives   
    g. Who vs. whom       
    h. Case before a gerund       

14  Verbs      
    Verb Forms      
    a. Regular and irregular verbs      
    b. Sit and set; lie and lay; rise and raise      
    c. Omitted -s and -ed endings  
    d. Helping verbs        
    e. Verb plus gerund or infinitive      
    f. Verb plus participle      
    Tense     
    g. Appropriate tense for meaning      
    h. Sequence of tenses      
    Mood         
i. Subjunctive verb forms     
    Voice     
    j. Active vs. passive voice     

15   Agreement     
    a. Agreement between subject and verb      
    b. Agreement between pronoun and antecedent  
        
16   Adjectives and Adverbs      
    a. Adjectives only with nouns and pronouns      
    b. Adjectives after linking verbs      
    c. Adjectives with objects; adverbs with verbs      
    d. Comparative and superlative forms  
     e. Double negatives  
    f. Overuse of nouns as modifiers       
    g. Present and past participles as adjectives      
    h. A, an, the, and other determiners      

PART 4: Clear Sentences  

17   Sentence Fragments      
    a. Tests for sentence completeness, revision of fragments 
    b. Subordinate clause      
    c. Verbal or prepositional phrase      
    d. Other fragments      
    e. Acceptable uses of incomplete sentences      

18   Comma Splices and Fused Sentences          
a. Main clauses not joined by coordinating conjunction  
    b. Main clauses related by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression  
c. Main clauses with no conjunction or punctuation      

19    Pronoun Reference      
    a. Clear reference to one antecedent  
    b. Clear placement of pronoun and antecedent  
    c. Reference to specific antecedent  
    d. Indefinite use of you      
    e. Clear use of it      
    f. Appropriate who, which, that   

20    Shifts      
    a. Person and number      
    b. Tense and mood      
    c. Subject and voice  
    d. Indirect and direct quotations and questions      

21  Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers          
a. Clear placement of modifiers      
    b. Limiting modifiers       
    c. Squinting modifiers      
    d. Separation of subjects, verbs, and objects      
    e. Separation of parts of infinitives or verb phrases      
    f. Position of adverbs      
    g. Order of adjectives      
    h. Dangling modifiers      

22   Mixed and Incomplete Sentences      
    Mixed Sentences      
a. Mixed grammar      
    b. Mixed meaning (faulty predication)  
    c. Compound constructions      
    d. Comparisons  
    e. Careless omissions      

PART 5: Effective Sentences      
 
23   Emphasizing Ideas     
    a. Using subjects and verbs effectively  
    b. Using sentence beginnings and endings     
    c. Arranging parallel elements effectively     
    d. Repeating ideas     
    e. Separating ideas 
    f. Being concise     

24   Using Coordination and Subordination        
    a. Coordinating to relate equal ideas      
    b. Subordinating to distinguish main ideas      
    c. Choosing clear connectors            

25   Using Parallelism      
    a. Using parallelism for coordinate elements     
    b. Using parallelism to increase coherence      

26   Achieving Variety      
    a. Varying sentence length and structure     
    b. Varying sentence beginnings      
    c. Inverting the normal word order    
    d. Mixing types of sentences  

PART 6: Punctuation  Chart     

27  End Punctuation      
    a. The period  
    b. The question mark  
c. The exclamation point         

28   The Comma     
    a. Main clauses linked by coordinating conjunctions  
    b. Introductory elements      
    c. Nonessential elements      
    d. Absolute phrases  
    e. Phrases expressing contrast  
    f. Series and coordinate adjectives      
    g. Dates, addresses, place names, long numbers  
    h. With quotations  
    i. To prevent misreading      
    j. Misuse and overuse      

29  The Semicolon      
    a. Main clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction  
    b. Main clauses related by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression      
    c. Main clauses that are too long or contain commas  
    d. Series items that are long or contain commas 
    e. Misuse and overuse      

30  The Apostrophe      
    a. Possession      
    b. Misuses with noun plurals, verbs, and personal pronouns     
    c. Contractions     
    d. Plurals of abbreviations, dates, and words or characters named as words 

31   Quotation Marks Chart     
    a. Direct quotations 
    b. Quotation within a quotation     
    c. Dialog 
    d. Titles of songs, short stories, etc.      
    e. Words used in a special sense     
    f. Overuse 
    g. Placement with other punctuation marks     
   
32  Other Punctuation Marks     
    a. The colon     
    b. The dash 
    c. Parentheses     
    d. Brackets 
    e. The ellipsis mark     
    f. The slash 
   
PART 7: Mechanics      

33   Capitals 
    a. First word of a sentence 
    b. Titles of works 
    c. Pronoun I and interjection O    
    d. Proper nouns and adjectives  
    e. Titles before proper names  
    f. Misuses of capitals      
   
34  Italics or Underlining      
    a. Titles of books and periodicals      
    b. Names of ships, aircraft, spacecraft, trains  
    c. Foreign words and phrases  
    d. Words, letters, and numbers named as words
    e. For emphasis  
    f. In online communication  

35  Abbreviations      
    a. Titles before and after proper names  
    b. Familiar abbreviations and acronyms      
    c. BC, BCE, AD, CE, AM, PM, no., and $      
    d. Latin abbreviations  
    e. Inc., Bros., Co., and &      
    f. Misuse with units of measurement, geographical names, and so on      

36  Numbers      
    a. Numerals vs. words      
    b. For dates, addresses, etc.  
    c. Beginning sentences      


PART 8: Effective Words 

37  Using Appropriate Language      
    a. Revising nonstandard dialect      
    b. Revising shortcuts of online communication  
    c. Using slang only when appropriate  
    d. Using colloquial language only when appropriate      
    e. Using regionalisms only when appropriate  
    f. Revising neologisms  
    g. Using technical words with care  
    h. Revising indirect or pretentious writing  
    i. Revising sexist and other biased language      

38  Using Exact Language      
    a. Using a dictionary and a thesaurus  
    b. Using the right word for your meaning      
    c. Balancing the abstract and concrete, the general and specific  
    d. Using idioms  
    e. Using figurative language  
    f. Using fresh expressions  

39  Writing Concisely     
    a. Focusing on subject and verb      
    b. Cutting or shortening empty words and phrases     
    c. Cutting unnecessary repetition 
    d. Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words 
    e. Revising there is, here is, and it is constructions     
    f. Combining sentences     
    g. Rewriting jargon 

40   Spelling and the Hyphen     
    a. Recognizing typical spelling problems 
    b. Following spelling rules 
    c. Developing spelling skills 
    d. Using the hyphen to form or divide words 

PART 9: Research Writing     

41    Planning a Research Project         
a.    Starting out     
b.    Finding a researchable subject and question     
c.    Developing a research strategy     
d.    Making a working, annotated bibliography     

42    Finding Sources         
a.    Starting with your library’s Web site        
b.    Searching electronically       
c.    Finding reference works      
d.    Finding books            
e.    Finding periodicals          
f.    Finding sources on the Web       
g.    Finding sources using social media         
h.    Finding government publications         
i.    Finding visuals, audio, and video      
j.    Generating your own sources        

43    Working with Sources       

a. Evaluating sources      
b. Synthesizing sources     
c. Interacting with sources      
d. Using summary, paraphrase, and quotation     
e. Integrating sources into your text         

44    Avoiding Plagiarism      
a.    Avoiding both deliberate and careless plagiarism 
b.    Knowing what you need not acknowledge      
c.    Knowing what you must acknowledge        
d.    Obtaining permission when publishing your work          

45    Documenting Sources       
    a. Using discipline styles for documentation
    b. Using bibliography software

46     Writing the Paper  
a.    Developing a thesis statement       
b.    Creating a structure        
c.    Drafting the paper       
d.    Revising and editing the paper        
e.    Preparing and proofreading the final draft      

47    Using MLA Documentation and Format 
    a. Using MLA in-text citations
    b. Preparing the MLA list of works cited
    c. Using MLA document format

48    Two Research Papers in MLA Style  
    “THE FALSE PROMISE OF GREEN CONSUMERISM” 
    “ANNIE DILLARD’S HEALING VISION”  

PART 10: Writing in the Academic Disciplines     
   
49    Reading and Writing About Literature            
a.    Using the methods and evidence of literary analysis         
b.    Understanding writing assignments in literature      
c.    Using the tools and language of literary analysis  
d.    Citing sources and formatting documents in writing about literature        
e.    Drafting and revising a literary analysis  
    SAMPLE LITERARY ANALYSIS OF A SHORT STORY   
f.    Writing about fiction, poetry, and drama         
    SAMPLE LITERARY ANALYSIS OF A POEM       
    SAMPLE LITERARY ANALYSIS OF A PLAY           

50    Writing in Other Humanities          
a.    Using the methods and evidence of the humanities         
b.    Understanding writing assignments in the humanities             
c.    Using the tools and language of the humanities      
d.    Citing sources in Chicago style        
e.    Formatting documents in Chicago style  

51    Writing in the Social Sciences          
a.    Using the methods and evidence of the social sciences          
b.    Understanding writing assignments in the social sciences   
c.    Using the tools and language of the social sciences       
d.    Citing sources in APA style      
e.    Formatting documents in APA style         
f.    SAMPLE RESEARCH REPORT       

52    Writing in the Natural and Applied Sciences          
a.    Using the methods and evidence of the sciences      
b.    Understanding writing assignments in the sciences        
c.    Using the tools and language of the sciences              
d.    Citing sources in CSE style      
e.    Formatting documents in CSE style   
f.    SAMPLE SCIENCE PAPER       

Glossary of Usage
Glossary of Terms
Index
 

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