The Used and Rental copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
Baronett brings vivid writing, real-world examples, and a choice of practical applied chapters to a course known for formal reasoning, to bridge the connections to student lives and future careers. This comprehensive introduction to logic and critical reasoning shows how logic is relevant ineveryday life, demonstrating the applications of logic in, among other places, the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, and student life. The real-world examples and exercises are oriented to the interests and experiences of students, and the explanations ofdifficult concepts are exceptionally clear and engaging.Each chapter opens with a discussion of an everyday example, often taken directly from contemporary events, to pose the problem and set the narrative tone. This provides an immediate connection between logic and real-world issues, motivating the need for logic as a tool to help with the deluge ofinformation available today. The fifteen chapters are designed to provide a comprehensive logic textbook, but also one that can be tailored to individual courses and their needs. The chapters are modular and can be put together in a variety of ways in customized version that will suit anyone'sintroduction to logic or critical thinking course.The includes approximately 2600 exercises ("Check Your Understanding") that are progressive, varied, and real-world, letting students practice what they have learned through explanations and examples.A rich set of supplemental resources is available to support teaching and learning in this course. These supplements include an Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD, downloadable Learning Management System Cartridges, and a Companion Website for instructors and students availableonline at www.oup.com/us/baronett. The Instructor's Manual with Computerized Test Bank on CD includes: Solutions to all exercises in the book, Summary of each chapter, Key Terms, A customizable Computerized Test Bank with multiple-choice, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank questions to allowinstructors to give Exams or Homework Problems and receive autograded feedback, A traditional Test Bank and answer key for instructors to give "pen and pencil" Exams and Homework using the identical questions that are found on the Computerized Test Bank (The Instructor's Manual with ComputerizedTest Bank and the traditional Test Bank are also available in printed format), and PowerPoint lecture outlines. The Learning Management System Cartridges include the Instructor's Manual and Computerized Test Bank, as well as student-material from the companion website, in a fully downloadable formatfor instructors using a learning management system in their courses. The Companion Website includes the following material: Introduction to Book/Authors: Table of Contents, About the Authors; Instructor's Resources (password protected): A downloadable version of the Instructor's Manual (exceptingthe Test Bank and the Solutions to exercises, which are only available in CD or printed format), PowerPoint lecture outlines; and Student Resources: Brief Summary of each chapter, Interactive Flash Cards with key terms and definitions, WebLinks and other media resources, and Practice quizzes withanswers and explanations.The first text to make logic relevant, interesting, and accessible to today's students, by bridging both formal and informal logic to real life.
Stan Baronett is the author of Logic, First Edition.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, and a Logic Challenge. PART I. SETTING THE STAGE CHAPTER 1. WHAT LOGIC STUDIES A. Statements and Arguments B. Recognizing Arguments Check Your Understanding 1B.1 Check Your Understanding 1B.2 C. Arguments and Explanations Check Your Understanding 1C D. Truth and Logic E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments Check Your Understanding 1E F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Truth Logical Form Counterexamples Check Your Understanding 1F G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Truth Techniques of Analysis Check Your Understanding 1G LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the Hats PART II. INFORMAL LOGIC CHAPTER 2. LANGUAGE MATTERS A. Intension and Extension Terms, Use, and Mention Two Kinds of Meaning Proper Names Check Your Understanding 2A B. Using Intensional Definitions Synonymous Definitions Word Origin Definitions Operational Definitions Definition by Genus and Difference C. Using Extensional Definitions Ostensive Definitions Enumerative Definitions Definition by Subclass Check Your Understanding 2C D. Applying Definitions Stipulative Definitions Lexical Definitions Functional Definitions Precising Definitions Theoretical Definitions Persuasive Definitions Check Your Understanding 2D E. Guidelines for Informative Definitions Check Your Understanding 2E F. Cognitive and Emotive Meaning Check Your Understanding 2F G. Factual and Verbal Disputes Check Your Understanding 2G LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Path CHAPTER 3. DIAGRAMS AND ANALYSIS A. The Basics of Diagramming Arguments Check Your Understanding 3A B. Incomplete Arguments Check Your Understanding 3B C. Rhetorical Language Rhetorical Questions Rhetorical Conditionals Rhetorical Disjunctions Check Your Understanding 3C D. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Check Your Understanding 3D LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to Vegas CHAPTER 4. INFORMAL FALLACIES A. Fallacies of Relevance 1. Argument Against the Person 2. Tu Quoque 3. Appeal to the People 4. Appeal to Pity 5. Appeal to Force 6. Appeal to Ignorance 7. Missing the Point 8. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority Summary of Fallacies of Relevance Check Your Understanding 4A B. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption 9. Begging the Question 10. Complex Question 11. Biased Sample 12. Accident 13. Hasty Generalization 14. Misleading Precision 15. False Dichotomy 16. False Dilemma 17. Coincidence 18. Post Hoc Fallacy 19. Common Cause Fallacy 20. Slippery Slope Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption Check Your Understanding 4B C. Fallacies of Ambiguity or Diversion 21. Equivocation 22. Amphiboly 23. Composition 24. Division 25. Emphasis 26. Straw Man Fallacy 27. Red Herring Fallacy Summary of Fallacies of Ambiguity or Diversion Check Your Understanding 4C D. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language Check Your Understanding 4D LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever Problem PART III. FORMAL LOGIC CHAPTER 5. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS A. Categorical Propositions Check Your Understanding 5A B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution Check Your Understanding 5B C. The Square of Opposition Check Your Understanding 5C D. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition Conversion Obversion Contraposition Check Your Understanding 5D E. Existential Import F. The Modern Square of Opposition G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition Revisited Check Your Understanding 5G H. Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Square Check Your Understanding 5H I. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions Missing Plural Nouns Nonstandard Verbs Singular Propositions Adverbs and Pronouns "It Is False That . . ." Implied Quantifiers Nonstandard Quantifiers Conditional Statements Exclusive Propositions "The Only" Propositions Requiring Two Translations Check Your Understanding 5I LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group Relationship CHAPTER 6. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms B. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation Diagramming A-propositions Diagramming E-propositions Diagramming I-propositions Diagramming O-propositions Wrapping Up the X Is the Syllogism Valid? Check Your Understanding 6B C. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation A-propositions E-propositions When Both Interpretations Give the Same Results Check Your Understanding 6C D. Mood and Figure Check Your Understanding 6D E. Rules and Fallacies Check Your Understanding 6E F. Ordinary Language Arguments Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument Check Your Understanding 6F.1 Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments Check Your Understanding 6F.2 G. Enthymemes Check Your Understanding 6G H. Sorites Check Your Understanding 6H LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Four Circles CHAPTER 7. PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC A. Logical Operators and Translations Simple and Compound Statements Negation Conjunction Disjunction Conditional Statements Distinguishing "If" from "Only if" Biconditional Check Your Understanding 7A B. Complex Statements Well-Formed Formulas Check Your Understanding 7B.1 Main Operator Check Your Understanding 7B.2 Translations and the Main Operator Check Your Understanding 7B.3 C. Truth Functions Defining the Five Logical Operators Negation Conjunction Disjunction Conditional Biconditional Check Your Understanding 7C Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language D. Truth Tables for Propositions Arranging the Truth Values The Order of Operations Check Your Understanding 7D.1 Propositions with Assigned Truth Values Check Your Understanding 7D.2 E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements Tautology Self-Contradiction Check Your Understanding 7E F. Logical Equivalence Check Your Understanding 7F G. Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements Check Your Understanding 7G H. Truth Tables for Arguments Validity Technical Validity Check Your Understanding 7H I. Indirect Truth Tables Thinking Through An Argument A Shorter Truth Table Check Your Understanding 7I.1 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Argument Form Check Your Understanding 7I.2 Examining Statements for Consistency Check Your Understanding 7I.3 LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card Problem CHAPTER 8. NATURAL DEDUCTION A. Natural Deduction B. Implication Rules I Modus Ponens (MP) Modus Tollens (MT) Hypothetical Syllogism (HS) Disjunctive Syllogism (DS) Justification--Applying the Rules of Inference Check Your Understanding 8B C. Tactics and Strategy Working Through a Proof Check Your Understanding 8C D. Implication Rules II Constructive Dilemma (CD) Simplification (Simp) Conjunction (Conj) Addition (Add) Check Your Understanding 8D E. Replacement Rules I De Morgan (DM) Commutation (Com) Association (Assoc) Distribution (Dist) Double Negation (DN) Check Your Understanding 8E F. Replacement Rules II Transposition (Trans) Material Implication (Impl) Material Equivalence (Equiv) Exportation (Exp) Tautology (Taut) Check Your Understanding 8F G. Conditional Proof Check Your Understanding 8G H. Indirect Proof Check Your Understanding 8H LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Truth CHAPTER 9. PREDICATE LOGIC A. Translating Ordinary Language Singular Statements Universal Statements Particular Statements Paying Attention to Meaning Check Your Understanding 9A B. Four New Rules of Inference Universal Instantiation Universal Generalization Existential Generalization Existential Instantiation Summary of the Four Rules Tactics and Strategy Check Your Understanding 9B C. Change of Quantifier Check Your Understanding 9C D. Conditional and Indirect Proof Conditional Proof Indirect Proof Check Your Understanding 9D E. Demonstrating Invalidity Counterexample Method Finite Universe Method Indirect Truth Tables Check Your Understanding 9E F. Relational Predicates Translations Check Your Understanding 9F.1 Proofs A New Restriction Change of Quantifier Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof Check Your Understanding 9F.2 G. Identity Simple Identity Statements "Only" "The Only" "No . . . Except" "All Except" Superlatives "At Most" "At Least" "Exactly" Definite Descriptions Summary of Identity Translations Check Your Understanding 9G.1 Proofs Check Your Understanding 9G.2 LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, Please PART IV. INDUCTIVE LOGIC CHAPTER 10. ANALOGICAL ARGUMENTS A. The Framework of Analogical Arguments Check Your Understanding 10A B. Analyzing Analogical Arguments Criteria for Analyzing Analogical Arguments Check Your Understanding 10B C. Strategies of Evaluation Disanalogies Counteranalogy Unintended Consequences Combining Strategies Check Your Understanding 10C LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the Cheat CHAPTER 11. LEGAL ARGUMENTS A. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning B. Conditional Statements C. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions D. Disjunction and Conjunction E. Analyzing a Complex Rule Check Your Understanding 11E F. Analogies G. The Role of Precedent Check Your Understanding 11G LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty Problem CHAPTER 12. MORAL ARGUMENTS A. Value Judgments Justifying "Should" Types of Value Judgments Taste and Value Check Your Understanding 12A B. Moral Theories Emotivism Consequentialism Egoism Utilitarianism Deontology Situation Ethics Relativism Contrasting Moral Theories Check Your Understanding 12B C. The Naturalistic Fallacy D. The Structure of Moral Arguments E. Analogies and Moral Arguments Check Your Understanding 12E F. Justifying Moral Premises Check Your Understanding 12F LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous Cargo CHAPTER 13. STATISTICAL ARGUMENTS AND PROBABILITY A. Samples and Populations Check Your Understanding 13A B. Statistical Averages Check Your Understanding 13B C. Standard Deviation Dividing the Curve The Size of the Standard Deviation How to Calculate Standard Deviation Check Your Understanding 13C D. What If the Results Are Skewed? E. The Misuse of Statistics Check Your Understanding 13E F. Probability Theories A Priori Theory Relative Frequency Theory Subjectivist Theory G. Probability Calculus Conjunction Methods Disjunction Methods Negation Method Check Your Understanding 13G H. True Odds in Games of Chance I. Bayesian Theory Check Your Understanding 13I LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second Child CHAPTER 14. CAUSALITY AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTS A. Causality B. Mill's Methods Method of Agreement Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference Method of Residues Method of Concomitant Variations Check Your Understanding 14B C. Limitations of Mill's Methods D. Theoretical and Experimental Science E. Inference to the Best Explanation F. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and Predictions Controlled Experiments Determining Causality G. Science and Superstition The Need for a Fair Test Verifiable Predictions Nontrivial Predictions Connecting the Hypothesis and Prediction Science and Superstition The Allure of Superstition Check Your Understanding 14G LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the Coins CHAPTER 15. ANALYZING A LONG ESSAY A. Childbed Fever B. Vienna Check Your Understanding 15B C. Miasm and Contagion Check Your Understanding 15C D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery Check Your Understanding 15D Summary of Semmelweis's Account E. Initial Questions Check Your Understanding 15E F. A New Interpretation Check Your Understanding 15F LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Relative Problem Bibliography Glossary Answers to Selected Exercises Index