9780199383405

Logic

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780199383405

  • ISBN10:

    0199383405

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 9/11/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises, Logic, Third Edition, shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere. Thoroughly revised and expanded in this third edition, the text now features nearly 2,800 exercises, more than 200 of them new; updates throughout; and a revised and expanded ancillary package.

FEATURES:

* 2800 exercises--more than 200 of them new--breathe new life into logic

* The clearest explanations and real-world examples help bring logic down to earth for students

* A unique, extended explanation or model of the answer to the first question of each exercise section shows students what is expected of their answers

* "Profiles in Logic" provide short sketches of logicians, philosophers, mathematicians, and others associated with logic

* "Logic Challenge" problems present puzzles and paradoxes that end each chapter on a fun note

* Pedagogical elements--marginal definitions, key terms, a glossary, reference boxes, and bulleted chapter summaries--make the material even more accessible

* Detailed guides help students learn to complete "truth tables" and Venn diagrams

Author Biography


Stan Baronett is the author of Logic, Second Edition.

Table of Contents


Each chapter ends with a Summary and Key Terms.
Preface
PART I: SETTING THE STAGE
Chapter 1. What Logic Studies
A. Statements and Arguments
B. Recognizing Arguments
Exercises 1B
C. Arguments and Explanations
Exercises 1C
D. Truth and Logic
E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
Exercises 1E
F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness
Argument Form
Counterexamples
Summary of Deductive Arguments
Exercises 1F
G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Cogency
Techniques of Analysis
The Role of New Information
Summary of Inductive Arguments
Exercises 1G
H. Reconstructing Arguments
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the Hats
PART II: INFORMAL LOGIC
Chapter 2. Language Matters
A. Intension and Extension
Terms, Use, and Mention
Two Kinds of Meaning
Proper Names
Exercises 2A
B. Using Intensional Definitions
Synonymous Definitions
Word Origin Definitions
Operational Definitions
Definition by Genus and Difference
C. Using Extensional Definitions
Ostensive Definitions
Enumerative Definitions
Definition by Subclass
Exercises 2C
D. Applying Definitions
Stipulative Definitions
Lexical Definitions
Functional Definitions
Precising Definitions
Theoretical Definitions
Persuasive Definitions
Exercises 2D
E. Guidelines for Informative Definitions
Exercises 2E
F.Cognitive and Emotive Meaning
Exercises 2F
G.Factual And Verbal Disputes
Exercises 2G
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Path
Chapter 3. Diagramming Arguments
A. The Basics of Diagramming Arguments
B. Diagramming Extended Arguments
Exercises 3B
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to Vegas
Chapter 4. Informal Fallacies
A. Why Study Fallacies?
B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals
Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks
1. Ad hominem abusive
2. Ad hominem circumstantial
3. Poisoning the well
4. Tu quoque
Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals
5. Appeal to the people
6. Appeal to pity
7. Appeal to fear or force
Summary of Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks
Summary of Fallacious Appeals to Emotion
Exercises 4B
C. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies
Generalization Fallacies
8. Rigid application of a generalization
9. Hasty generalization
10. Composition
11. Division
12. Biased sample
False cause fallacies
13. Post hoc
14. Slippery slope
Summary of Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies
Exercises 4C
D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion
Unwarranted Assumption
15. Begging the Question
16. Complex Question
17. Appeal to Ignorance
18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority
19. False Dichotomy
Fallacies of Diversion
20. Equivocation
21. Straw Man
22. Red Herring
23. Misleading Precision
24. Missing the Point
Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and Diversion
Exercises 4D
E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language
Exercises 4E
LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever Problem
PART III: FORMAL LOGIC
Chapter 5. Categorical Propositions
A. Categorical Propositions
Exercises 5A
B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution
Exercises 5B
C. Existential Import
D. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams
Venn Diagrams
Exercises 5D
E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern Square
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Diagrams
Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
Exercises 5E
F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams
Exercises 5F.1
Venn Diagram and the Traditional Square
Exercises 5F.2
G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional Square
Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Exercises 5G
H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions
Missing Plural Nouns
Nonstandard Verbs
Singular Propositions
Adverbs and Pronouns
"It Is False That . . . "
Implied Quantifiers
Nonstandard Quantifiers
Conditional Statements
Exclusive Propositions
"The Only"
Propositions Requiring Two Translations
Exercises 5H
LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group Relationship
Chapter 6. Categorical Syllogisms
A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
B. Mood and Fiture
Exercises 6B
C. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation
Diagramming A-Propositions
Diagramming E-Propositions
Diagramming I-Propositions
Diagramming O-Propositions
Wrapping Up the X
Is the Syllogism Valid?
Exercises 6C
D. Rules and Fallacies under the Modern Interpretation
Summary of Rules
Exercises 6D
E. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation
A-Propositions
E-Propositions
Exercises 6E
F. Rules and Fallacies under the Traditional Interpretation
Exercises 6F
G. Ordinary Language Arguments
Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument
Exercises 6G.1
Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments
Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments
Exercises 6G.2
H. Enthymemes
Exercises 6H
I. Sorites
Exercises 6I
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Four Circles
Chapter 7. Propositional Logic
A. Logical Operators and Translations
Simple and Compound Statements
Negation
Conjunction
Disjunction
Conditional
Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"
Sufficient and Necessary Conditions
Biconditional
Summary of Operators and Ordinary Language
Exercises 7A
B. Compound Statements
Well-Formed Formulas
Exercises 7B.1
Main Operator
Exercises 7B.2
Translations and the Main Operator
Exercises 7B.3
C. Truth Functions
Defining the Five Logical Operators
Negation
Conjunction
Disjunction
Conditional
Biconditional
Exercises 7C.1
Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language
Propositions with Assigned Truth Values
Exercises 7C.2
D. Truth Tables for Propositions
Arranging the Truth Values
The Order of Operations
Exercises 7D
E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements
Tautology
Self-Contradiction
Exercises 7E
F. Logical Equivalence, Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements
Exercises 7F.1
Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements
Exercises 7F.2
G. Truth Tables for Arguments
Validity
Analyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in Arguments
Technical Validity
Exercises 7G.1
Argument Forms
Exercises 7G.2
H. Indirect Truth Tables
Thinking through an Argument
A Shorter Truth Table
Exercises 7H.1
Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for Consistency
Exercises 7H.2
LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card Problem
Chapter 8. Natural Deduction
A. Natural Deduction
B. Implication Rules I
Modus Ponens (MP)
Modus Tollens (MT)
Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)
Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
Justification: Applying the Rules of Inference
Exercises 8B
C. Tactics and Strategy
Applying the First Four Implication Rules
Exercises 8C
D. Implication Rules II
Simplification (SIMP)
Conjunction (CONJ)
Addition (ADD)
Constructive Dilemma (CD)
Applying the Second Four Implication Rules
Exercises 8D
E. Replacement Rules I
De Morgan (DM)
Double Negation (DN)
Commutation (Com)
Association (Assoc)
Distribution (Dist)
Applying the First Five Replacement Rules
Exercises 8E
F. Replacement Rules II
Transposition (Trans)
Material Implication (Impl)
Material Equivalence (Equiv)
Exportation (Exp)
Tautology (Taut)
Applying the Second Five Replacement Rules
Exercises 8F
G. Conditional Proof
Exercises 8G
H. Indirect Proof
Exercises 8H
I. Proving Logical Truths
Exercises 8I
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Truth
Chapter 9. Predicate Logic
A. Translating Ordinary Language
Singular Statements
Universal Statements
Particular Statements
Summary of Predicate Logic Symbols
Paying Attention to Meaning
Exercises 9A
B. Four New Rules of Inference
Universal Instantiation
Universal Generalization
Existential Generalization
Existential Instantiation
Summary of the Four Rules
Tactics and Strategy
Exercises 9B
C. Change of Quantifier
Exercises 9C
D. Conditional and Indirect Proof
Conditional Proof
Indirect Proof
Exercises 9D
E. Demonstrating Invalidity
Counterexample Method
Finite Universe Method
Indirect Truth Tables
Exercises 9E
F. Relational Predicates
Translations
Exercises 9F.1
Proofs
A New Restriction
Change of Quantifier
Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof
Exercises 9F.2
G. Identity
Simple Identity Statements
"Only"
"The Only"
"No . . . Except"
"All Except"
Superlatives
"At Most"
"At Least"
"Exactly"
Definite Descriptions
Summary of Identity Translations
Exercises 9G.1
Proofs
Exercises 9G.2
LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, Please
PART IV: INDUCTIVE LOGIC
Chapter 10. Analogical Arguments
A. The Framework of Analogical Arguments
Exercises 10A
B. Analyzing Analogical Arguments
Criteria for Analyzing Analogical Arguments
Exercises 10B
C. Strategies of Evaluation
Disanalogies
Counteranalogy
Unintended Consequences
Combining Strategies
Exercises 10C
LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the Cheat
Chapter 11. Legal Arguments
A. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
B. Conditional Statements
C. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions
D. Disjunction and Conjunction
E. Analyzing a Complex Rule
Exercises 11E
F. Analogies
G. The Role of Precedent
Exercises 11G
LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty Problem
Chapter 12. Moral Arguments
A. Value Judgments
Justifying "Should"
Types of Value Judgments
Taste and Value
Exercises 12A
B. Moral Theories
Emotivism
Consequentialism
Egoism
Utilitarianism
Deontology
Relativism
Contrasting Moral Theories
Exercises 12B
C. The Naturalistic Fallacy
D. The Structure of Moral Arguments
E. Analogies and Moral Arguments
Exercises 12E
LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous Cargo
Chapter 13: Statistical Arguments and Probability
A. Samples and Populations
Exercises 13A
B. Statistical Averages
Exercises 13B
C. Standard Deviation
Dividing the Curve
The Size of the Standard Deviation
How to Calculate the Standard Deviation
Exercises 13C
D. What if the Results Are Skewed?
E. The Misuse of Statistics
Exercises 13E
F. Probability Theories
A Priori Theory
Relative Frequency Theory
Subjectivist Theory
G. Probability Calculus
Conjunction Methods
Disjunction Methods
Negation Method
Exercises 13G
H. True Odds in Games of Chance
I. Bayesian Theory
Exercises 13I
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second Child
Chapter 14. Causality and Scientific Arguments
A. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions
Exercises 14A
B. Causality
C. Mill's Methods
Method of Agreement
Method of Difference
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
Method of Residues
Method of Concomitant Variations
Exercises 14C
D. Limitations of Mill's Methods
E. Theoretical and Experimental Science
F. Inference to the Best Explanation
G. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and Predictions
Controlled Experiments
Determining Causality
H. Science and Superstition
The Need for a Fair Test
Verifiable Predictions
Nontrivial Predictions
Connecting the Hypothesis and Prediction
Science and Superstition
The Allure of Superstition
Exercises 14H
LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the Coins
Online Chapter 15. Analyzing a Long Essay
A. Childbed Fever
B. Vienna
Exercises 15B
C. Miasm and Contagion
Exercises 15C
D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery
Exercises 15D
E. Initial Questions
Exercises 15E
F. A New Interpretation
Exercises 15F
Bibliography
Glossary
Answers to Selected Exercises
Index

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