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The Logic Of American Politics,9781568028910

The Logic Of American Politics

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Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9781568028910

ISBN10:
1568028911
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/15/2005
Publisher(s):
Cq Pr
List Price: $76.95

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Table of Contents

Boxes, Tables, Figures, and Maps xviii
Preface xxiii
A Note to Students xxviii
The Logic of American Politics
2(34)
The Importance of Institutional Design
6(2)
Constitutions and Governments
8(2)
Power versus Authority
8(1)
Institutional Durability
9(1)
The Political System's Logic
9(1)
Collective Action Problems
10(8)
Coordination
10(2)
The Prisoner's Dilemma
12(1)
Free-rider Problem
13(3)
The Tragedy of the Commons
16(2)
The Costs of Collective Action
18(3)
Transaction Costs
18(2)
Conformity Costs
20(1)
Designing Institutions to Achieve Collective Action
21(5)
Majority Rule
22(2)
Delegation
24(2)
Representative Government
26(2)
Majority Rule versus the Republic
26(1)
Politicians
27(1)
The Work of Government
28(2)
Mitigating ``Popular Passions''
30(2)
Key Terms
32(1)
Suggested Readings
32(1)
Suggested Films
32(1)
Review Questions
33(1)
Exercises
33(3)
Part I The Nationalization of Politics
The Constitution
36(40)
The Road to Independence
39(5)
A Legacy of Self-Governance
40(1)
Dismantling Home Rule
41(2)
The Continental Congresses
43(1)
The Declaration of Independence
44(1)
America's First Constitution: The Articles of Confederation
44(6)
The Confederation at War
46(1)
The Confederation's Troubled Peace
47(1)
The War-Torn Economy
47(1)
Trade Barriers at Home and Abroad
48(1)
Popular Discontent
49(1)
Drafting a New Constitution
50(14)
Philosophical Influences
50(1)
Getting Down to Business
51(1)
The Virginia and New Jersey Plans
52(1)
The Great Compromise
53(2)
Designing the Executive Branch
55(3)
Designing the Judicial Branch
58(1)
Substantive Issues
58(1)
Foreign Policy
58(1)
Interstate Commerce
58(2)
Slavery
60(1)
Amending the Constitution
61(3)
The Fight for Ratification
64(3)
The Federalist and Antifederalist Debate
64(2)
The Influence of The Federalist
66(1)
The Theory Underlying the Constitution
67(5)
Federalist No. 10
67(3)
Federalist No. 51
70(2)
The Constitution: Born of Sweet Reason or Politics?
72(2)
Key Terms
74(1)
Suggested Readings
74(1)
Suggested Films
75(1)
Review Questions
75(1)
Exercises
75(1)
Federalism
76(36)
American-Style Federalism
80(4)
Dual Federalism
82(1)
Shared Federalism
82(2)
Federalism and the Constitution
84(3)
Transformation of the Senate
84(1)
Constitutional Provisions Governing Federalism
84(1)
The Supremacy Clause
84(1)
The Powers of Congress
85(1)
The Tenth Amendment
86(1)
Interpreting the Constitution's Provisions
86(1)
The Logic of Nationalization
87(3)
The Paths to Nationalization
90(10)
Historic Transfers of Policy to Washington
91(2)
Nationalization---The Solution to States' Collective Dilemmas
93(1)
Coordination Problems
93(1)
Reneging and Shirking
94(2)
Cutthroat Competition
96(1)
The Political Logic of Nationalization
97(3)
Modern Federalism
100(8)
The National Government's Advantage in the Courts
100(1)
Preemption Legislation
101(2)
The Carrot: Federal Grants to the States
103(1)
The Stick: Unfunded Mandates
104(4)
Federalism: A Byproduct of National Policy
108(2)
Key Terms
110(1)
Suggested Readings
110(1)
Suggested Films
110(1)
Review Questions
111(1)
Exercises
111(1)
Civil Rights
112(42)
What Are Civil Rights?
115(1)
The Civil Rights of African Americans
116(1)
The Politics of Black Civil Rights
117(26)
The Height of Slavery: 1808--1865
118(1)
The Missouri Compromise
118(1)
The Wilmot Proviso and the Compromise of 1850
119(1)
Dred Scott Galvanizes the North
120(2)
Reconstruction: 1865--1877
122(1)
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
122(1)
Rights Lost: The Failure of Reconstruction
123(2)
The Jim Crow Era and Segregation: 1877--1933
125(1)
Democratic Party Sponsorship of Civil Rights: 1933--1940s
126(1)
The New Deal
127(1)
African Americans and the New Deal Coalition
128(2)
Emergence of a Civil Rights Coalition: 1940s--1950s
130(1)
The NAACP's Litigation Strategy
130(1)
Brown Trumps Plessy
130(2)
The 1957 Civil Rights Act: Rehearsal for the 1960s
132(1)
The Civil Rights Movement: 1960s
133(1)
The Birmingham Demonstration
134(1)
The Democratic Party's Commitment to Civil Rights
135(1)
The 1964 Civil Rights Act
136(1)
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
137(3)
The Era of Remedial Action: The 1970s to the Present
140(3)
The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement
143(1)
Rights for Hispanics
143(3)
Equal Rights for Women
146(3)
Gay Rights
149(1)
Emerging Rights: The Disabled, the Elderly, and Parents
150(1)
Challenging Tyranny
151(1)
Key Terms
152(1)
Suggested Readings
152(1)
Suggested Films
152(1)
Review Questions
153(1)
Exercises
153(1)
Civil Liberties
154(50)
Nationalization of Civil Liberties
156(4)
Reining in Majorities
157(1)
The Bill of Rights Checks Majority Rule
157(3)
Writing Rights and Liberties into the Constitution
160(5)
The First Ten Amendments
160(1)
Incorporation via the Fourteenth Amendment
161(3)
Judicial Interpretation
164(1)
Freedom of Speech
165(8)
Free Expression and National Security
165(4)
Nonthreatening Speech and Expression
169(2)
Sexually Explicit Expression
171(1)
Early Censorship
171(1)
Obscenity Policy Shifted Back to the States
171(2)
Freedom of the Press
173(3)
Prior Restraint
174(1)
Press versus Individual Rights
175(1)
Freedom of Religion
176(6)
Establishment
176(1)
The Lemon Test
177(1)
Testing a Policy's ``Neutrality''
178(1)
School Prayer and Bible Reading
179(2)
Free Exercise
181(1)
Criminal Rights
182(11)
Fourth Amendment: Illegal Searches and Seizures
184(2)
Fifth Amendment: Self-Incrimination and Double Jeopardy
186(1)
Sixth Amendment: Right to Counsel and Impartial Jury of Peers
187(1)
Eighth Amendment: ``Cruel and Unusual'' Punishment
188(3)
Criminal Rights and National Security
191(2)
Privacy
193(3)
Childbearing Choices
194(1)
Other Life Choices
195(1)
Emerging Bill of Rights Issues: Guns and Property
196(1)
The Right to Bear Arms
196(1)
The ``Takings'' Clause
197(1)
Assessing Civil Liberties as Public Policy
197(4)
Key Terms
201(1)
Suggested Readings
201(1)
Suggested Films
201(1)
Review Questions
202(1)
Exercises
202(2)
Part II The Institutions of Government
Congress
204(56)
Congress in the Constitution
207(7)
Powers of Congress
208(1)
The Electoral System
209(1)
Congressional Districts
209(2)
Racial Gerrymandering
211(1)
Unequal Representation in the Senate
211(3)
Congress and Electoral Politics
214(10)
Candidate-Centered versus Party-Centered Electoral Politics
214(1)
The Advantages of Incumbency
215(2)
Constituent Service
217(1)
Vulnerable Senators
218(1)
National Politics in Congressional Elections
218(1)
Representation versus Responsibility
219(1)
Who Serves in Congress?
220(4)
The Basic Problems of Legislative Organization
224(3)
The Need for Information
225(1)
Coordination Problems
225(1)
Resolving Conflicts
225(1)
Collective Action
226(1)
Transaction Costs
226(1)
Time Pressures
226(1)
Organizing Congress
227(17)
The Parties
228(1)
Development of Congressional Parties
228(1)
Speaker of the House
228(2)
Increased Partisanship
230(3)
Party Organization
233(1)
Parties and Party Leaders in the Senate
234(1)
Other Groups in Congress
235(1)
The Committee Systems
235(1)
Evolution of Congressional Committees
235(1)
Types of Committees
236(1)
Committee Assignments
236(1)
Committee Power
237(2)
Jurisdiction
239(1)
The Money Committees
240(1)
Budget Reform
241(2)
Congressional Staff and Support Groups
243(1)
Making Laws
244(10)
Introducing Legislation
244(1)
Assignment to Committee
245(1)
Hearings
245(1)
Reporting a Bill
246(1)
Scheduling Debate
246(2)
Debate and Amendment
248(2)
The Vote
250(1)
In Conference
251(1)
To the President
252(1)
A Bias against Action
253(1)
Evaluating Congress
254(3)
Key Terms
257(1)
Suggested Readings
257(1)
Suggested Films
258(1)
Review Questions
258(1)
Exercises
259(1)
The Presidency
260(42)
The President in the Constitution
264(9)
The President As Commander in Chief and Head of State
264(1)
The Commander in Chief As Top Gun
265(1)
Head of State
266(1)
The President As Chief Executive
267(1)
Executive Privilege
268(1)
Executive Orders
269(2)
The President As Legislator
271(1)
State of the Union Address
271(1)
The Veto
272(1)
The Nineteenth-Century Presidency
273(3)
The Era of Cabinet Government
274(1)
Parties and Elections
275(1)
The Modern Presidency
276(17)
Modern Presidents As Administrators
276(1)
Delegation
277(1)
Budgeting
278(1)
Centralized Administration
279(1)
Modern Presidents As Legislators
280(1)
Working with Party Allies
281(1)
Unified versus Divided Party Control of Government
281(1)
Veto Bargaining
282(1)
Going Public
283(7)
Emergence of the Institutional Presidency
290(1)
Executive Office of the President
291(1)
White House Office
291(2)
Presidents As Strategic Actors
293(6)
Failure
294(2)
Success
296(3)
Key Terms
299(1)
Suggested Readings
299(1)
Suggested Films
299(1)
Review Questions
300(1)
Exercises
301(1)
The Bureaucracy
302(42)
The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
305(4)
Modest Beginnings: The Dilemma of Delegation
305(1)
The Federalist Years: A Reliance on Respectability
306(1)
Democratization of the Civil Service: The Spoils System
306(2)
Civil Service Reform
308(1)
An Expanding Government
309(13)
The Cabinet
310(1)
The Earliest Departments
310(2)
Clientele Agencies
312(1)
The Military Establishment
312(2)
Extension of the Federal Domain
314(1)
The Symbolism of Cabinet Status
315(1)
The Department of Homeland Security
315(2)
Non-Cabinet Agencies
317(1)
Independent Executive Agencies
317(1)
Independent Regulatory Commissions
318(3)
Independent Government Corporations
321(1)
Indirect Administration
321(1)
Bureaucracy in Action
322(5)
Bureaucratic Autonomy
322(1)
Bureaucrats As Politicians
323(4)
Bureaucratic Infighting
327(1)
Who Controls the Bureaucracy?
327(10)
Methods of Congressional Control
329(2)
The President and the Bureaucracy
331(1)
The Powers of Appointment and Approval
332(1)
Senatorial Approval
332(1)
Mechanisms for Presidential Supervision
333(1)
The Courts and the Bureaucracy
334(2)
Iron Triangles, Captured Agencies, and Issue Networks
336(1)
Bureaucratic Reform: A Hardy Perennial
337(4)
The Logic of Red Tape
338(1)
The Bureaucratic Reward System
338(3)
Key Terms
341(1)
Suggested Readings
341(1)
Suggested Films
341(1)
Review Questions
342(1)
Exercises
342(2)
The Federal Judiciary
344(36)
Setting the Stage for Judicial Review
346(3)
Three Eras of the Court
349(5)
Nation versus State
349(1)
McCulloch v. Maryland and National Supremacy
349(1)
Dred Scott v. Sandford and States' Rights
350(1)
Regulating the National Economy
350(1)
The Primacy of Property Rights
350(2)
A National Consensus and the Court's About-Face
352(1)
The Rise of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
352(1)
A Fourth Era? The Court As Chief Referee
353(1)
The Structure of the Federal Judiciary
354(3)
The Supreme Court's Delegation
355(1)
The Limits of Internal Control
355(2)
Judicial Decision Making
357(9)
Selecting Cases
358(1)
Resolving Lower-Court Disagreements
358(1)
Taking Cues from Others
359(1)
Doctrine: Policymaking by the Court
360(1)
Procedural Doctrine
360(3)
Substantive Doctrine
363(1)
Deciding Doctrine
364(2)
The Supreme Court's Place in the Separation of Powers
366(9)
Absence of Judicial Enforcement
366(1)
Constitutional and Statutory Control
367(1)
Department of Justice
368(1)
Judicial Recruitment
368(1)
Presidential Appointments
369(3)
Senate Confirmation
372(3)
The Federal Judiciary in National Policymaking
375(3)
Key Terms
378(1)
Suggested Readings
378(1)
Suggested Films
378(1)
Review Questions
379(1)
Exercises
379(1)
Part III The Public's Influence on National Policy
Public Opinion
380(40)
What Is Public Opinion?
384(4)
The Origins of Public Opinion
388(9)
Attitudes
388(1)
Ideologies
388(1)
Partisanship
389(2)
Acquiring Opinions
391(2)
Information
393(2)
Framing
395(2)
Is Public Opinion Meaningful?
397(5)
Stability of Aggregate Public Opinion
397(3)
Opinion Leadership
400(2)
The Content of Public Opinion
402(9)
Consensus on the System
402(2)
Politicians: A Suspect Class
404(2)
Public Opinion on Issues
406(1)
Economic Issues
406(2)
Social and Moral Issues
408(2)
Foreign Policy
410(1)
Effects of Background on Public Opinion
411(5)
Race and Ethnicity
411(2)
Gender
413(1)
Income and Education
414(1)
Religion
414(1)
Other Demographic Divisions
415(1)
Public Opinion: A Vital Component of American Politics
416(1)
Key Terms
417(1)
Suggested Readings
417(1)
Suggested Films
417(1)
Review Questions
418(1)
Exercises
419(1)
Voting, Campaigns, and Elections
420(40)
The Logic of Elections
424(1)
The Right to Vote
424(4)
Wider Suffrage for Men
425(1)
Suffrage for Women
426(1)
Suffrage for African Americans, Young Americans
427(1)
Who Uses the Right to Vote?
428(5)
Individual Factors Affecting Turnout
428(2)
Institutional Factors Affecting Turnout
430(1)
Variations in Turnout over Time
431(2)
How Do Voters Decide?
433(2)
Past Performance and Incumbency
433(1)
Assessing the Issues and Policy Options
433(1)
Voter Cues and Shortcuts
434(1)
The Power of Party Identification
435(1)
Election Campaigns
435(20)
The Basic Necessities: Candidates and Messages
437(1)
Getting Out the Message
437(5)
Negative Campaigning
442(1)
The Other Necessity: Campaign Money
443(1)
Regulating Campaign Money
444(1)
The Flow of Campaign Money
445(5)
How Are Campaign Funds Spent?
450(2)
Where Are Campaign Funds Spent?
452(1)
Money and Elections: Policy Issues
452(3)
The Logic of Elections Revisited
455(1)
Key Terms
456(1)
Suggested Readings
456(1)
Suggested Films
456(1)
Review Questions
457(1)
Exercises
457(3)
Political Parties
460(44)
The Constitution's Unwanted Offspring
463(8)
Incentives for Party Building
464(1)
To Build Stable Legislative and Electoral Alliances
464(1)
To Mobilize Voters
465(1)
To Develop New Electoral Techniques
465(1)
To Use Party Labels and Enforce Collective Responsibility
466(1)
Basic Features of the Party System
466(1)
Two-Party Competition
467(3)
Decentralized, Fragmented Party Coalitions
470(1)
Professional Politicians
470(1)
The Development and Evolution of the Party Systems
471(21)
The First Party System: The Origin of American Parties
471(2)
The Second Party System: Organizational Innovation
473(2)
National Conventions
475(1)
The Spoils System
476(2)
The Third Party System: Entrepreneurial Politics
478(1)
Party Machines
478(3)
The Progressive Attack
481(1)
The Consequences of Progressive Reforms
482(1)
The Fourth Party System: Republican Ascendancy
483(1)
The Fifth Party System: The New Deal Coalition
484(1)
Erosion of the New Deal Coalition
485(1)
Changing the Rules
486(1)
Primary Elections and Caucuses
486(2)
The Conventions Evolve
488(2)
Consequences of Fractured Alignments
490(1)
Media and Money
491(1)
The Revival of the Parties: A Sixth Party System?
492(9)
Partisanship Endures
493(1)
Party Differences
493(3)
Changes in the Party Coalitions
496(1)
Modern Party Organizations
497(1)
Control
497(1)
Organizational Innovations
497(4)
Expediency Persists
501(1)
Key Terms
502(1)
Suggested Readings
502(1)
Suggested Films
502(1)
Review Questions
503(1)
Exercises
503(1)
Interest Groups
504(34)
The Logic of Lobbying
506(2)
The Origins of Interest Group Politics in America
508(7)
The Colonial Era
508(1)
The Early Republic
508(2)
The Pluralist Defense of Interest Groups
510(2)
The Problem of Collective Action
512(3)
Contemporary Interest Groups
515(5)
Why Have Interest Groups Proliferated?
516(3)
Fragmentation and Specialization
519(1)
What Do Interest Groups Do?
520(12)
Insider Tactics: Trafficking in Information and Cultivating Access
520(4)
Outsider Tactics: Altering the Political Forces
524(2)
Litigation
526(1)
Electoral Politics and Political Action Committees
527(1)
Growth of PACs
527(3)
PAC Influence
530(2)
Interest Group Politics: Controversial and Thriving
532(4)
Key Terms
536(1)
Suggested Readings
536(1)
Suggested Films
536(1)
Review Questions
537(1)
Exercises
537(1)
The News Media
538(34)
Development of the News Business
541(8)
The Economics of Early Newspapers
541(2)
The Rise of the Penny Press
543(3)
The Emergence of Radio and Television
546(3)
News As a Consumer Product
549(3)
Content and Form
549(1)
Consumer Preferences
550(2)
The Politics of News Making
552(9)
News Makers: Politicians and Public Officials
553(2)
News Makers: The Military
555(3)
Reporters and Their News Organizations
558(1)
The Beat
559(1)
Selecting the News
560(1)
Strategic Relations between Politicians and Reporters
561(7)
The Numbers Game
562(1)
Politician-Press Relations Then and Now
563(2)
Bypassing the News Media
565(3)
Communication: Fundamental to Democracy
568(1)
Key Terms
569(1)
Suggested Readings
569(1)
Suggested Films
569(1)
Review Questions
570(1)
Exercises
571(1)
Part IV Conclusion
The Dilemmas of Institutional Reform
572(12)
The Biases of American Institutions
574(2)
Class Bias
574(1)
Status Quo Bias
575(1)
The Tricky Business of Institutional Reform
576(5)
Some Principles of Institutional Design
577(1)
Checking Power with Power: Creation of the Independent Counsel
577(1)
Aligning Interests between Agents and Principals: The Case of Term Limits
578(1)
Breaking the Prisoner's Dilemma: The Director of National Intelligence
578(2)
Implications for Policymaking
580(1)
What Can Individual Citizens Do?
581(2)
Key Terms
583(1)
Suggested Films
583(1)
Reference Materials
584(41)
Appendix 1: Articles of Confederation
587(4)
Appendix 2: Declaration of Independence
591(3)
Appendix 3: Constitution of the United States
594(10)
Appendix 4: Federalist No. 10
604(4)
Appendix 5: Federalist No. 51
608(3)
Appendix 6: Presidents, Vice Presidents, Speakers, and Chief Justices, 1789-2005
611(3)
Appendix 7: Map of Congressional Districts
614(2)
Appendix 8: Political Party Affiliations in Congress and the Presidency, 1789--2005
616(3)
Appendix 9: Summary of Presidential Elections, 1789--2004
619(4)
Appendix 10: The American Economy
623(2)
Notes 625(13)
Glossary 638(12)
Index 650(20)
Photo Credits 670(2)
About the Authors 672


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