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Logic and Philosophy : A Modern Introduction,9780495128441
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Logic and Philosophy : A Modern Introduction

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780495128441

ISBN10:
0495128449
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/5/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $147.95
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Summary

This text is designed for those instructors who desire a comprehensive introduction to formal logic that is both rigorous and accessible to students encountering the subject for the first time. Numerous, carefully crafted exercise sets accompanied by clear, crisp exposition give students a firm grasp of basic concepts and take the student from sentential logic through first-order predicate logic, the theory of descriptions, and identity. As the title suggests, this is a book devoted not merely to logic; students will encounter an extraordinary amount of philosophy as well. Upon completing the first two parts of the text, a student will be well prepared for advanced courses in analytic philosophy. The last part deals with supplemental matters-informal fallacies, modal logic, and inductive logic, among others.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction
1(18)
The Elements of an Argument
1(4)
Deduction and Induction
5(2)
Deductive Argument Forms
7(1)
Truth and Validity
8(3)
Soundness
11(1)
Consistency
12(1)
Consistency and Validity Compared
13(2)
Contexts of Discovery and Justification
15(1)
The Plan of This Book
15(4)
Key Terms
16(3)
Part One: Sentential Logic
19(144)
Symbolizing in Sentential Logic
21(34)
Atomic and Compound Sentences
22(1)
Truth-Functions
23(1)
Conjunctions
23(4)
Non--Truth-Functional Connectives
27(1)
Variables and Constants
27(2)
Negations
29(1)
Parentheses and Brackets
30(1)
Use and Mention
31(1)
Disjunctions
32(3)
``Not Both'' and ``Neither . . . Nor''
35(2)
Material Conditionals
37(3)
Material Biconditionals
40(2)
``Only If'' and ``Unless''
42(1)
Symbolizing Complex Sentences
43(7)
Alternative Sentential Logic Symbols
50(5)
Key Terms
52(3)
Truth Tables
55(33)
Computing Truth-Values
55(5)
Logical Form
60(5)
Tautologies, Contradictions, and Contingent Sentences
65(6)
Logical Equivalences
71(1)
Truth Table Test of Validity
72(3)
Truth Table Test of Consistency
75(1)
Validity and Consistency
76(2)
The Short Truth Table Test for Invalidity
78(4)
The Short Truth Table Test for Consistency
82(1)
A Method of Justification for the Truth Tables
83(5)
Key Terms
87(1)
Proofs
88(37)
Argument Forms
88(2)
The Method of Proof: Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens
90(3)
Disjunctive Syllogism and Hypothetical Syllogism
93(2)
Simplification and Conjunction
95(1)
Addition and Constructive Dilemma
96(3)
Principles of Strategy
99(6)
Double Negation and DeMorgan's Theorem
105(3)
Commutation, Association, and Distribution
108(1)
Contraposition, Implication, and Exportation
109(1)
Tautology and Equivalence
109(4)
More Principles of Strategy
113(4)
Common Errors in Problem Solving
117(8)
Key Terms
124(1)
Conditional and Indirect Proofs
125(25)
Conditional Proofs
125(9)
Indirect Proofs
134(5)
Strategy Hints for Using CP and IP
139(1)
Zero-Premise Deductions
140(1)
Proving Premises Inconsistent
141(2)
Adding Valid Argument Forms
143(1)
The Completeness and Soundness of Sentential Logic
144(1)
Introduction and Elimination Rules
145(5)
Key Terms
149(1)
Sentential Logic Truth Trees
150(13)
The Sentential Logic Truth Tree Method
150(1)
The Truth Tree Rules
151(2)
Details of Tree Construction
153(6)
Normal Forms and Trees
159(1)
Constructing Tree Rules for Any Function
160(3)
Key Terms
162(1)
Part Two: Predicate Logic
163(192)
Predicate Logic Symbolization
165(24)
Individuals and Properties
165(4)
Quantifiers and Free Variables
169(1)
Universal Quantifiers
170(5)
Existential Quantifiers
175(1)
Basic Predicate Logic Symbolizations
176(2)
The Square of Opposition
178(1)
Common Pitfalls in Symbolizing with Quantifiers
178(3)
Expansions
181(3)
Symbolizing ``Only,'' ``None but,'' and ``Unless''
184(5)
Key Terms
187(2)
Predicate Logic Semantics
189(9)
Interpretations in Predicate Logic
189(2)
Proving Invalidity
191(3)
Using Expansions to Prove Invalidity
194(1)
Consistency in Predicate Logic
195(1)
Validity and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic
196(2)
Key Terms
197(1)
Predicate Logic Proofs
198(24)
Proving Validity
198(1)
The Four Quantifier Rules
199(6)
The Five Main Restrictions
205(5)
Precise Formulation of the Four Quantifier Rules
210(2)
Mastering the Four Quantifier Rules
212(4)
Quantifier Negation (QN)
216(6)
Key Terms
221(1)
Relational Predicate Logic
222(32)
Relational Predicates
222(3)
Symbolizations Containing Overlapping Quantifiers
225(1)
Expansions and Overlapping Quantifiers
225(5)
Places and Times
230(1)
Symbolizing ``Someone,'' ``Somewhere,'' ``Sometime,'' and So On
231(5)
Invalidity and Consistency in Relational Predicate Logic
236(1)
Relational Predicate Logic Proofs
237(7)
Strategy for Relational Predicate Logic Proofs
244(3)
Theorems and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic
247(3)
Predicate Logic Metatheory
250(1)
A Simpler Set of Quantifier Rules
250(4)
Rationale Behind the Precise Formulation of the Four Quantifier Rules
254(15)
Cases Involving the Five Major Restrictions
254(3)
One-to-One Correspondence Matters
257(4)
Accidentally Bound Variables and Miscellaneous Cases
261(4)
Predicate Logic Proofs with Flagged Constants
265(4)
Predicate Logic Truth Trees
269(14)
Introductory Remarks
269(1)
General Features of the Method
270(1)
Specific Examples of the Method
270(5)
Some Advantages of the Trees
275(1)
Example of an Invalid Argument with at Least One Open Path
275(1)
Metatheoretic Results
276(4)
Strategy and Accounting
280(3)
Key Terms
282(1)
Identity and Philosophical Problems of Symbolic Logic
283(33)
Identity
283(6)
Definite Descriptions
289(2)
Properties of Relations
291(3)
Higher-Order Logics
294(2)
Limitations of Predicate Logic
296(4)
Philosophical Problems
300(7)
Logical Paradoxes
307(9)
Key Terms
314(2)
Syllogistic Logic
316(39)
Categorical Propositions
316(3)
Existential Import
319(1)
The Square of Opposition
320(3)
Conversion, Obversion, Contraposition
323(3)
Syllogistic Logic---Not Assuming Existential Import
326(3)
Venn Diagrams
329(2)
Syllogisms
331(2)
Determining Syllogism Validity
333(1)
Venn Diagram Proofs of Validity or Invalidity
334(5)
Five Rules for Determining Validity or Invalidity
339(3)
Syllogistics Extended
342(3)
Enthymemes
345(1)
Sorites
346(2)
Technical Restrictions and Limitations; Modern Logic and Syllogistic Logic Compared
348(7)
Key Terms
352(3)
Part Three: Other Systems of Logic
355(86)
Informal Fallacies
357(19)
The Nature of Fallacy
357(2)
Fallacy Classification
359(17)
Key Terms
375(1)
Inductive Logic
376(35)
A Mistaken View of Induction and Deduction
376(2)
Kinds of Inductive Arguments
378(10)
Cause and Effect
388(3)
Mill's Methods
391(7)
Inductive Probability
398(1)
The Probability Calculus
399(2)
Bayes' Theorem
401(2)
Induction Is Unjustified---The Old Riddle of Induction
403(3)
Not All Instances of Theories Confirm Them---The New Riddle of Induction
406(5)
Key Terms
409(2)
Axiom Systems
411(14)
The Nature of an Axiom System
411(1)
Interpreted and Uninterpreted Systems
412(1)
Properties of Axiom Systems
413(3)
Outline of an Axiom System for Sentential Logic
416(5)
Axiom Systems for Predicate Logic
421(1)
Other Kinds of Axiom Systems
422(1)
Objections to Axiom Systems
423(2)
Key Terms
423(2)
Alternative Logics
425(16)
Modal Logic
425(1)
Strict Implication
426(2)
Modal Axioms
428(1)
Modal Theorems
429(1)
Modal Paradoxes
430(1)
A Philosophical Problem
430(1)
Modal Predicate Logic
431(2)
Epistemic Logic: The Logic of Knowledge and Belief
433(2)
Epistemic Theorems
435(2)
Deontic Logic
437(1)
Problems with Deontic Systems
438(3)
Key Terms
440(1)
Answers to Even-Numbered Exercise Items 441(64)
Bibliography 505(4)
Special Symbols 509(2)
Index 511


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