The Longman Reader

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/13/2011
  • Publisher: Longman
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The Longman Readerfeatures highly praised writing pedagogy in a rhetorically-organized reader.  The opening chapter offers specific strategies for active reading, and for each pattern-of-development chapter, The Longman Readerincludes a detailed introduction that asks students to consider audience and purpose, concrete revision strategies, a peer review checklist, an annotated student essay with extensive analysis, prewriting and revising activities, and a comprehensive list of possible writing topics.  Both beloved and fresh professional essays range widely in subject matter and approach, from the humorous to the informative, from personal meditation to argument, and capture students'interest while clearly illustrating a specific pattern of development.

Table of Contents


1. The Reading Process.


Stage 1: Get an Overview of the Selection.

First Reading: A Checklist.

Stage 2: Deepen Your Sense of the Selection.

Second Reading: A Checklist.

Stage 3: Evaluate the Selection.

Evaluating a Selection: A Checklist.

*Assessing Visuals in a Reading

A Model Annotated Reading

Ellen Goodman, Family Counterculture.

2. The Writing Process.

Stage 1: Prewrite.

Figure 2.1: Stages of the Writing Process

Analyzing Your Audience: A Checklist.

Stage 2: Identify the Thesis.

Stage 3: Support the Thesis with Evidence.

Stage 4: Organize the Evidence.

Outlining: A Checklist.

Stage 5: Write the First Draft.

Figure 2.2: Structure of an Essay

Turning Outline Into First Draft: A Checklist.

Stage 6: Revise the Essay.

Stage 7: Edit and Proofread

Student Essay.


3. Description.


What Is Description?

How Description Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Description in an Essay.

Description: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Figure 3.1: Development Diagram: Writing  a Description Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Student Essay.


Activities: Description.

Maya Angelou, Sister Flowers.

Figure 3.2: Essay Structure Diagram: "Sister Flowers" by Maya Angelou.

Gordon Parks, Flavio's Home.

 David Helvarg, The Storm This Time.

* Riverbend, Bloggers without Borders.

Judith Ortiz Cofer, A Partial Remembrance of Puerto Rican Childhood.

Additional Writing Topics.

4. Narration.


What Is Narration?

How Narration Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Narration in an Essay.

Figure 4.1: Development Diagram:  Writing a Narration Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Narration: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Narration.

Audre Lerde, The Fourth of July.

Figure 4.2: Essay Structure Diagram: “The Fourth of July” by Audre Lorde.

George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant.

Joan Murray, Someone's Mother. 

Langston Hughes, Salvation.

* Barbara Ehrenreich, Serving in Florida.

Additional Writing Topics.

5. Exemplification.


What Is Exemplification?

How Exemplification Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Exemplification in an Essay.

Figure 5.1    Development Diagram:  Writing an Exemplification Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Exemplification: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Exemplification.

Kay S. Hymowitz, Tweens: Ten Going on Sixteen.

Figure 5.2: Essay Structure Diagram: “Tweens: Ten Going On Sixteen” by Kay S. Kymowitz .

Charles Sykes, The "Values" Wasteland.

*  Brent Staples, Black Men and Public Space.

Beth Johnson, Bombs Bursting in Air.

* Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Common Scents

Additional Writing Topics.

6. Division-Classification.


What Is Division-Classification?

How Division-Classification Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Division-Classification in an Essay.

Figure 6.1: Development Diagram:  Writing a Division-Classification Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Division-Classification: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist

Student Essay.


Activities: Division-Classification.

Ann McClintock, Propaganda Techniques in Today's Advertising.

Figure 6.2    Essay Structure Diagram: “Propaganda Techniques in Today’s Advertising” by Ann McClintock.

Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie.

William Zinsser, College Pressures.

David Brooks, Psst! Human Capital.

*  Amy Tan, Mother Tongue.

Additional Writing Topics.


7. Process Analysis.


What Is Process Analysis?

How Process Analysis Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Process Analysis in an Essay.

Figure 7.1: Development Diagram: Writing a Process Analysis Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Process Analysis: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist

Student Essay.


Activities: Process Analysis.

* Tim Folger, Waves of Destruction

* Figure 7.2: Essay Structure Diagram: “Waves of Destruction” by Tm Folger.

David Shipley, Talk About Editing.

Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Death.

Amy Sutherland, What Shamu Taught Me about a Happy Marriage.

Paul Roberts, How to Say Nothing in 500 Words.

Caroline Rego, The Fine Art of Complaining.

Additional Writing Topics.

8. Comparison-Contrast.


What Is Comparison-Contrast?

How Comparison-Contrast Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Comparison-Contrast in an Essay.

Figure 8.1: Development Diagram:  Writing a Comparison-Contrast Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Comparison-Contrast: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Comparison-Contrast.

Eric Weiner, Euromail and Amerimail.

Figure 8.2: Essay Structure Diagram:“Euromail And Amerimail” by Eric Weiner.

*  Alex Wright, Friending, Ancient or Otherwise.

Richard Rodriguez, Workers.

Dave Barry, Beauty and the Beast.

Stephen Chapman, The Prisoner's Dilemma.

Additional Writing Topics.

9. Cause-Effect.


What Is Cause-Effect?

How Cause-Effect Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Cause-Effect in an Essay.

Figure 9.1    Development Diagram:  Writing a Cause-Effect Essay .

Revision Strategies.

Cause-Effect: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Cause-Effect.

Stephen King, Why We Crave Horror Movies.

Figure 9.2: Essay Structure Diagram:“Why We Crave Horror Movies” by Stephen King.

Jacques D'Amboise, Showing What Is Possible.

* Juan Williams, The Ruling that Changed America.

John M. Darley & Bibb Latane', When Will People Help in a Crisis?

* Jane S. Shaw, Nature in the Suburbs.

Additional Writing Topics.

10. Definition.


What Is Definition?

How Definition Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Definition in an Essay.

Figure 10.1: Development Diagram:  Writing a Definition Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Definition: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Definition.

Ann Hulbert, Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

*  Figure 10.2: Essay Structure Diagram: “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” by Ann Hulbert.

*  Keith Johnson, Who’s a Pirate?

James Gleick, Life as Type A.

Natalie Angier, The Cute Factor.

William Raspberry, The Handicap of Definition.

Additional Writing Topics.

11. Argumentation-Persuasion.


What Is Argumentation-Persuasion?

How Argumentation-Persuasion Fits Your Purpose and Audience.

Suggestions for Using Argumentation-Persuasion in an Essay.

Using Rogerian Strategy: A Checklist.

Questions for Using Toulmin Strategy: A Checklist.

Figure 11.1: Development Diagram:  Writing an Argumentation-Persuasion Essay.

Revision Strategies.

Argumentation-Persuasion: A Revision/Peer Review Checklist.

Student Essay.


Activities: Argumentation-Persuasion.

Stanley Fish, Free Speech Follies.

Figure 11.2: Essay Structure Diagram:“Free-Speech Follies” by Stanley Fish.

Mary Sherry, In Praise of the "F" Word.

*  Wendell Berry, Farming and the Global Economy.

Mark Twain, The Damned Human Race.

Anna Quindlen, Driving to the Funeral.

Examining an Issue: Gender-Based Education.

Gerry Garibaldi, How the Schools Shortchange Boys.

Michael Kimmel, The War Against Boys

Examining an Issue: Organ Donation

* Alexander Tabarrok, A Moral Solution to the Organ Shortage

* Virginia Postrel, Need Transplant Donors?  Pay Them

Examining an Issue: Affirmative Action.

Roberto Rodriguez, The Border on Our Backs.

Star Parker, Se Habla Entitlement.

Additional Writing Topics.

12. Combining the Patterns.


The Patterns in Action: During the Writing Process.

The Patterns in Action: In an Essay.

Student Essay

*  Barbara Kingsolver, The Good Farmer.

*  Barbara Kingsolver, Stone Soup.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Where Do We Go From Here: Community or Chaos?

Martin Luther King, Jr., The World House.

Joan Didion, The Santa Ana.

Joan Didion, Marrying Absurd.

Appendix A: A Guide to Using Sources.


Evaluating Source Materials

Evaluating Articles and Books:  A Checklist

Evaluating Internet Materials: A Checklist

Analyzing and Synthesizing Source Material

Analyzing and Synthesizing Source Material: A Checklist

Using Quotation, Summary, and Paraphrase Without Plagiarizing

Using Quotation, Summary, and Paraphrase: A Checklist

Integrating Sources Into Your Writing

Integrating Sources Into Your Writing: A Checklist

Documenting Sources: MLA Style

How to Document: MLA In-Text References

Citing Sources: A Checklist

How to Document: MLA List of Works Cited

Citing Print Sources–Books

Citing Print Sources–Periodicals

Citing Sources Found on a Website

Citing Sources Found Through an Online Database or Scholarly Project

Citing Other Common Sources

Appendix B: Avoiding Ten Common Writing Errors.


1. Fragments.

2. Comma Splices and Run-ons.

3. Faulty Subject-Verb Agreement.

4. Faulty Pronoun Agreement.

5. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers.

6. Faulty Parallelism.

7. Comma Misuse.

8. Apostrophe Misuse.

9. Confusing Homonyms.

10. Misuse of Italics and Underlining.





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