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The Longman Writer Rhetoric, Reader, and Research Guide, Brief Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205798384

ISBN10:
0205798381
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/2/2010
Publisher(s):
Longman
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Summary

Clear, step-by-step writing instruction, ample annotated student essays, and extensive practice opportunities for writing have madeThe Longman Writerone of the most successful methods-of-development guides for college writing.

Table of Contents

I. THE READING PROCESS

 

1. Becoming a Strong Reader

Stage 1: Get an Overview of the Selection

Stage 2: Deepen Your Sense of the Selection

Stage 3: Evaluate the Selection

A Model Annotated Reading

Assessing Visuals in a Reading

            Assessing an Image: An Example

            Assessing a Graph: An Example

        Ellen Goodman, "Family Counterculture"

 

II. THE WRITING PROCESS

 

2. Getting Started Through Prewriting

Use Prewriting to Get Started

            Keep a Journal

            The Pre-Reading Journal Entry

             Understand the Boundaries of the Assignment

             Determine Your Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Point of View

            Discover Your Essay's Limited Subject

             Generate Raw Material About Your Limited Subject

             Organize the Raw Material

Activities: Getting Started Through Prewriting

 

3. Identifying a Thesis

What Is a Thesis?

Finding a Thesis

Writing an Effective Thesis

             Tone and Point of View

             Implied Pattern of Development

              Including a Plan of Development

1.      Don't Write a Highly Opinionated Statement

2.      Don't Make an Announcement

3.      Don't Make a Factual Statement

4.      Don't Make a Broad Statement

Arriving at an Effective Thesis

Placing the Thesis in an Essay

Activities: Identifying a Thesis

 

4. Supporting the Thesis with Evidence

What Is Evidence?

How Do You Find Evidence?

            How the Patterns of Development Help Generate Evidence

Characteristics of Evidence

            The Evidence Is Relevant and Unified

            The Evidence Is Specific

            The Evidence Is Adequate

            The Evidence Is Dramatic

            The Evidence Is Accurate

            The Evidence Is Representative

            Borrowed Evidence Is Documented

Activities: Supporting the Thesis with Evidence

 

5. Organizing the Evidence

Use the Patterns of Development

Select an Organizational Approach

            Chronological Approach

            Spatial Approach

            Emphatic Approach

            Simple-to-Complex Approach

Prepare an Outline

Activities: Organizing the Evidence

 

6. Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft

How to Move from Outline to First Draft

General Suggestions on How to Proceed

If You Get Bogged Down

A Suggested Sequence for Writing the First Draft

1.      Write the Supporting Paragraphs

2.      Write Other Paragraphs in the Essay's Body

3.      Write the Introduction

4.      Write the Conclusion

            Write the Title

Pulling It All Together

Sample First Draft

        Harriet Davids, "Challenges for Today's Parents"

            Commentary

Activities: Writing the Paragraphs in the First Draft

 

7. Revising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

Five Strategies to Make Revision Easier

            Set Your First Draft Aside for a While

            Work from Printed Text

            Read the Draft Aloud

            View Revision as a Series of Steps

            Evaluate and Respond to Instructor Feedback

            Peer Review: An Additional Revision Strategy

            Evaluate and Respond to Peer Review

Revising Overall Meaning and Structure

Revising Paragraph Development

Sample Student Revision of Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

Activities: Revising Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

 

8. Revising Sentences and Words

Revising Sentences.

            Make Sentences Consistent with Your Tone

            Make Sentences Economical

            Vary Sentence Type

            Vary Sentence Length

            Make Sentences Emphatic

Revising Words

            Make Words Consistent with Your Tone

            Use an Appropriate Level of Diction

            Avoid Words That Overstate or Understate

            Select Words with Appropriate Connotations

            Use Specific Rather Than General Words

            Use Strong Verbs

            Delete Unnecessary Adverbs

            Use Original Figures of Speech

            Avoid Sexist Language

Sample Student Revision of Sentences and Words

Activities: Revising Sentences and Words

 

9. Editing and Proofreading

Edit Carefully

Use the Appropriate Manuscript Format

Proofread Closely

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Proofreading

        Harriet Davids, "Challenges for Today's Parents"

            Commentary

Activities: Editing and Proofreading

 

III. THE PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT

 

10. Description

What Is Description?

How Description Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Description in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Marie Martinez, "Salt Marsh"

             Commentary

Activities: Description

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Description

        Maya Angelou, "Sister Flowers"

        David Helvarg, "The Storm this Time"

        Gordon Parks, "Flavio's Home"

Additional Writing Topics: Description

 

11. Narration

What Is Narration?

How Narration Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Narration in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Paul Monahan, "If Only"

            Commentary

Activities: Narration

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Narration

        Audre Lorde, "The Fourth of July"

        George Orwell, "Shooting an Elephant"

        *Joan Murray, "Someone’s Mother"

Additional Writing Topics: Narration

 

12. Illustration

What Is Illustration?

How Illustration Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Illustration in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Michael Pagano, "Pursuit of Possessions"

            Commentary

Activities: Illustration

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Illustration 

        Kay S. Hymowitz, "Tweens: Ten Going on Sixteen"

        Beth Johnson, "Bombs Bursting in Air"

        *Eric G. Wilson, “The Miracle of Melancholia”

Additional Writing Topics: Illustration

 

13. Division-Classification

What Is Division-Classification?

How Division-Classification Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Division-Classification in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Gail Oremland, "The Truth about College Teachers"

            Commentary

Activities: Division-Classification

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Division-Classification

        *Ann McClintock, "Propaganda Techniques in Today’s Advertising"

        Scott Russell Sanders, "The Men We Carry in Our Minds"

        *Marion Winik, "What Are Friends For?"

Additional Writing Topics: Division-Classification

 

14. Process Analysis

What Is Process Analysis?

How Process Analysis Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Process Analysis in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Robert Barry, "Becoming a Recordoholic"

            Commentary

Activities: Process Analysis

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Process Analysis

        Clifford Stoll, "Cyberschool"

        *Amy Sutherland, “What Shame Taught Me About a Happy Marriage”

        David Shipley, "Talk About Editing"

Additional Writing Topics: Process Analysis

 

15. Comparison-Contrast

What Is Comparison-Contrast?

How Comparison-Contrast Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Comparison-Contrast in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Carol Siskin, "The Virtues of Growing Older"

            Commentary

Activities: Comparison-Contrast

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Comparison-Contrast

        *Eric Weiner, “Euromail and Amerimail”

        Patricia Cohen, "Reality TV: Surprising Throwback to the Past?"

        *Alex Wright, “Friending, Ancient or Otherwise”

Additional Writing Topics: Comparison-Contrast

 

16. Cause-Effect

What Is Cause-Effect?

How Cause-Effect Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Cause-Effect in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Carl Novack, "Americans and Food"

            Commentary

Activities: Cause-Effect

            Prewriting Activities

             Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Cause-Effect

        Stephen King, "Why We Crave Horror Movies"

        *Kurt Kleiner “When Mañana Is Too Soon”

        Brent Staples, "Black Men and Public Space"

Additional Writing Topics: Cause-Effect

 

17. Definition

What Is Definition?

How Definition Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Definition in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Laura Chen, "Physics in Everyday Life"

            Commentary

Activities: Definition

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Definition

        *Ann Hulbert, “Beyond the Pleasure Principle”

        James Gleick, "Life as Type A"

        *Scott McCloud, “Setting the Record Straight”

Additional Writing Topics: Definition

 

18. Argumentation-Persuasion

What Is Argumentation-Persuasion?

How Argumentation-Persuasion Fits Your Purpose and Audience

Prewriting Strategies

Strategies for Using Argumentation-Persuasion in an Essay

Revision Strategies

Student Essay: From Prewriting Through Revision

        Mark Simmons, "Compulsory National Service"

            Commentary

Activities: Argumentation-Persuasion

            Prewriting Activities

            Revising Activities

Professional Selections: Argumentation-Persuasion

        *Anna Quindlen, “Driving to the Funeral”

        Mary Sherry, "In Praise of the 'F' Word"

Debating the Issues:

        *Gerry Garibaldi, “How Schools Shortchange Boys”

        *Michael Kimmel, “A War Against Boys?”

Debating the Issues: Immigration

        Roberto Rodriguez, "The Border On Our Backs"

        Star Parker, "Se Habla Entitlement"

Additional Writing Topics: Argumentation-Persuasion

 

IV. THE RESEARCH PAPER

 

19 Locating, Evaluating, and Integrating Research Sources

Plan the Research

    Understand the Paper’s Boundaries

    Understand Primary Versus Secondary Research

    Choose a General Subject

    Prewrite to Limit the General Subject

    Conduct Preliminary Research

    Identify a Working Thesis

    Make a Schedule 

Conduct Primary and Secondary Research

Obtain Interviews

Carry Out Surveys

    Develop Questions

    Choose Respondents

Find Books on Your Subject

    Searching the Computerized Catalog

    A Sample Book Search

    Locating a Book in the Library

    Using the Reference Section

Find Periodicals on Your Subject

    Periodical Indexes, Abstracts, and Bibliographies

    Full-Text Databases

    Searching Directories and Databases

    A Sample Database Search

    Locating Specific Issues of Periodicals in the Library

Find Sources on the Internet

    The Advantages and Limitations of the Library and the Web

    Web Addresses

    Finding Web Sources: Search Directories

    Finding Web Sources: General Search Engines

    Finding Web Sources: Specialized Search Engines

    Using Discussion Groups and Blogs

    Using Wikis

    Using Podcasts and Other Internet Tools

Prepare a Working Bibliography

Take Notes to Support the Thesis with Evidence 

Evaluate Print and Internet Sources

    Relevance

    Timeliness

    Seriousness of Approach

    Objectivity

Analyze and Synthesize Material 

    Analyzing Source Material

    Synthesizing Source Material

    Recording Information

    Using Photocopies and Printouts

Use Quotation, Summary, and Paraphrase in Your Notes to Avoid Plagiarism           

    Plagiarism

    Direct Quotation

    Summary

    Paraphrase

    Combined Notes

Activities: Locating, Evaluating,and Integrating Research Sources

 

20. Writing the Research Paper

Refine Your Working Thesis

Sort Your Notes

Organize the Evidence by Outlining 

Write the First Draft

    Overwriting or Underwriting to Create a Draft

    Presenting the Results of Primary Research

Integrate Sources into Your Writing 

    Using Sources Effectively

    Introducing a Source

    Shortening or Clarifying Quotations

    Capitalizing and Punctuating Short Quotations

    Presenting Statistics

Document Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

    What Needs to Be Documented?

    What Does Not Need to Be Documented

Creating In-Text References: MLA Format

Revise, Edit, and Proofread the First Draft

Prepare the Works Cited List: MLA Format

    Citing Print Sources–Periodicals

    Citing Print Sources–Books

    Citing Sources Found on a Website

    Citing Sources Found Through an Online Database or Scholarly Project

    Citing Other Common Sources

Prepare the References List: APA Format

    Parenthetic Citations in the Text

    General Instructions for the References List

    Citing Print Sources–Periodicals   

    Citing Print Sources–Books

    Citing Sources Found on a Website

    Citing Sources Found Through an Online Database or Scholarly Project

    Citing Other Common Sources

A Note About Other Documentation Systems

Student Research Paper: MLA-Style Documentation 

Student Research Paper: APA-Style Documentation

 Activities: Writing the Research Paper 

 V. THE LITERARY PAPER AND EXAM ESSAY

 

21. Writing About Literature

Elements of Literary Works

            Literary Terms

How to Read a Literary Work

            Read to Form a General Impression

            Ask Questions About the Work

            Reread and Annotate

            Modify Your Annotations

Write the Literary Analysis

            Prewrite

            Identify Your Thesis

            Support the Thesis with Evidence

             Organize the Evidence

            Write the First Draft

            Revise Overall Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development

            Edit and Proofread

Pulling It All Together

            Read to Form a General Impression

        Langston Hughes, "Early Autumn"

            Ask Questions about the Work

            Reread and Annotate

Student Essay

        Karen Vais, "Stopping to Talk"

            Commentary

Additional Selections and Writing Assignments

        Robert Frost, "Out, Out-"

        Kate Chopin, "The Story of an Hour"

 

22. Writing Exam Essays

Three Forms of Written Answers

            Short Answers

            Paragraph-Length Answers

            Essay-Length Answers

How to Prepare for Exam Essays

At the Examination

            Survey of the Entire Test

            Understand the Essay Question

Write the Essay

            Prewrite

            Identify Your Thesis

            Support the Thesis with Evidence

             Organize the Evidence

            Write the Draft

            Revise, Edit, and Proofread

Sample Essay Answer

            Commentary

Activity: Writing Exam Essays

 

Acknowledgements

Index

  

 

 



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